marine science and the coast

OSU's Newport Center hosts talk on El Nino and global warming

NEWPORT - "Erosion of the Oregon Coast: The Roles of El Nino and Global Warming" is the topic of a talk on Saturday, Feb. 22, at Oregon State University's Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport.

The 60-minute talk by Paul Komar, emeritus professor of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at OSU, is free and open to the public and starts at 1:30 p.m. The center is located at 2030 S. Marine Science Drive. For information, call 541-867-0271.

Komar is the author of numerous books and articles dealing with beach processes and sedimentation, including a 1998 work, "The Pacific Northwest Coast: Living With the Shores of Washington and Oregon."

His latest research focuses Oregon coastal erosion, longshore current and sand transport on beaches, and modes of sediment transport in rivers. He earned his undergraduate degree at the University of Michigan and his doctorate at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif.

Komar's lecture is offered in conjunction with the Hatfield Marine Science Center's traveling exhibit, "The Big One: Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest."


OSU HMSC 541-867-0271

Workshops teach fishing industry to market directly

NEWPORT - A series of workshops will teach commercial fishers and seafood processors to keep their businesses afloat by building new markets and adding value to their catches.

The one-day session will be offered in six Northwest coastal cities. The series is sponsored by the Women's Coalition for Pacific Fisheries (WCPF) in association with Oregon and Washington Sea Grant. It is designed to help commercial fishers learn about direct marketing.

Each workshop will introduce marketing concepts, including branding and seafood quality. It will also teach participants the process of developing a marketing plan. Case studies from the commercial fishing industry will offer an inside look at direct marketing strengths and challenges within the industry.

Registration deadlines are Feb. 18 for the sessions in Washington and Feb. 25 for those in Oregon. Admission to the workshops is free to members of WCPF and $10 for non-members. To register for the sessions in Oregon, contact Ginny Goblirsch, 541-265-3463, or ginny.goblirsch@oregonstate.edu. For Washington workshops, contact Sarah Fisken, 206-543-1225, or sfisken@u.washington.edu. An online registration form is at http://wcpf.oregonstate.edu.

Quentin Fong, a seafood marketing specialist and associate professor of fisheries at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, will lead the workshops. Fong recently conducted a similar workshop series for eight communities in Alaska.

"Our commercial fishermen and processors face enormous pressure from foreign suppliers of fish and shellfish," Fong said. "This has had serious effects on domestic fisheries, especially within small coastal communities where livelihoods are dependent on the bounty of the sea."

Fong believes there is hope for commercial fishermen and their communities - if they can change their ways of doing business. "There's no easy fix," he said. "Usually a series of steps will make the difference between success and failure."

All workshops begin at 8:30 a.m. The afternoon will be devoted to specific questions by program participants. The schedule:

  • Feb. 25: Marina Conference Center, Makah Marina, Neah Bay, Wash.
  • Feb. 27: Squalicum Boathouse, 2600 Harbor Loop, Bellingham, Wash.
  • March 1: Nordby Conference Center, Nordby Building, Fishermen's Terminal, 1711 W. Nickerson Street, Seattle, Wash.
  • March 3: Duncan Law Seafood Consumer Center, 2001 Marine Drive, Astoria, Ore.
  • March 5: Englund Marine, 800 S.E. Bay Boulevard, Newport, Ore.
  • March 7: Best Western Brookings Inn, 1143 Chetco Ave., Brookings, Ore.

Other sponsors of the workshops include the Alaska Sea Grant College Program and the OSU-Shorebank Enterprise Pacific Partnership.


Ginny Goblirsch, 541-265-3463

Research finds life 1,000 feet beneath ocean floor

CORVALLIS, Ore. - A new study has discovered an abundance of microbial life deep beneath the ocean floor in ancient basalt that forms part of the Earth's crust, in research that continues to expand the realm of seemingly hostile or remote environments in which living organisms can apparently thrive.

Scientists from Oregon State University and several other institutions conducted the research off the coast of Oregon near a sea-floor spreading center on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The findings will be published Friday in the journal Science.

In 3.5 million-year-old crust almost 1,000 feet beneath the bottom of the ocean, researchers found moderately hot water moving through the heavily-fractured basalt. The water was depleted in sulfate and greatly enriched with ammonium, suggesting biological activity in a high-pressure, undersea location far from the types of carbon or energy sources upon which most life on Earth is based.

It was one of the most precise biological samplings ever taken from deep under the ocean floor, scientists say.

"This is one of the best views we've ever had of this difficult-to-reach location in the Earth's crust and the life forms that live in it," said Michael Rappe, a research associate at OSU. "Until now we knew practically nothing about the biology of areas such as this, but we found about the same amount of bacteria in that water as you might find in surrounding seawater in the ocean. It was abundant."

According to Steve Giovannoni, an OSU professor of microbiology and one of the co-authors of the publication, the work represented a highly complicated "plumbing job," among other things. It took advantage of an existing hole and pipe casing that had been drilled previously in that area by the Ocean Drilling Program, through about 825 feet of sedimentary deposits on the ocean floor and another 175 feet of basalt, or hardened lava about 3.5 million years old. (more)

Using the existing casing, scientists were able to fit an experimental seal and deliver to the seafloor, for testing and characterization, the crustal fluids from far below.

"People have wondered for a long time what types of organisms might live within Earth's crust," Giovannoni said. "This has given us one of the best looks we've ever had at that environment."

The researchers found organisms apparently growing without the need to consume organic molecules, as does most life on Earth. Instead, they processed carbon dioxide and inorganic molecules such as sulfide or hydrogen.

DNA analysis of these microbes suggested they are closely related to known sulfate and nitrate "reducers" that are common in other environments. The level of biological activity was sufficiently high that ammonia levels in the subsurface samples were 142 times higher than those in nearby seawater.

"As more research such as this is done, we'll probably continue to be surprised at just how far down we can find life within the Earth, and the many different environments under which it's able to exist," Rappe said.

The deep ocean crust, the researchers said, is an immense biosphere in its own right that covers most of the Earth.

Story By: 

Stephen Giovannoni, 541-737-1835

New Study: Predators Help Stabilize Marine Fish Populations

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Predators - and not competition within a species - are the primary source of population control and regulation in marine fish, a new study concludes. Overfishing of predatory species, which "appears to be rampant worldwide," runs the serious risk of destabilizing other marine species and disrupting marine biodiversity, researchers said in a report in the professional journal Ecology.

The findings contradict some of the basic approaches of modern fish management, which assume that competition between fish within a species is much more important in regulating populations.

The research was done by Mark Hixon, a professor of zoology at Oregon State University, and Geoffrey Jones of James Cook University in Australia. They examined kelp forests and coral reefs around the world, and concluded that predators are the dominant force in regulating abundance of their prey.

"These findings are important because they show that sustaining fisheries requires the help of predators," says Hixon. "Predators act to keep the abundance of their prey from fluctuating wildly, thereby promoting stability of prey populations fished by humans. Unfortunately, predatory fishes themselves are being overfished, so the populations of their prey may also become destabilized."

Hixon and Jones reviewed a dozen studies, including several of their own, in which scientists have experimentally removed predators from reefs in the ocean and observed that the mortality of their prey is no longer regulated. In practice, they said, populations of fish species are probably controlled by a combination of factors acting together, including predation, recruitment, habitat structure, ocean conditions and sometimes competition.

The research is supportive of the new trend towards "ecosystem-based management."

"John Muir had it right a hundred years ago," Hixon said. "Muir said 'When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.' It is time to start managing our living marine resources from this holistic perspective by conserving marine predators."

Story By: 

Mark Hixon, 541-737-5364

Despite Indian Ocean Warning, Northwest Still Not Prepared for Potential Tsunami

ASTORIA, Ore. - Nearly one year has passed since the devastating Sumatra earthquake and tsunami and despite that stunning wakeup call, Pacific Northwest residents are ill-prepared and even dismissive of the danger presented by the offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone.

During the last 10,000 years, there have been at least 23 earthquakes of magnitude 8.5 or higher off the Northwest coast, scientists say, and the threat from a major event and subsequent tsunami is very real - and probably overdue.

Yet education and outreach efforts have met with mixed results that vary individual by individual, and community by community, says Patrick Corcoran, coordinator of the Oregon State University's Sea Grant Extension Coastal Storms Program.

"People tend to either be dismissive of the danger, or fatalistic about it," he said. "Both are exactly the wrong approaches to take."

During the past several months, Corcoran has begun working with coastal communities in Oregon and southwest Washington to educate them about the danger of a subduction zone earthquake and tsunamis. Scientists say the Cascadia Subduction Zone is remarkably similar to the terrain in the Indian Ocean that led to the 2004 Sumatra quake and such devastation could occur in the Pacific Northwest.

Though some education progress has been made in a general sense, Corcoran says, people still don't know enough about how earthquakes and tsunamis could directly affect them.

"If you live in tornado country, you know to get into your basement with your radio and ride it out," Corcoran said. "You do it every year. But people living along the coast for the most part have no idea if they're in the inundation zone, they have made no plans on evacuating the family, and they haven't even identified a meeting place. In short, few families have any kind of communication plan."

Though signage along the coast has improved and siren systems have been installed, too many residents are unaware of what would happen should an earthquake and tsunami strike, Corcoran says.

"The general scenario played out is that a disaster would happen at 6 p.m. with the family gathered around the dinner table," he said. "No one thinks about what to do if the kids are at school, or Mom is running errands on the other side of a river over which lies a bridge that will collapse. There is a general feeling that someone will come to the rescue. But in a full-scale disaster as we saw in New Orleans with Hurricane Katrina - that may be some time."

In his presentations, Corcoran emphasizes the difference between a subduction zone earthquake, which occurs where tectonic plates collide, and crustal quakes, which are more frequent but usually less severe. He also differentiates between a distant earthquake - near Alaska or Japan, for example - that would give Northwest residents a few hours to evacuate, and a local event that may send a 60- to 90-foot surge of water inland within 30 minutes.

Though much of the attention has focused on tsunami preparedness, Corcoran says, few people think about the potential impact of a local magnitude 9.0 earthquake.

"People should not expect emergency services following a major earthquake," Corcoran said. "Local emergency responders will be overwhelmed and it will be difficult for others to help us. First, Highway 101 will be closed in hundreds of places because of earthquake-induced landslides, bridge failures and inundation damage, and major east-west highways would likewise be closed.

"Portland and the valley, being inland, would still be affected by the earthquake and have their own problems to address," he added. "It might be a few - to several - days before rescue efforts could reach local residents at the coast."

Corcoran says it is impossible for coastal communities to totally prepare for such a nightmare scenario, yet there are some things they can do that would help. One would be to publicize the location of assembly areas where evacuees should gather after a local earthquake.

"People need to know where 'safe' is," Corcoran said. "We have lots of signs telling us where to flee from, but no information on when to stop."

Communities also can continually educate themselves about earthquakes and tsunamis, focusing on the differences between distant and local events. Siren warnings, Corcoran says, should not be a cause for panic because they signify a distant event and local residents have time - often hours - to prepare.

"People who think sirens mean that tsunamis are imminent are dangerously misinformed," Corcoran said. "These are the people who jump into their cars and may cause accidents. A major local earthquake, on the other hand, is the warning that a tsunami may hit in as little as 15 to 30 minutes."

A third thing communities can do, Corcoran says, is to encourage families to develop a communication plan. During a distant event, phone lines may be jammed, causing inconvenience and stress. Families with homes in the inundation zones may not be able to return to them.

"A pre-determined meeting place would be very useful," Corcoran said. "During a local event, families need to understand that everyone will be on their own. They need to get themselves to safety first, and do not enter an inundation zone. Call a non-local relative and let them know you're okay."

Families and individuals, Corcoran said, should follow some simple guidelines:


  • Identify the "inundation" zones in your community, so you know where high water will hit, as well as the "safe" zones where you need to get to;


  • Develop a communication plan for your family - and even friends and neighbors - that includes agreement on local meeting place, and a distant relative or friend you can call if you get separated;


  • Educate children about what to do in an earthquake and tsunami, especially if they are away from home. Know where your children are taken in an earthquake during school hours.

    "Disaster kits may be helpful, but I'd suggest learning first aid and CPR," Corcoran said. "Knowing how to use a T-shirt to make a bandage is more useful than having an emergency bag you don't know what to do with - or is under the rubble that used to be your garage. And simply buying an emergency kit can lead to complacency and a feeling that you have things covered when you do not."

    It is up to individuals to take care of themselves and their families, Corcoran said. Local authorities cannot possibly help everyone at the same time following a local event. Don't anticipate that organized help will immediately and magically appear, he added.

    "There are no nannies during a major earthquake and tsunami."

  • Story By: 

    Patrick Corcoran, 503-325-8573

    Oregon State Scientists to Deploy Underseas Listening Devices in Antarctica

    NEWPORT, Ore. - A team of scientists and educators from Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport has left for Antarctica on a research project to deploy an array of undersea hydrophones.

    These hydrophones, developed at the OSU center, will record the sounds of undersea earthquakes and volcanoes, moving ice sheets, and even the vocalizations from large baleen whales, according to Robert P. Dziak, an associate professor at the university who also works for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

    "This new ocean-sensor technology will use cold water-capable, deep-ocean hydrophones to provide the first-ever comprehensive record of the sounds of Antarctica," Dziak said. The team will recover the hydrophones on a follow-up cruise in 2006.

    Bill Hanshumaker, a Sea Grant marine educator, is accompanying the researchers and will post progress reports online beginning Dec. 5. The team will post images, sound files and logs of the trip as part of the project, which is called "Sounds of the Southern Ocean." The cruise, a component of NOAA's Ocean Explorer program, will conclude on Dec. 13.

    Project updates will be posted on the cruise website, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05sounds/welcome.html, and on an Oregon Sea Grant website, http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/extension/hanshumaker/ocean_explorations.html.

    The Southern Ocean surrounds Antarctica and serves as a conduit between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Yet because of severe climatic conditions, much of this ocean basin remains unexplored, Dziak said.

    "Polar regions play key roles in the global environment and one goal of our project is to document linkages between changes in the Antarctic ice sheet and the volcano-tectonic seafloor processes in the region," Dziak said.

    After arriving in Punta Arenas, Chile, the project team is scheduled to fly to King Sejong, a Korean research station, on the Barton Peninsula of King George Island on Dec. 3. From there, they will board a Russian research vessel, the Yuzhmorgeologiya, Dec. 6, which will take them to the Bransfield Strait for deployment and testing of the hydrophones.

    The research team also includes Haru Matsumoto, a NOAA engineer who helped develop the hydrophones and will coordinate the hydrophone installation; and Sara L. Heimlich, a NOAA marine mammal specialist, who will conduct visual and acoustic surveys of marine mammals. Both work at OSU's Hatfield Marine Science Center.

    Story By: 

    Bill Hanshumaker, 541-867-0167

    Scientists Hone in on Earthquake 'Pulses' to Help Predict Tsunami Impact

    CORVALLIS, Ore. - The magnitude 9.2 earthquake that triggered a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean in December of 2004 originated just off the coast of northern Sumatra, but an "energy pulse" - an area where slip on the fault was much greater - created the largest waves, some 100 miles from the epicenter.

    Seismologists have mapped these energy pulses for Sumatra and are trying to learn more about them to predict better when and where tsunamis may occur. They also hope these pulses will help them gain a more comprehensive understanding of the earthquake history of the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the Pacific Northwest Coast of the United States.

    "Understanding the nature of these pulses could be critical because it could mean the difference between 15 minutes and 30 minutes in a tsunami warning," said Chris Goldfinger, an associate professor in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University and one of the leading experts in the world on the Cascadia fault zone.

    "It seems that the largest Cascadia earthquakes have three pulses," Goldfinger added, "and core data show that more than half of the earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction Zone are of this large type that appear to generate three rupture sequences."

    Earthquake "pulses" are releases of energy from areas of high slip along the main fault. When a subduction zone earthquake occurs, the tectonic plates that have locked for centuries suddenly release. An area of ocean floor that may be as wide as 50 miles, and as long as 500 to 600 miles, can suddenly snap back, causing a massive tsunami. As that energy radiates down the fault, it is concentrated in certain areas, Goldfinger said. The severity of the tsunami in any locality depends on how much energy is released, and what the undersea terrain is like.

    The energy pulses, which are part of the earthquake sequence and take place almost immediately, differ from aftershocks that may occur hours, days, weeks or months after the original earthquake. In fact, the December Sumatra quake was followed by an 8.7 tremor in March and, though it occurred well to the south, "looks to have been directly triggered by the stress of the December event," Goldfinger said.

    "And there have been a lot of aftershocks since," he added.

    Goldfinger said it appears the Indian Ocean fault is rupturing in a southerly direction and that Padang, the capital of West Sumatra, may be next in line for a major earthquake.

    But whether that quake takes place in weeks or years remains to be seen. Though Padang's last major quake was about 200 years ago, the increased stress on the fault makes it likely that the lag between events will be much shorter.

    "When you load the stress on a fault, it shortens the time between quakes," Goldfinger pointed out. "It's like putting a sheet of glass between two sawhorses - and then sticking a cinder block in the middle of the glass. It may not break right away, but the stress builds rapidly."

    Comparatively little is known about the long-term tectonic history of the Indian Ocean - at least, compared to the Cascadia Subduction Zone, scientists say. Goldfinger has been able to identify 23 major earthquakes off the Pacific Northwest coast during the past 10,000 years through analysis of sediment deposits. At least 16, and possibly 17, of those quakes have ruptured along the entire length of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, requiring an event of magnitude 8.5 or better.

    When a major offshore earthquake of that magnitude occurs, "you get ground acceleration of a couple of G's," Goldfinger pointed out. "Mud and sand begin streaming down the continental margins, and out into the undersea canyons. Walls fail. And the sediments run out into the abyssal plain. The impact is much, much greater than you can get from any storm - or even a small magnitude quake."

    Those coarse sediments - called turbidites - stand out from the finer particulates that accumulate on a surprisingly regular basis in between major tectonic events. By studying core samples from submarine channels in various locations along the subduction zone, Goldfinger and his colleagues have been able to create a 10,000-year timeline of huge earthquakes that provide sobering evidence that the Northwest is due for a major event. Going back farther than 10,000 years is proving to be difficult.

    "The sea level used to be lower and rivers emptied directly into offshore canyons," he said. "You couldn't differentiate between storms and earthquakes. But once sea levels rose, the river sediments were trapped on the shelf and upper slope, leaving a near-perfect earthquake record farther out."

    Goldfinger said that evidence suggests turbidites might record earthquake pulses, but more testing is needed in Sumatra, where "we have good recordings of the earthquake."

    What the Indian Ocean lacks is the same long-term sediment analysis that has been done in the Cascadia zone, says Goldfinger, who adds that conditions there are ideal for such research. He and a team of scientists from Indonesia and India are planning a series of cruises over the next several years to take core samples from the Indian Ocean in an attempt to map the tectonic history of the region.

    "If anything, the Indian Ocean is even better suited than Cascadia for this kind of core analysis because there is a huge basin between the rivers and the deep ocean that keeps the terrestrial sediments close to land," Goldfinger said. "We should clearly be able to see the December and March turbidites stacked on top of the finer sediments."

    Story By: 

    Chris Goldfinger, 541-737-5214

    One Year Later: Huge Tsunami Spurred Progress, Revealed Needs

    CORVALLIS, Ore. - The catastrophic tsunami that struck Indonesia and East Asia almost a year ago has done much to heighten the interest, research programs and preparations in the United States for events of this type, but experts say there are areas that need more attention and challenges yet to be met.

    Dec. 26 will mark the first anniversary of the tsunami that claimed the lives of about 275,000 people and struck with waves up to 100 feet high, one of the deadliest disasters in modern history.

    Since that time, Congress has worked on legislation that would enable the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to spend $35 million per year for a major expansion and improvement of warning systems in the United States, and support other smaller research or disaster planning initiatives around the nation in a U.S. Tsunami Warning Network.

    But scientists at Oregon State University, which operates one of the world's leading tsunami research facilities, say more studies are necessary on expected wave behavior at specific coastal locations, the probable impact on structures and measures that could be taken to reduce casualties and damage.

    "The significant support to NOAA is a good sign that the risks of tsunamis are finally being taken more seriously," said Harry Yeh, the Edwards Professor of Ocean Engineering at OSU and a leading international expert on tsunamis. "The majority of that will be focused on early detection systems in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea to improve warnings about tsunamis originating from distant locations."

    However, according to Yeh and Dan Cox, an associate professor and director of the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at OSU (http://wave.oregonstate.edu/), there are still pressing educational, research and planning needs. They have special urgency in the Pacific Northwest - the North American location most vulnerable to a tsunami that would strike with little forewarning -- from the nearby Cascadia Subduction Zone.

    "Much of our current approach to tsunami preparation is about warning systems and getting people out of the way," Cox said. "In some cases, that's appropriate. But there are also serious questions about how practical it will be to evacuate large numbers of people in towns that are accessible by a two-lane road. We will have only a very short time - 20 to 30 minutes, not hours - in the case of the Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami."

    "So we should consider other approaches to protect public safety like designing hotels or parking garages that would be strong enough and high enough to provide a local haven for people who would not be able to reach higher ground," he said. "The emphasis on warning systems also does little to help the personnel responding to the disaster. For example, will debris make some roads inaccessible?"

    Studies addressing those topics are conducted at OSU in its Tsunami Wave Basin, a sophisticated, $4.8-million facility in which scientists can simulate, in miniature, the forces and behavior of waves as they approach a coastline with various features and types of undersea topography. Researchers all over the world use the facility, the largest of its type in the world, for advanced tsunami research.

    And last year, both Yeh and OSU civil engineering professor Solomon Yim did field research in East Asia on the behavior and impacts of the tsunami there.

    "One big change we need is better interdisciplinary research in this field," Yeh said. "We have to get seismologists and marine geologists talking to civil engineers, so we can get better tsunami-source information to propagation models for prediction of coastal effects. We need to have social scientists working with disaster planners so that evacuation plans are realistic and actually work in the short time frame we may have available. We soon plan to begin research on the social dynamics of this problem."

    In Oregon, Yeh said, there's also an inadequate analysis of the specific marine terrain at various coastal towns and the implications that would have for a tsunami wave run-up. Much more work also needs to be done on the impacts of large, heavy debris sloshing back and forth in repeated tsunami waves - a problem vividly illustrated in the enormous structural damage caused by the East Asian tsunami.

    With more research, it might be possible to construct at least some future buildings with methods that would better resist damage or destruction by tsunami waves, the OSU researchers say. The Oregon Sea Grant Program has provided a two-year, $170,000 grant to support fundamental research in this area.

    "The number of fatalities from earthquakes in the U.S. is actually very low, because a long time ago we realized the dangers they pose and changed our building codes to start planning for them," Cox said. "But we don't have comparable building codes for tsunami-resistant structures."

    The major tsunami of last year has also caused a surge of student interest in study and research on this field, the OSU experts said, that could be tapped to better prepare the scientists of the future who will continue to deal with the threats posed by these catastrophic events.

    Some experts say there is a 10-14 percent chance that there could be a massive earthquake and tsunami on the Cascadia Subduction Zone within 50 years. The last such event is believed to have happened in 1700, and 23 major earthquakes have been recorded on this fault zone, which runs from northern California to Vancouver Island, in the past 10,000 years.

    Story By: 

    Dan Cox, 541-737-3631

    "Borehole" data suggests Earth's warming at faster pace

    CORVALLIS, Ore. - A temperature analysis of more than 600 boreholes from throughout the Northern Hemisphere suggests that the Earth's climate may be warming at a higher rate than tree-ring analysis and other methods had led scientists to believe.

    "If we're right, these boreholes are showing that the Earth is more sensitive to whatever is forcing the climatic change," said Robert N. Harris, an associate professor in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University and a principal investigator in the study.

    Results of the research by Harris and colleague David S. Chapman of the University of Utah were just published in the Journal of Geophysical Research. The researchers also will present their data in December at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

    Borehole temperatures have been measured since the 1920s, but only recently has this temperature analysis been applied to global warming studies. Unlike most "proxy" methods to reconstruct climate models, which depend entirely on statistical analysis, borehole temperature research is based on the physics of heat diffusion.

    Harris offers an analogy to describe how it works.

    "On a smaller scale, it's similar to underground pipes freezing in the spring instead of during the coldest part of winter," he said. "It takes time for the cold winter temperatures to propagate through the ground. Similarly, if you put one end of a steel poker into a fire, and hold the other end, the heat propagates toward your hand.

    "If at some later time you take a series of temperature measurements along the length of the rod, you would be able to estimate the temperature of the fire and how long the poker had been in the fire. The distance the poker had warmed is related to time, and the amount of warming is related to the temperature of the fire."

    In the ground, rocks are such poor conductors of heat that the effect of a changing surface temperature 500 years ago is felt at a depth of about 200 meters, Harris says. The scientists make careful temperature measurements in boreholes that are as deep as 500 meters. These temperatures reflect the adjacent rock and tell the researchers how temperatures have changed over long periods of time.

    What the research cannot tell scientists is what the temperature may have been for a particular year, Harris said.

    "Heat diffusion causes the signal to get smeared out, so the deeper you look, the smaller the signal," he pointed out. "Eventually, the signal is lost in background noise. This process also means that you only get multi-year averages."

    Harris and Chapman examined temperature data from boreholes throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which helps eliminate regional anomalies in their findings. They estimate that the Earth has warmed 1.1 degrees C. over the past 500 years - more than double the 0.4- to 0.5-degree estimates suggested by most tree-ring analysis.

    In their article, they say the difference may be that tree-ring analysis primarily reflects temperatures when trees are actively growing during the warm season, but doesn't reflect changes in winter temperatures. Much of the annual warming recorded by instruments over the past 100 years has occurred during the winter season, they add.

    The boreholes used in the research were generated from a variety of sources, including mineral exploration, dry water wells and those done specifically for the temperature research. The best environment for drilling, Harris says, is where the rock is solid and impermeable, limiting advection.

    A typical borehole may be six inches in diameter and 200 meters deep. Much deeper and the temperature differences become too minute to pick up, Harris said. However, that depth allows them to take measurements that go back about 500 years - or roughly the time Columbus was first approaching the New World.

    "We know by comparative data that borehole analysis, as remarkable as it may seem, really works," Harris said. "For the periods of overlap when we can compare with recorded temperature data, the correlation is excellent. Beyond that, it is simply a matter of applying the physics of heat diffusion. "And those measurements tell us the Earth is warming faster than we previously thought."

    Story By: 

    Rob Harris, 541-737-4370

    COAS, Sea Grant project to link adult education, marine sciences

    CORVALLIS, Ore. - Thirteen instructors from Oregon community colleges are spending three days with scientists from Oregon State University, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Oregon Sea Grant at OSU's Hatfield Marine Science Center as part of an initiative to incorporate ocean sciences into adult education and workforce development.

    This instructor institute, which runs from Nov. 3-5, is the first of three in the year-long Ocean Sciences and Math Collaborative Project.

    During this institute, the 13 educators will learn more about the ocean and its role in the Earth's climate - and how that complex system affects Oregon's weather, economy, public health and jobs. They will then use the information to better inform their students about ocean sciences issues.

    "Ultimately, these instructors will be the ones delivering the message to adult learners," said Robert Collier, an OSU professor in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. He co-directs the program with colleague Marta Torres, Susan Cowles and Jon Luke.

    Much of the information comes from scientists involved directly with significant research, Collier said. The educators also will receive classroom materials and tips on how to integrate the research findings into relevant curriculum that integrates math, writing, language acquisition and reading instruction, as well as ocean sciences.

    The instructors represent diverse programs, including workforce training, adult basic education, workplace education (cannery workers), adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to speakers of other languages, and family literacy.

    Instructors attending the institute include:

  • Boardman: Shannon Maude, Blue Mountain Community College;
  • Glide: John Druzik, Umpqua Community College/Wolf Creek Job Corps;
  • Gresham: Donna Ball, Mt. Hood Community College;
  • North Bend: Bonnie Maxwell, Southwestern Oregon Community College;
  • Ontario: Linda McDowell and Yolanda Morales, Treasure Valley Community College;
  • Pendleton: Marjie Prowant, Blue Mountain Community College;
  • Portland: David Bunk and Laura Moulton, Mt. Hood Community College;
  • Rogue River : Lori Savage, Rogue Community College;
  • Roseburg: Jerry Fullerton, Umpqua Community College;
  • The Dalles: Susan Lewis, Columbia Gorge Community College;
  • West Linn: Linda Daugherty, Portland Community College.
  • Story By: 

    Bob Collier, 541-737-4367