OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

marine science and the coast

Public meeting set Thursday on Marine Studies Building at Hatfield Center

NEWPORT, Ore. – Oregon State University will host an informational public meeting this Thursday, June 15, to update local residents on plans for a new Marine Studies Building at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport.

The meeting will run from 5 to 6:30 p.m. in Hatfield’s Visitor Center. A 45-minute presentation and question-and-answer session will be followed by a reception and displays. The Hatfield Center is located at 2030 S.E. Marine Science Drive in Newport, just southeast of the Highway 101 bridge.

The presentation will also be streamed live over Adobe Connect at http://oregonstate.adobeconnect.com/hmsc-fw407/

Oregon State University has launched a Marine Studies Initiative – a new research and teaching model to help sustain healthy oceans and ensure wellness, environmental health and economic prosperity for coastal communities.

“A component of the Marine Studies Initiative includes the construction of a research and teaching facility – the Marine Studies Building on the HMSC campus – and student housing at another location in Newport,” said Steve Clark, vice president for university relations and marketing.

“This public meeting in Newport is an opportunity to hear how the university will ensure that the design, engineering and construction of the Marine Studies Building and student housing meet or exceed the earthquake and tsunami performance and safety commitments that OSU President Ed Ray has made.”

Presentations will be made by­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Bob Cowen, director of OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center, and Tom Robbins, project manager and architect with Yost Grube Hall Architecture.

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Steve Clark, 541-737-3808, steve.clark@oregonstate.edu; Bob Cowen, 541-867-0211, Robert.Cowen@oregonstate.edu

International science team: Marine reserves can help mitigate climate change

CORVALLIS, Ore. – An international team of scientists has concluded that “highly protected” marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change and suggests that these areas be expanded and better managed throughout the world.

Globally, coastal nations have committed to protecting 10 percent of their waters by 2020, but thus far only 3.5 percent of the ocean has been set aside for protection – and less than half of that (1.6 percent) is strongly protected from exploitation. Some scientists have argued that as much as 30 percent of the ocean should be set aside as reserves to safeguard marine ecosystems in the long-term. 

Results of the study, which evaluated 145 peer-reviewed studies on the impact of marine reserves, is being published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Marine reserves cannot halt or completely offset the growing impacts of climate change,” said Oregon State University’s Jane Lubchenco, former National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Administrator and co-author on the study. “But they can make marine ecosystems more resilient to changes and, in some cases, help slow down the rate of climate change. 

“Protecting a portion of our oceans and coastal wetlands will help sequester carbon, limit the consequences of poor management, protect habitats and biodiversity that are key to healthy oceans of the future, and buffer coastal populations from extreme events,” Lubchenco said. “Marine reserves are climate reserves.”

The scientists say marine reserves can help protect ecosystems – and people – from five impacts of climate change that already are taking place: ocean acidification, rising sea levels, an increase in the severity of storms, shifts in the distribution of species, and decreased ocean productivity and availability of oxygen.

Lead author Callum Roberts, from the University of York, said that many studies already have shown that marine reserves can protect wildlife and support productive fisheries. The goal of this peer-reviewed literature-study was to see whether the benefits of marine reserves could ameliorate or slow the impacts of climate change. 

“It was soon quite clear that they can offer the ocean ecosystem and people critical resilience benefits to rapid climate change,” Roberts said.

The benefits are greatest, the authors say, in large, long-established and well-managed reserves that have full protection from fishing and mineral extraction, and isolation from other damaging human activities. 

The study notes that ocean surface waters have become on average 26 percent more acidic since pre-industrial times, and by the year 2100 under a “business-as-usual” scenario they will be 150 percent more acidic. The authors say coastal wetlands – including mangroves, seagrasses and salt marshes – have demonstrated a capacity for reducing local carbon dioxide concentrations because many contain plants with high rates of photosynthesis.

“Unfortunately,” Lubchenco said, “these ecosystems are some of the most threatened coastal areas and have experienced substantial reductions in the past several decades. Wetland protection should be seen as a key element in achieving greater resilience for coast communities.” 

Coastal wetlands, along with coral and oyster reefs, kelp forests and mud flats, can help ameliorate impacts of rising sea levels and storm surge. The average global sea level has risen about seven inches since 1900, and is expected to increase nearly three feet by the year 2100, threatening many low-lying cities and nations. The dense vegetation in coastal wetlands can also provide protection against severe storms, which are increasing in intensity in many parts of the world.

Climate change already is having a major impact on the abundance and distribution of marine species. Phytoplankton communities are changing in response to warming, acidification and stratifying oceans, and upper trophic level species are being affected, threatening global food security. Climate change interacts with and exacerbates other stressors like overfishing and pollution, the researchers say.

Reducing some stressors can increase the resilience of species and ecosystems to impacts of other stressors. 

“We have seen how marine reserves can be a haven for some species that are under duress from over-fishing or habitat loss, and as a ‘stepping-stone’ for other species that are recolonizing or moving into new areas,” Lubchenco said. “Reserves also promote genetic diversity and provide protection for older fish and other marine organisms. In short, reserves are one of the most powerful tools in our adaptation toolbox. Reserves enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems, and thus our resilience.”

Lubchenco, who recently completed a two-year term as the first U.S. Science Envoy for the Ocean, has been involved in research at Oregon State on the interactions between people and marine ecosystems. She has led pioneering studies on coastal hypoxia (so-called “dead zones”) and innovative ways to achieve sustainable fishing and other uses of the ocean. 

The authors point out that effectiveness of marine reserves is often challenged by lack of staff, equipment and funding; inconsistent management; lack of communication with industry and local communities; and concerns about displacing fishing activities. But, they point out, these challenges can be resolved. Their findings that reserves enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems suggests that reserves may offer the best hope to adapt to a changing climate.

“Marine reserves will not halt, change or stop many of the threats associated with climate change affecting communities within their boundaries,” they write. “We contend, however, that existing and emerging evidence suggests that (marine reserves) can serve as a powerful tool to help ameliorate some problems resulting from climate change, slow the development of others, and improve the outlook for continued ecosystem functioning and delivery of ecosystem services.”

Lubchenco is a distinguished professor in the College of Science at Oregon State and marine studies adviser to OSU President Ed Ray.

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Jane Lubchenco, 541-737-5337, lubchenco@oregonstate.edu

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Photo at left: Marine life around Palau. Photo by Richard Brooks

Acidified ocean water widespread along North American West Coast

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A three-year survey of the California Current System along the West Coast of the United States found persistent, highly acidified water throughout this ecologically critical nearshore habitat, with “hotspots” of pH measurements as low as any oceanic surface waters in the world.

The researchers say that conditions will continue to worsen because the atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily to blame for this increase in acidification has been rising substantially in recent years.

One piece of good news came out of the study, which was published this week in Nature Scientific Reports. There are “refuges” of more moderate pH environments that could become havens for some marine organisms to escape more highly acidified waters, and which could be used as a resource for ecosystem management.

“The threat of ocean acidification is global and though it sometimes seems far away, it is happening here right now on the West Coast of the United States and those waters are already hitting our beaches,” said Francis Chan, a marine ecologist at Oregon State University and lead author on the study.

“The West Coast is very vulnerable. Ten years ago, we were focusing on the tropics with their coral reefs as the place most likely affected by ocean acidification. But the California Current System is getting hit with acidification earlier and more drastically than other locations around the world.”

A team of researchers developed a network of sensors to measure ocean acidification over a three-year period along more than 600 miles of the West Coast. The team observed near-shore pH levels that fell well below the global mean pH of 8.1 for the surface ocean, and reached as low as 7.4 at the most acidified sites, which is among the lowest recorded values ever observed in surface waters.

The lower the pH level, the higher the acidity. Previous studies have documented a global decrease of 0.11 pH units in surface ocean waters since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Like the Richter scale, the pH scale in logarithmic, so that a 0.11 pH unit decrease represents an increase in acidity of approximately 30 percent.

Highly acidified ocean water is potentially dangerous because many organisms are very sensitive to changes in pH. Chan said negative impacts already are occurring in the California Current System, where planktonic pteropods – or small swimming snails – were documented with severe shell dissolution.

“This is about more than the loss of small snails,” said Richard Feely, senior scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. “These pteropods are an important food source for herring, salmon and black cod, among other fish. They also may be the proverbial ‘canary in the coal mine’ signifying potential risk for other species, including Dungeness crabs, oysters, mussels, and many organisms that live in tidepools or other near-shore habitats.”

Previous studies at OSU have chronicled the impact of acidified water on the Northwest oyster industry.

Chan said the team’s observations, which included a broad-scale ocean acidification survey via ship by NOAA, did not vary significantly over the three years – even with different conditions, including a moderate El Niño event.

“The highly acidified water was remarkably persistent over the three years,” Chan said. “Hotspots stayed as hotspots, and refuges stayed as refuges. This highly acidified water is not in the middle of the Pacific Ocean; it is right off our shore. Fortunately, there are swaths of water that are more moderate in acidity and those should be our focus for developing adaptation strategies.”

The researchers say there needs to be a focus on lowering stressors to the environment, such as maintaining healthy kelp beds and sea grasses, which many believe can partially mitigate the effects of increasing acidity.

Further, the moderately acidified refuge areas can be strategically used and managed, Chan pointed out.

“We probably have a hundred or more areas along the West Coast that are protected in one way or another, and we need to examine them more closely,” he said. “If we know how many of them are in highly acidified areas and how many are in refuge sites, we can use that information to better manage the risks that ocean acidification poses.”

Managing for resilience is a key, the researchers conclude.

“Even though we are seeing compromised chemistry in our ocean waters, we still have a comparably vibrant ecosystem,” Chan said. “Our first goal should be to not make things worse. No new stresses. Then we need to safeguard and promote resilience. How do we do that? One way is to manage for diversity, from ensuring multiple-age populations to maintaining deep gene pools.

“The greater the diversity, the better chance of improving the adaptability of our marine species.”

Chan, a faculty member in the College of Science at Oregon State University, was a member of the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Panel appointed by the governments of California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

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Francis Chan, 541-737-9131, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu

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ocean acidification 2

Acidification is threatening tidepool organisms

ocean sensors 2

A sensor at the Oregon coast.

Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Sediment that eroded from the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau over millions of years was transported thousands of kilometers by rivers and in the Indian Ocean – and became sufficiently thick over time to generate temperatures warm enough to strengthen the sediment and increase the severity of the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake.

The magnitude 9.2 earthquake on Dec. 26, 2004, generated a massive tsunami that devastated coastal regions of the Indian Ocean. The earthquake and tsunami together killed more than 250,000 people making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in history.

An international team of scientists that outlined the process of sediment warming says the same mechanism could be in place in the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the Pacific Northwest coast of North America, as well as off Iran, Pakistan and in the Caribbean.

Results of the research, which was conducted as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program, are being published this week in the journal Science.

“The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was triggered by an unusually strong earthquake with an extensive rupture area,” said expedition co-leader Lisa McNeill, an Oregon State University graduate now at the University of Southampton. “We wanted to find out what caused such a large earthquake and tsunami, and what it might mean for other regions with similar geological properties.”

The research team sampled for the first time sediment and rocks from the tectonic plate that feeds the Sumatra subduction zone. From the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, the team drilled down 1.5 kilometers below the seabed, measured different properties of the sediments, and ran simulations to calculate how the sediment and rock behaves as it piles up and travels eastward 250 kilometers toward the subduction zone.

“We discovered that in some areas where the sediments are especially thick, dehydration of the sediments occurred before they were subducted,” noted Marta Torres, an Oregon State University geochemist and co-author on the study. “Previous earthquake models assumed that dehydration occurred after the material was subducted, but we had suspected that it might be happening earlier in some margins.

“The earlier dehydration creates stronger, more rigid material prior to subduction, resulting in a very large fault area that is prone to rupture and can lead to a bigger and more dangerous earthquake.”

Torres explained that when the scientists examined the sediments, they found water between the sediment grains that was less salty than seawater only within a zone where the plate boundary fault develops, some 1.2 to 1.4 kilometers below the seafloor.

“This along with some other chemical changes are clear signals that it was an increase in temperature from the thick accumulation of sediment that was dehydrating the minerals,” Torres said.

Lead author Andre Hüpers of the University of Bremen in Germany said that the discovery will generate new interest in other subduction zone sites that also have thick, hot sediment and rock, especially those areas where the hazard potential is unknown.

The Cascadia Subduction Zone is one of the most widely studied sites in the world and experts say it may have experienced as many as two dozen major earthquakes over the past 10,000 years.

The sediment at the Cascadia deformation front is between 2.5 and 4.0 kilometers thick, which is somewhat less than the 4-5 kilometer thickness of the Sumatra region. However, because the subducting plate at Cascadia is younger when the plate arrives at the subduction zone, the estimated temperatures at the fault surface are about the same in both regions.

Torres is a professor in Oregon State University’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

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Marta Torres, 541-737-2902, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

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Sediment cores

Sediment cores

OSU to hold public forum May 24 in Corvallis on new building at Hatfield Marine Science Center

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A community forum regarding Oregon State University’s engineering and construction plans for a marine studies building on the Hatfield Marine Science Center campus in Newport will be held Wednesday, May 24, in Corvallis.

The meeting will be held from 5:30 to 7 p.m. on OSU’s Corvallis campus in LaSells Stewart Center’s Agricultural Sciences Room. The meeting also will be live streamed at: ­­­­­http://bit.ly/2rjRmC5

Oregon State University has launched a Marine Studies Initiative, a new research and teaching model to help sustain healthy oceans and ensure wellness, environmental health and economic prosperity for coastal communities.

“A component of the Marine Studies Initiative includes the construction of a research and teaching facility – the Marine Studies Building on the HMSC campus – and student housing at another location in Newport,” said Steve Clark, vice president for university relations and marketing.

“The workshop is an opportunity to hear how the university will ensure that the design, engineering and construction of the Marine Studies Building and student housing meet or exceed the earthquake and tsunami performance and safety commitments that OSU President Ed Ray has made.”

The workshop will include an update on the work of a project oversight committee, as well as updates by the project’s architect and the chair of an independent, third-party technical peer review panel, Clark said.

The meeting also will include an opportunity for attendees to ask questions.

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Steve Clark, 541-737-3808, steve.clark@oregonstate.edu

Magnesium within plankton provides tool for taking the temperatures of past oceans

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Scientists cannot travel into the past to take the Earth’s temperature so they use proxies to discern past climates, and one of the most common methods for obtaining such data is derived from the remains of tiny marine organisms called foraminifera found in oceanic sediment cores.

These “forams,” as they are called, are sand-grained-sized marine protists that make shells composed of calcite. When they grow, they incorporate magnesium from seawater into their shells. When ocean temperatures are warmer, forams incorporate more magnesium; less when the temperatures are cooler. As a result, scientists can tell from the amount of magnesium what the temperature of the seawater was thousands, even millions of years ago. These proxies are important tools for understanding past climate.

However, studies of live forams reveal that shell magnesium can vary, even when seawater temperature is constant. A new study published this week in the journal Nature Communications affirms that magnesium variability is linked to the day/night (light/dark) cycle in simple, single-celled forams and extends the findings to more complex multi-chambered foraminifera.

To understand how forams develop and what causes magnesium variability, the team of scientists from Oregon State, University of California, Davis, University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory grew the multi-chambered species, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, in a laboratory under highly controlled conditions. They used high-resolution imaging techniques to “map” the composition of these lab-grown specimens.

“We found that high-magnesium is precipitated at night, and low-magnesium is added to the shells during the day, similar to the growth patterns of the single-chambered species,” said Jennifer S. Fehrenbacher, an ocean biogeochemist and paleoceanographer at Oregon State University and lead author on the study. “This confirms that magnesium variability is driven by the same mechanism in two species with two different ecological niches. We can now say with some level of confidence that magnesium-banding is intrinsically linked to shell formation processes as opposed to other environmental factors.

“The variability in magnesium content of the shells doesn’t change the utility of forams as a proxy for temperature. Rather, our results give us new insights into how these organisms build their shells and lends confidence to their utility as tools for reconstructing temperatures.”

Other co-authors on this study are Ann Russell, Catherine Davis, and Howard Spero at the University of California, Davis; Alex Gagnon at the University of Washington, Zihua Zhu and John Cliff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Pamela Martin.

The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. Fehrenbacher is an assistant professor in Oregon State’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

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 Jennifer Fehrenbacher, 541-737-6285, fehrenje@coas.oregonstate.edu

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N. dutertrei

N. dutertrei grown in a laboratory

Study provides detailed glimpse of predators’ effects on complex, subtidal food web

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Research using time-lapse photography in the Galapagos Marine Reserve suggests the presence of a key multilevel “trophic cascade” involving top- and mid-level predators as well as urchins and algae.

The findings are important because they include detailed information about interactions in a complex food web. Such information is crucial to knowing how to cause, prevent or reverse population changes within the web.

In the rocky, species-rich subtidal area off the Galapagos Islands, scientists from Oregon State University and Brown University examined the relationships among predatory fishes, urchins, the algae that the urchins graze on, and how the interactions among them were influenced by sea lions and sharks at the top of the food chain.

The key question: Do predators high up in the chain affect the abundance of the “primary producers” at the bottom – in this case algae – thus causing a trophic cascade?

Trophic level refers to a species’ position in the chain, and the cascade describes the series of effects that can occur.

Using GoPro cameras, the researchers made a number of key findings regarding triggerfish, Spanish hogfish, pencil urchins, the larger green urchins and algae, including:

  • Among a diverse guild of predatory fishes, triggerfish can control the abundance of pencil urchins and thus also the abundance of algae the urchins eat; the experiments showed grazing on algae was eliminated when the pencil urchins were exposed to triggerfish predation, meaning triggerfish are a candidate for protection because of their strong effects on ecosystem function.
  • Green urchins eat more algae than pencil urchins yet are not the urchin prey of choice for predatory fish. That suggests those fish aren’t controlling green urchin populations and thus that green-urchin barrens in the Galapagos – areas where the urchins have stripped the sea floor of algae – are not the result of the overfishing of predatory fish.
  • Spanish hogfish are not major predators of urchins as earlier, survey-based research had suggested. Hogfish mainly eat the smaller pencil urchins and also interfere with triggerfish feeding on large pencil urchins; the hassling hogfish cause triggerfish to spend more time to eat an urchin and in some cases force a fumble.
  • Statistical modeling of predation on pencil urchins indicates that two types of interference behavior – the hogfish harassing the triggerfish, and sea lions and sharks startling the triggerfish – could slow the rate of triggerfish predation on pencil urchins.

The researcher who did the modeling, Mark Novak of the College of Science at Oregon State, noted that historically, ecologists believed complex food webs typical of the tropics were more immune to trophic cascades than the simpler food webs of higher latitudes; the Galapagos straddle the equator.

Studies such as this one now suggest that is not the case, and that the dynamics of complex food webs can be as predictable as simpler ones provided you understand who the relevant players are.

“When the backbone of the system is strong, you can connect the top of the food chain to the bottom despite all of the indirect effects and the complexities of the system,” said Novak, assistant professor of integrative biology.

“It’s important to know individual species identity when you’ve got a suite of consumers,” Novak said. “The hogfish, the triggerfish, they all feed on very similar things, yet one of the two is most important, the one that drove that first link. And an urchin isn’t just an urchin – one was more immune to consumption from triggerfish, the other more susceptible. And one urchin was important for grazing, and another was not.”

Merely lumping species together at trophic levels would have caused researchers to miss a lot of the subtleties that the photographic study uncovered.

“If you just put urchins out and see how quickly they disappear, you can’t attribute that to any given predator,” Novak said. “We were able to identify those species that were responsible for transmitting the cascade.”

Findings were recently published in PLOS One. The National Science Foundation supported this research.

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Galapagos fish

Triggerfish, top, and hogfish

New video shows how blue whales employ strategy before feeding

NEWPORT, Ore. – Blue whales didn’t become the largest animals ever to live on Earth by being dainty eaters and new video captured by scientists at Oregon State University shows just how they pick and choose their meals.

There is a reason for their discretion, researchers say. The whales are so massive – sometimes growing to the length of three school buses – that they must carefully balance the energy gained through their food intake with the energetic costs of feeding.

“Modeling studies of blue whales ‘lunge-feeding’ theorize that they will not put energy into feeding on low-reward prey patches,” said Leigh Torres, a principal investigator with the Marine Mammal Institute at Oregon State, who led the expedition studying the blue whales. “Our footage shows this theory in action. We can see the whale making choices, which is really extraordinary because aerial observations of blue whales feeding on krill are rare.”

“The whale bypasses certain krill patches – presumably because the nutritional payoff isn’t sufficient – and targets other krill patches that are more lucrative. We think this is because blue whales are so big, and stopping to lunge-feed and then speeding up again is so energy-intensive, that they try to maximize their effort.”

The video, captured in the Southern Ocean off New Zealand, shows a blue whale cruising toward a large mass of krill – roughly the size of the whale itself. The animal then turns on its side, orients toward the beginning of the krill swarm, and proceeds along its axis through the entire patch, devouring nearly the entire krill mass.

In another vignette, the same whale approaches a smaller mass of krill, which lies more perpendicular to its approach, and blasts through it without feeding.

“We had theorized that blue whales make choices like this and the video makes it clear that they do use such a strategy,” explained Torres, who works out of Oregon State’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, Oregon. “It certainly appears that the whale determined that amount of krill to be gained, and the effort it would take to consume the meal wasn’t worth the effort of slowing down.

“It would be like me driving a car and braking every 100 yards, then accelerating again. Whales need to be choosy about when to apply the brakes to feed on a patch of krill.”

The researchers analyzed the whale’s lunge-feeding and found that it approached the krill patch at about 6.7 miles per hour. The act of opening its enormous mouth to feed slowed the whale down to 1.1 mph – and getting that big body back up to cruising speed again requires a lot of energy.

The rare footage was possible through the use of small drones. The OSU team is trained to fly them over whales and was able to view blue whales from a unique perspective.

“It’s hard to get good footage from a ship,” Torres said, “and planes or helicopters can be invasive because of their noise. The drone allows us to get new angles on the whales without bothering them.”

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Leigh Torres, 541-867-0895, leigh.torres@oregonstate.edu

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Photo at left: Blue whale feeding on a krill patch.

 

Launching Drone
Launching of the drone.

Oregon State part of new NSF research program in the Arctic

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University and five other universities this week received an award to initiate a new Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in the Arctic that will explore how relationships between the land and water affect coastal ecosystems along the northern Alaskan coast.

The project has been funded by a five-year, $5.6 million grant from the National Science Foundation and will join 25 existing and two recently awarded coastal LTER sites that form a network of terrestrial and aquatic biomes worldwide.

Two of the new coastal sites, the Northern Gulf of Alaska and the Northeastern U.S. Shelf, are in very productive regions for fisheries. The third site, The Beaufort Sea Lagoons, is the first marine ecosystem LTER in the Arctic Ocean. The project, “Beaufort Sea Lagoons: An Arctic Coastal Ecosystem in Transition,” is supported by NSF’s Office of Polar Programs.

 “It is a very rich, very important ecosystem and we don’t have a good understanding of how it works,” said Yvette Spitz, one of two OSU oceanographers who are principal investigators with the project. “There are chemicals, nutrients and other organic materials that are transported from the land to the ocean, passing through lagoons along the way.”

“One of the goals of the project is to understand how the transport of these materials is affected by changing precipitation, sea ice and melting permafrost – and what effect that has on biological productivity. These changes are presently occurring and are the most rapid in the Arctic”

Scientists at the University of Texas at Austin are leading the project, in collaboration with researchers at Oregon State, University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of Texas El Paso, University of Massachusetts at Amherst and University of Toronto Mississauga.

Also participating will be young scientists from the native Iñupiat communities of Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow) and Kaktovik, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which manages the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

“An important aspect of this LTER is the collaboration between scientists and the Iñupiat residents of the Beaufort Sea coast, which will greatly deepen our comprehensive understanding of these ecosystems,” said William Ambrose, director of the Arctic Observing Network in the NSF Office of Polar Programs.

The research will be based in Kaktovik, Utqiagvik, and Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. It will focus on a series of large, shallow (5-7 meters deep) lagoons that play a role in the transition of materials from land to sea.

Byron Crump, the other OSU oceanographer who is a principal investigator on the project, will focus on the smallest but most abundant organisms in the ecosystem – phytoplankton, bacteria, and other microbes.

“The old school of thinking was that bacteria were important in warmer ecosystems but not so much in colder regions like the Arctic,” Crump said. “We’re finding that isn’t true at all. Bacteria and other tiny organisms play critical roles in maintaining the food web that supports everything from krill to whales as well as important fisheries.”

Crump will look at the growth rates and genomic diversity of microbes, while Spitz will develop computer models that will evaluate how microbes, plankton and other small organisms influence the ecosystem and how they will be affected in the future under different scenarios of warming, increased precipitation and changes in groundwater.

Spitz and Crump are faculty members in OSU’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

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Yvette Spitz, 541-737-3227, yspitz@coas.oregonstate.edu;

Byron Crump, 541-737-4369, bcrump@coas.oregonstate.edu

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Photo of Beaufort lagoons (left): https://flic.kr/p/Sp3DZ5

 

 

 

Coastal erosion

Coastal erosion is one of the processes researchers will study.

Workers’ compensation claims offer insight into seafood processing injuries in Oregon

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A review of workers’ compensation claims indicates that workers in Oregon’s seafood processing industry are suffering serious injuries at higher rates than the statewide average, and the rate of injuries appears to be on the rise, researchers at Oregon State University have found.

Researchers examined 188 “disabling” claims, or claims from employees who missed work, were hospitalized overnight or whose injuries left them permanently impaired. They found that the average annual rate of claims was 24 per 1,000 workers, said Laura Syron, a doctoral student in OSU’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences and lead author of the study.

“Fortunately, Oregon’s seafood processing industry did not experience any fatalities during the study period, but the rate of injuries during that period is higher than Oregon’s all-industry average,” Syron said.

“This is an industry that merits more research and more support. Our goal is to use this information to assist seafood processing companies in the Pacific Northwest with protecting workers' safety and health.”

The study is believed to be the first to examine worker safety and health in Oregon’s seafood processing industry. The findings were published this month in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine.

OSU researchers collaborated with the Oregon Health Authority on the study. Co-authors of the paper are Laurel Kincl, an assistant professor of environmental and occupational health; Ellen Smit, an associate professor of epidemiology; environmental and occupational health doctoral student Liu Yang; and Daniel Cain, with the state of Oregon.

The study is part of a broader effort at OSU to understand and address hazards in the maritime industry.

“This important work compliments injury prevention my colleagues and I are conducting with commercial fishing fleets in the region,” said co-author Kincl, who is Syron’s advisor.

Seafood is the most-traded food commodity internationally, and the value of processed seafood products in the U.S. topped $10 billion in 2015. The dangers of commercial fishing have drawn a lot of attention over the years through reality television programs and highly-publicized disasters and safety incidents.

But there is limited research on occupational health and safety in onshore seafood processing, a food-manufacturing industry that includes cleaning, canning, freezing and other packaging and preparation. In Oregon, employment in the seafood processing industry grew steadily between 2010 and 2013, with 1,240 workers employed in the industry in 2013.

“Processing is a critical component of the seafood supply chain, and it does not get as much attention as the fishing itself,” Syron said. “Processing adds value to the product and it is also demanding work that can lead to significant injuries.”

The researchers’ review of workers’ compensation disabling claims accepted for compensation between 2007 and 2013 showed the rate of injuries among workers in the industry was more than twice that of Oregon industries overall. The most common injuries included traumatic injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments or joints. The most frequent events that resulted in injuries were overexertion and contact with equipment or objects.

“The workers’ compensation data gives us insight into the most severe incidents and those that cost employers the most money,” Syron said.

The workers’ compensation disabling data doesn’t provide enough detail about the circumstances of the workers at the time of their injuries, so that is one area that warrants further study before prevention recommendations could be made, she said.

For her doctoral dissertation, Syron plans to examine seafood processing in Alaska, where seafood is an economically and culturally important natural resource. In that research, Syron will continue to explore injury reports in both at-sea and on-shore facilities. With interviews, she hopes to learn from companies’ safety and health managers and directors, whose roles are dedicated to protecting workers’ well-being.

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Laura Syron, 541-513-1710, laura.syron@oregonstate.edu

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Commercial fishing port in Newport, Oregon. Photo by Pat Kight, Oregon Sea Grant.

Newport's commercial fishing port