environment and natural resources

Oregon State University Celebrates Earth Week

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University is celebrating Earth Week beginning Saturday, April 18, with a community-wide EarthFaire on the Corvallis waterfront, the annual Procession of the Species Parade through downtown Corvallis, and a climate policy town hall meeting at the Corvallis-Benton County Public Library.

On Saturday, cities across the nation will be partaking in town hall type forums organized by local Focus the Nation teams to engage people from Congressional representatives, to elected city officials, as well as community members in amplifying a discussion on America’s transition to a green economy. From 3 to 7 p.m. at the Corvallis-Benton County Public Library, key panelists will first talk about what they are working on now with regards to a green economy. Then they will talk about what they need to help create the green economy. An informational session will be provided to what kind of legislation is moving forward in Salem.

The panel discussion will be followed by a round table discussion, which will address how Corvallis citizens, university and city administrators, and government officials can connect their resources and engage each other to work out what the green economy would look like.

The events continue through April 24, with most of the activities taking place on or near campus, including the annual Community Fair April 21, which features information on 50 different campus and community groups focusing on sustainability, the environment and related topics.

“Around the world, people are realizing we have to really take the environment seriously and our impact seriously,” said Michaela Hammer, OSU Student Sustainability Initiative visibility coordinator. “Earth Week is becoming less of a special event and more about showcasing what we can do all year round.”

One popular Earth Week event is the annual Earth Day Hoo Haa, an afternoon celebration on April 22 at a student-run organic farm on the outskirts of Corvallis. Featuring speakers, live music, family-oriented events and the opportunity to get your hands dirty, it draws folks of all ages.

Other highlights of Earth Week include a Living Hat contest April 20, where participants show off their haberdashery skills as well as their green thumbs when they craft a hat out of living materials. The brand new OSU Bike Co-op is playing host to a bike race and open house April 23 to share the organization’s mission, which includes providing a place for students to learn how to work on their bikes and take free classes on bike maintenance.

And the newly formed OSU Permaculture Club will teach participants how to start seeds and make seedballs during an event at the Student Sustainability Center on April 22.

The following is a calendar of events, which also can be accessed at http://recycle.oregonstate.edu/EarthDay/eventCalendar.cfm:

Saturday, April 18
• 10 a.m. - 2 p.m.: EarthFaire, First and Monroe Avenue. Exhibitors, music, crafts and more.
• Noon - 1 p.m.: Procession of the Species, First and Jackson Street. Join the parade dressed as any species.
• 3-7 p.m.: Focus the Nation Town Hall, Corvallis-Benton Public Library. Ask legislators about climate policy.

Sunday, April 19
• 9 a.m.-noon: Naturalist adventure, Avery Park Rose Garden. Explore nature at this local park.

Monday, April 20
• 11 a.m. - 2 p.m.: Sorting it Out: Trash audits in MU quad. Help rescue recylables from the landfill.
• 12:30-1:30 p.m.: Alternative Transportation Panel, MU 211. Options for ridesharing, mass transit, biking and more.
• All day: Living Hat Contest. Make a hat out of living materials to promote Earth Week.

Tuesday, April 21
• 11 a.m. - 3 p.m.: Annual Community Fair, MU Quad. Interactive informational fair with 50 different groups.
• 7-9 p.m.: Climate Crisis 101, Student Sustainability Center, 738 S.W. 15th St. Overview of the climate crisis.
• 7-9 p.m.: Call & Response Movie Showing, Club Escape, OSU. Documentary to end human trafficking.

Wednesday, April 22
• Noon - 3 p.m.: Potting and Seed Balling, Student Sustainability Center. Start seeds and make seed balls to take home.
• 3-7 p.m.: Earth Day Hoo Haa!, Organic Growers Farm, 1 mile east of Corvallis, Hwy. 34. Organic food, music, plantings and more.
• 3:30-4:30 p.m.: GECO Climate Change Speaker Series, Burt 193. Karen Shell speaks about her climate research.
• 7-9 p.m.: Blue Vinyl Movie Showing, 1001 Kelley Engineering. Documentary on PVC’s environmental effects.
• 7-9 p.m.: The Call Lecture, Milam Auditorium. Speakers discuss human trafficking.

Thursday, April 23
• 3-5 p.m.: Simple Sustainability, OSU Women’s Center. Learn how to reduce your environmental impact.
• 5 p.m.: Get to Know Your Local Bicycle Co-op, MU Quad. 5:30-9 p.m., Student Sustainability Center. Bike race and open house to learn about the co-op.

Friday, April 24
• 3-4:30 p.m.: Synthetic Sea, Synthetic Me: Plastics in the Ocean, Strand Ag Hall. Speakers discuss plastic’s effects on the marine environment.
• 7-9:30 p.m.: SSI Earth Week Party, Student Sustainability Center. Food, games and entertainment.
• 7-8 p.m.: Flames for Change Vigil, MU steps. Candlelight vigil and rally against human trafficking.

OSU Earth Week is sponsored by Campus Recycling, Student Sustainability Initiative and ASOSU Environmental Affairs, as well as Corvallis Public Works and First Alternative Co-op.

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Oregon State alumni set to clean up Corvallis this Saturday

Oregon State University alumni are set to participate in a multi-city OSU day of service Saturday, May 16. It is a day for Beavers to get together and get busy helping as they share in the community service spirit of Beaver Nation.

Alumni, students and friends of OSU will work together in six cities – Portland, Seattle, Bend, Corvallis, San Jose and San Francisco – during what will become an annual OSU Alumni Association day of service. The long-term goal is to grow the event each year.

In Corvallis, the Trillium Children’s Farm Home is hosting the event.

A number of projects will take place during the cleanup event, located at 4455 N.E. Hwy. 20 in Corvallis. In the community garden, volunteers will build wooden raised vegetable beds, tear out and rebuild counter slats for the greenhouse area, and plant vegetable beds. In the therapeutic horse area, volunteers will replace wire fencing, move hay bales, fix supports and generally maintain the area.

Participants should be 18 years or older, although high-school aged volunteers can participate if accompanied by an adult. Volunteers should wear work clothing and sturdy shoes and bring gloves.

To pre-register, call 541-737-2351 or go to www.osualum.com.

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EPA Recognizes OSU as Pac-10 Leader in Purchasing “Green” Power

CORVALLIS, Ore. – For the second year in a row, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized Oregon State University for its purchase of green power, singling out OSU as the leading institution in the Pacific-10 Conference for its sustainability efforts.

The EPA announced this week that OSU led all Pac-10 institutions by purchasing nearly 67 million kilowatt-hours of green power. The purchase of that much green energy is equivalent to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of nearly 8,800 passenger cars annually, the agency pointed out.

EPA’s recognition of the achievement is part of the agency’s EPA Green Power Partnership, which since 2006 has recognized collegiate athletic conferences with the highest combined green power purchases in the nation. The Individual Conference Champion Award, which OSU is receiving for 2008-09, recognizes the school with the highest green power purchase.

Green power is generated from renewable sources and is considered cleaner than conventional sources of electricity because it has lower carbon dioxide emissions.

Brandon Trelstad, OSU’s sustainability coordinator, said Oregon State’s ability to purchase green power is a result of a commitment to sustainability by students at the school. In 2007, OSU students overwhelmingly voted to assess themselves a fee of up to $8.50 per student each term to pay for green energy. The proposal passed by a margin of 71 percent to 29 percent, making OSU one of the first universities in the country to adopt such a measure.

“It has made a significant difference,” Trelstad said. “Those funds have boosted our ability to purchase renewable energy certificates from off-site sources, including wind energy, biogas and biomass.”

This is the latest in a series of sustainability initiatives that has brought national attention to OSU.

In 2008, the EPA named OSU one of 25 organizations to earn its Green Power Leadership Award, and the Kaplan College Guide listed the university as one of the nation’s top 25 “green colleges.” Also in 2008, Country Home magazine named Corvallis the greenest city in America in a listing of more than 350 cities – primarily because of its association with OSU.

Earlier this year, OSU became one of the first universities in the country to tap the kinetic energy generated by students working out on cardio machines and turning it into a form of renewable energy. OSU retrofitted 22 elliptical exercise machines in its student fee-funded Dixon Recreation Center and is collecting the power produced by students and feeding it back into the power grid.

“The amount of power generated isn’t overwhelming,” Trelstad said, “but it really helps students think about issues relating to energy production and consumption and encourages their activity in other areas. OSU students are quite energy-conscious – and becoming more so every day.”

Last month, the university finished its annual greenhouse gas inventory and reported a 30 percent reduction in net emissions during the past year – another direct result of student-supported green power purchases.

The university’s ability to use renewable power should get a boost later this year when the new $55 million energy center becomes fully operational, replacing a decades-old steam heating plant. The new center will be capable of burning renewable fuels – like methane and diesel – in the future, allowing OSU to produce about half of its electricity through co-generation.

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Brandon Trelstad,

Study Rules Out Ancient Bursts of Seafloor Methane Emissions

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Measurements made from the largest Greenland ice sample ever analyzed have confirmed that an unusual rise in atmospheric methane levels about 12,000 years ago was not the result of a catastrophic release of seafloor “hydrate deposits,” as some scientists had feared.

The findings, to be published Friday in the journal Science, are good news for those who have worried that this unusual mechanism of releasing methane into the atmosphere might provide a serious reinforcement to global warming at some point in the future.

The five-year project was funded by the National Science Foundation, American Chemical Society and other agencies.

It now appears almost certain that the major methane increases that occurred near the end of the last Ice Age were due to the growth of wetlands and the methane releases associated with that, which occurred shortly after some significant warming in the Northern Hemisphere. They did not come from sudden bursts of methane trapped in deep seafloor deposits.

The newest conclusions were made possible by identification of some ancient ice exposed at the edge of a Greenland ice sheet, and samples of it cut with chain saws that totaled thousands of pounds.

“To get enough air trapped in ice to do the types of measurements we needed, it took some of the largest ice samples ever worked on,” said Edward Brook, a professor of geosciences at Oregon State University, and international expert on using ice samples to explore ancient climate.

“The test results were unequivocal, but it was a lot of heavy lifting,” Brook said. “It was like working in a quarry. We could have used some help from the OSU football team.”

Methane, and the possible sources of it, is a significant concern to scientists because it is a potent greenhouse gas. It has natural sources in places like wetlands and permafrost, and its concentration has more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution from human activities such as natural gas exploration, landfills and agriculture. Natural gas used for home heating is composed mostly of methane.

But more hidden, and potentially of much greater concern, are massive deposits of methane buried beneath the sea in solid hydrate deposits, where cold temperatures and pressure supposedly keep it stable and unable to enter the atmosphere in large amounts. There have been concerns that this methane might be released suddenly by warming of ocean waters or other causes. These huge deposits of methane hold more carbon in them than all the known oil and gas fields on Earth.

If only 10 percent of that seafloor methane were to be released in a few years, it could be the equivalent of a 10-fold increase in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the researchers said in their report. And 12,000 years ago, methane levels went up 50 percent in less than 200 years, according to studies by Brook and others. Researchers wanted to know why.

“There are hundreds to thousands of times more methane trapped in seafloor deposits than there is in the atmosphere, and it’s important that we know whether it’s stable and is going to stay there or not,” Brook said. “That’s a pretty serious issue.”

To test whether the seafloor deposits had been the source of the large methane increase thousands of years ago researchers measured levels of carbon 14, an isotope of carbon, from the Greenland ice samples. The seafloor deposits are old and have very little carbon 14 in them. Based on the results of those measurements, the scientists were able to determine whether the methane increases 12,000 years ago were linked to seafloor deposits or not.

“The data made it pretty clear that seafloor methane hydrates had little to do with the increase in methane thousands of years ago,” Brook said. “This largely rules out these deposits either as a cause of the warming then or a feedback mechanism to it, and it indicates the deposits were stable at that point in time. The increased methane must have come from larger or more productive wetlands that occurred when the climate warmed.”

Researchers now hope to do similar experiments in Antarctica to verify the results of this study, Brook said.

This research was a collaboration of scientists from Oregon State University, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand, National Space Institute in Denmark, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Australia.

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Ed Brook,

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Edward Brook, with shovel, from Oregon State University, with consultant Paul Rose in trench.


Jeff Severinghaus, UC/San Diego with consultant Paul Rose

Lecture Addresses Ecological Destruction of Western Europe

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Willamette University emeritus professor Gilbert LaFreniere will deliver a lecture titled “Reflections on the Ecological Transformation of Western Europe” on Wednesday, May 6, at Oregon State University. The free public talk begins at 4 p.m. in Memorial Union Room 206.

The lecture will address what LaFreniere calls “the massive ecological destruction of western Europe.” He claims the entire Mediterranean basin has been transformed into a human artifact, and most of Western Europe has been similarly affected by deforestation, loss of species diversity, and near total humanization of pre-existing ecosystems.

LaFreniere is an emeritus professor of geology and environmental science at Willamette and author of the 2008 book “The Decline of Nature: Environmental History and the Western Worldview.” He taught geology, environmental ethics, and environmental history at Willamette for more than 25 years.

He earned his degrees in intellectual history from the University of California at Santa Barbara after working as a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey and Santa Barbara County. LaFreniere also authored the book “Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Idea of Progress” (1976).

This lecture is sponsored by OSU’s History Department with funding from the Horning Endowment in the Humanities. For more information contact the History Department at 541-737-8560.

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Elissa Curcio,

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Gilbert LaFreniere

OSU Web Site Helps Forest Sector Find Help in Government Stimulus Packages

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The 2009 recession has hit the Oregon forest sector especially hard, but now those working in that sector have a new resource that guides them with the click of a mouse to government stimulus programs.

Oregon State University's Extension Forestry and Natural Resources program has developed a Web site to help people access federal stimulus funds and other opportunities.

The Web site, " Tough Times in the Woods," contains links to several funding opportunities for forest businesses and projects, including the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 and Oregon's strategy for funding projects.

Among the information available on the Web site are links to accessing cost-share funds for private landowners, bidding for funded projects, identifying carbon and biofuel markets, and marketing through the Oregon Wood Innovation Center.

"Although the forestry sector has seen its share of economic ups and downs over the years, the 2009 recession is proving to be extra volatile," said Jim Johnson, who leads the OSU Extension Forestry and Natural Resources program.

"To help, we've put together this list of Web sites to show how federal stimulus funds are making their way into the forests of Oregon and how these funds will translate into projects and jobs on the ground," Johnson said.

The Web site is at: http://owic.oregonstate.edu/tough-times/

This new Web site also links to a site developed by OSU Extension with health and social service resources available to people in need. That link leads to information about filing for unemployment, finding a job, avoiding foreclosure and applying for food stamps.


Jim Johnson,

“Ecology of Fear,” Role of Large Predators Explored in New Documentary Film

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A premiere showing of a documentary film will be held Monday, May 11, based on the pioneering work of two Oregon State University researchers who have demonstrated that large predators may be essential to the health of stream and forest ecosystems.

“Lords of Nature: Life in a Land of Great Predators” will be shown at 7 p.m. in Milam Auditorium, 2520 S.W. Campus Way, on the OSU campus. The event is free and open to the public, and will include a question and answer session after the film.

The film was produced by Green Fire Productions, narrated by Peter Coyote, and the showing is sponsored by the OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. The documentary will also be shown on May 9 in Bend, Ore. See the web site for a complete list of showings in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and several Rocky Mountain states, and more information on the film.

The film makers, Karen and Ralf Meyer, will attend this screening, along with OSU forestry scientists William Ripple and Robert Beschta, the subjects of the film.

The documentary explores the role that wolves and cougars have historically played in the health of natural ecosystems, controlling both the population level and behavior of large grazing animals such as deer and elk. When the predators disappear, research has found, overgrazing has had impacts on everything from riparian zones and tree survival to the decline of other plant and animal species and major loss of biodiversity.

In recent years, Ripple and Beschta have studied this phenomenon, and also chronicled the recovery of plant and stream ecosystems once large predators such as wolves in Yellowstone National Park were reintroduced to the region. Their studies in Yellowstone, Zion National Park, Yosemite National Park, Olympic National Park and elsewhere have gained national attention and spawned new interest in the role of large predators in ecosystem health.

The researchers discovered that large predators help control the numbers of grazing animals, but possibly more important, change their behavior: Elk and deer that fear predation stay away from some exposed, streamside locations, allowing vegetation to recover and trees to grow to adulthood. This little understood concept is now being called “the ecology of fear.” More information on this broader topic can be found on the web.

The new film outlines the problem, its historical roots as predators such as wolves were exterminated and cougar populations reduced, and the potential of the land to recover when predators return and a natural balance is once again established. In addition to exploring the work of the OSU researchers, this production ventures to the rural communities of Minnesota, interviewing ranchers, farmers, hunters, and wildlife managers who are living among more than 3,000 wolves, the highest population in the lower 48 states.

The producers also profile two of the largest sheep operators in Idaho, who are having success raising sheep in a land once again populated by wolves. The film suggests that with proper technique, people and predators can co-exist. The emerging ecological crisis caused by the loss of large predators and now explored in this documentary was predicted, in fact, by the famous naturalist Aldo Leopold in 1949.

"I have lived to see state after state extirpate its wolves," Leopold wrote 60 years ago. "I have seen every edible bush and seedling browsed, first to anemic desuetude, and then to death."

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William Ripple,

OSU To Tackle Solar Future in New “Energy Frontier Research Center”

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University experts hope to develop some of the solar energy technology of the future in a new Energy Frontier Research Center announced today by the U.S. Department of Energy and the White House – a $777 million initiative to create breakthrough technology for a 21st-century energy economy.

As part of that effort, researchers in the College of Engineering and College of Science at OSU will receive a five-year, $3 million grant to help form a “Center for Inverse Design.” This innovative concept uses theory and computation along with other experimental methods to more rapidly identify the advanced materials that can make solar power less costly and more efficient.

The Department of Energy announced today that it is setting up 46 such centers at universities, national laboratories and other research agencies around the nation, as part of the funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Work will take place in diverse fields, ranging from solar energy to electricity storage, biofuels, andvanced nuclear systems, carbon sequestration and other areas.

“Our work with inverse design will be somewhat the opposite of traditional science, where you might invent or discover something and then look for an application,” said John Wager, an OSU professor of electrical engineering. “The idea is to start with the ideal of what you want, such as a solar cell that’s 20 percent efficient. Then you ask what kind of materials, atomic structure, even construction methods it would take to achieve that.”

OSU experts, including Douglas Keszler, a distinguished professor of chemistry, will collaborate in their new center with researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Northwestern University, and Stanford University. In particular, this approach will tap into the power of sophisticated computers and advanced computational ability.

“This is one of the grand challenges that has been identified in engineering, to bring the theorists and the experimentalists together,” Wager said. “Some members of our group will work mostly on the theory of what we want and at OSU we’ll do some of the advanced material science research that will help keep us grounded in reality. Hopefully we’ll meet somewhere in the middle with some powerful new technology we can actually build.”

More than 260 applications from around the nation competed to receive one of these new Energy Frontier Research Centers.

“We are particularly interested in tapping the imagination and creativity of the scientific community to address the fundamental questions of how nature works and to harness this new knowledge for some of our most critical real-world challenges,” Department of Energy officials said in a statement released today.

Continued funding after the initial five-year period is anticipated, federal officials said.

OSU has a wide range of new and alternative energy research initiatives under way, including efforts in new nuclear technology, less costly production of hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells, wave energy, more advanced solar energy through the use of transparent electronics, and other programs.

OSU researchers working on this project are also associated with the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, as well as the Oregon Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Center.

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John Wager,

OSU Lecture Series Features Talk on Revival of Indigenous Coastal Language

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Bud Lane, tribal council vice-chairman with the Confederated Tribes of Siletz, will speak at Oregon State University’s Gilfillan Auditorium on Wednesday, April 29, beginning at 6 p.m.

Lane, who also is the tribe’s language and traditional arts instructor, will speak on “A Discussion of the History and Status of the Athabaskan Language” as part of an ongoing series on Native American philosophies. The event is free and open to the public.

Lane has been directly involved for many years in revitalizing the coastal Athabaskan language. Although coastal Athabaskan historically had been the dominant language on the Siletz Reservation, by the early 1970s a severe decline began as elder speakers died. This decline became a concern for the Siletz, and in the early 1990s tribal members began to document and teach the language and Lane was a key part of this effort.

He teaches community language classes in the four Siletz tribal area offices, as well as at Siletz Valley School, and works with the Siletz Head Start program.

Lane is working on a coastal Athabaskan Talking Language Dictionary, which will be Web-based.

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Kurt Peters,

OSU To Head Major National Program to Study Health Risks of “PAH” Toxins

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University has been chosen as the home of a new Superfund Basic Research Program, and will use a $12.4 million, four-year grant to study the health risks and impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – an increasing health risk due to air pollution coming from Asia.

The grant, which was just announced by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, will primarily support a range of new studies by scientists from OSU and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, but should ultimately involve the efforts of dozens of researchers across Oregon and Washington.

The new program will join only 14 others similar to it in the United States. Such awards are highly sought, often result in other major funding, and reflect the caliber of interdisciplinary research being done at OSU and its Pacific Northwest partner institutions, officials said.

“To be selected for a program such as this is really a crown jewel for the university,” said Craig Marcus, professor and chair of the OSU Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology. “The health risks posed by PAHs are a real concern for humans, since they can cause cancer and emissions of them are increasing. We’re going to do the basic research on those health concerns that will help policy makers better address the risks they pose.”

The title of the new grant, “PAHs: New Technologies and Emerging Health Risks,” reflects an international concern about these contaminants, not only from local sources but the billion of tons of coal now being burned each year in Asia, causing air pollution that is reaching the United States in less than a week.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the natural result of many forms of combustion, including diesel engines, automotive exhaust, coal burning, grilling of meat and even the smoking of cigarettes. They’ve been studied for years and their impacts had been thought to be declining until just lately, with the huge industrialization of Asia.

“A lot of people thought these types of toxins were in decline, like DDT and PCBs,” said David Williams, a professor of environmental and molecular toxicology at OSU, who will direct the new program. “But that’s not really the case with PAHs. They are a contaminant at more than 8,000 sites in the U.S. and at least 15 million people live within a mile of one of these sites. And that doesn’t even consider the increasing problems from foreign countries.”

The burning of coal in Asia, experts say, is a major cause of PAH emissions, which can sweep across the Pacific Ocean in less than a week, in the process becoming even more toxic and carcinogenic through photochemical reactions. Experts now estimate that 25-30 percent of the particulate matter in the Los Angeles Basin is not from local sources, but from Asia.

OSU researchers have done studies on PAH toxicity for years. Some of the most recent work includes research on air samples taken in 2008 in China during the Beijing Olympic Games. Samples of PAH contaminants found on Oregon’s Mount Bachelor have been tracked back to China, Japan and other areas. And a recent OSU study in the Linus Pauling Institute concluded that exposure of a fetus to PAHs during the late stages of pregnancy may be even more harmful than exposure after birth, causing long-lasting genetic damage that could lead to cancer in childhood, young adulthood or even middle age.

The new grant will initially support studies on six general topics:

• Impact of PAHs as a skin carcinogen and toxin that can cross the placental barrier;
• Predicting the movement and ultimate fate of these toxins within the body;
• Studies on the reproductive toxicity of PAHs, including birth defects, neurological and behavioral effects;
• Creation of a sampling device to monitor PAHs in such sites as the Willamette River and Portland Harbor superfund site;
• Studies on the potential environmental health impacts of nanomaterials;
• Research on PAH effects in highly exposed populations, such as China.

The project will also include a translational and community outreach component to bring its findings to the attention of other scientists and the general public, officials said.

The Superfund Basic Research Program began in 1986, with goals that include detecting hazardous substances in the environment, evaluating their effects on human health, and developing biological, chemical and physical methods to reduce the amount and toxicity of hazardous substances.

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Craig Marcus,