OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

engineering and technology

Agility Robotics evolves from OSU research, aims to revolutionize robot mobility

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The rapidly expanding robotics program in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University has spun off one of its first businesses, a company focused on legged locomotion that may revolutionize robot mobility and enable robots to go anywhere people can go.

The firm, Agility Robotics, is based in Albany, Oregon, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; already has several of its first customers; will license some technologies first developed at OSU, and plans to build on this scientific foundation in their product research and development.

A leading application for this type of mobility is package delivery, company officials say. In the long term, advanced mobility will enable shipping so automated and inexpensive that its cost becomes inconsequential, opening vast new possibilities in retail trade while lowering costs for manufacturing and production.

“This technology will simply explode at some point, when we create vehicles so automated and robots so efficient that deliveries and shipments are almost free,” said Jonathan Hurst, an associate professor of robotics in the OSU College of Engineering, chief technology officer at Agility Robotics and an international leader in the development of legged locomotion.

“Quite simply, robots with legs can go a lot of places that wheels cannot. This will be the key to deliveries that can be made 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, by a fleet of autonomous vans that pull up to your curb, and an onboard robot that delivers to your doorstep.

“This robot capability will free people from weekend shopping chores, reduce energy use, and give consumers more time to do the things they want to do. It effectively brings efficient automated logistics from state-of-the-art warehouses out and into the rest of the world.”

This long-term vision will take many steps, company officials said.

Some of Agility Robotics’ first sales will be to other academic and research institutions, to grow the research community and educate a new generation of engineers in this area, company officials said. What the firm now offers is a bipedal robot named “Cassie” – similar to the prototype version demonstrated Feb. 8 at OSU’s State of the University address in Portland, Oregon, by President Edward J. Ray.

Cassie the robot can stand, steer, and take a pretty good fall without breaking. It’s half the weight and much more capable than earlier robots developed at OSU.

“Our previous robot, ATRIAS, had motors that would work against either other, which was inefficient,” Hurst said. “With Cassie, we’ve fixed this problem and added steering, feet, and a sealed system, so it will work outdoors in the rain and snow as we continue with our controller testing.”

The particular issue of motors working against one another prompted some extensive theoretical research, to create the mathematical frameworks needed to solve the problem. The resulting leg configuration of Cassie looks much like an ostrich or other ground-running bird.

“We weren’t trying to duplicate the appearance of an animal, just the techniques it uses to be agile, efficient and robust in its movement,” Hurst said.

“We didn’t care what it looked like and were mostly just working to find out why Mother Nature did things a certain way. But even though we weren’t trying to mimic the form, what came out on the other end of our research looked remarkably like an animal leg.”

Cassie, built with a 16-month, $1 million grant from the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, is already one of the leading innovations in the world of legged robotics.

Company officials say they plan to do all initial production in Oregon and will focus their business on the commercial applications of legged robots. Hiring is anticipated for research, production and development.

“The robotics revolution will bring with it enormous changes, perhaps sooner than many people realize,” Hurst said. “We hope for Agility Robotics to be a big part of that revolution. We want to change people’s lives and make them better.”

 

Company officials said that access to the research base and education of students at OSU will aid its growth, providing the needed expertise and trained work force. OSU has already been ranked by Grad School Hub as the best in the western United States and fourth leading program in the nation in robotics research and education.

Last month, OSU officials also announced that the university will be a founding academic partner in the newest Manufacturing USA Institute, the Advance Robotics Manufacturing Innovation Hub. This broad program with 14 institutes is a $3 billion federal and private company initiative designed to enhance U.S. competitiveness in advanced manufacturing.

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Jonathan Hurst, 541-737-7010

jonathan.hurst@oregonstate.edu

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Cassie the robot
Cassie the robot

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Off-grid power in remote areas will require special business model to succeed

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Low-cost, off-grid solar energy could provide significant economic benefit to people living in some remote areas, but a new study suggests they generally lack the access to financial resources, commercial institutions and markets needed to bring solar electricity to their communities.

Around the world, more than 1.2 billion people lack access to basic electricity service. The majority of those people are living in developing nations, in rural or isolated areas with high rates of poverty. Steep costs and remote terrain often make it impractical or even impossible to extend the electric grid. 

Developing a successful business model that could deliver off-grid power to this market will require addressing challenges unique to the population, an Oregon State University researcher concluded in a study published recently in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

“Surviving and growing in this market is very different than in a typical commercial enterprise,” said Inara Scott, an assistant professor in the College of Business. “There are a lot of people working on off-grid solar products on the small scale, but the problem becomes how can they scale the programs up and make them profitable?” 

When rural, isolated communities do gain access to solar power, the impact on residents can be profound, Scott said. Children are more likely to go to and complete schooling, because they have light to study by. Kerosene lamps, which create a lot of indoor air pollution, are no longer needed, improving people’s health. And work hours are increased, giving people more time to earn money or build home-based businesses.

“Providing electricity starts an incredible cycle of improvement for communities without reliance on charities or government aid,” she said. “There are also environmental benefits to encouraging sustainable development using renewable resources.” 

The market for small solar lighting and charging units has grown dramatically in the last few years, and solar home systems offer cleaner, safer and cheaper lighting over time than kerosene, the primary alternative for lighting in developing nations. But even a small cost can be out of reach for people whose annual incomes are often less than $3,000 per year, Scott said.

She examined successful business models for serving these populations, known as “base of the pyramid” markets, and successful renewable energy enterprises, looking for intersections that might aid businesses looking to market solar energy to base-of-pyramid markets. 

Scott found that a successful enterprise would include four primary components, and she developed a framework around them. Her recommendations:

  • Community interaction: Work with local communities to understand local norms, culture, social issues and economic systems that might influence the effort.
  • Partnerships: Join forces with other companies, government organizations, non-profit groups or non-governmental organizations to share ideas and resources and gain support.
  • Local capacity building: People in the community may lack product knowledge and have little experience with technology, while the community may not have typical distribution channels. Consider the potential customers as both producers and consumers, training local entrepreneurs as distributors, marketers and equipment installation/repair technicians.
  • Barriers unique to the off-grid market: Address issues such as financing of upfront costs, which may be prohibitive to consumers; educate people on the products and their benefits; build trust in quality and reliability; and develop multiple strong distribution networks.

“You’re not going to be successful just trying to sell a product,” she said. “This is really a social enterprise, with the goal of trying to bring people out of poverty while also emphasizing sustainable development.” 

There are a lot of socially-minded enterprises with good intentions that would like to work in these rural, remote and high-poverty areas, Scott noted. Her framework could serve as a checklist of sorts for organizations looking to put their ideas into action, she said.

“It’s a way to pause for a minute and ask yourself if you have all the right pieces in place to be successful,” she said.

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Inara Scott, 541-737-4102, Inara.Scott@oregonstate.edu

Advance in intense pulsed light sintering opens door to improved electronics manufacturing

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Faster production of advanced, flexible electronics is among the potential benefits of a discovery by researchers at Oregon State University’s College of Engineering.

Taking a deeper look at photonic sintering of silver nanoparticle films – the use of intense pulsed light, or IPL, to rapidly fuse functional conductive nanoparticles – scientists uncovered a relationship between film temperature and densification. Densification in IPL increases the density of a nanoparticle thin-film or pattern, with greater density leading to functional improvements such as greater electrical conductivity.

The engineers found a temperature turning point in IPL despite no change in pulsing energy, and discovered that this turning point appears because densification during IPL reduces the nanoparticles’ ability to absorb further energy from the light.

This previously unknown interaction between optical absorption and densification creates a new understanding of why densification levels off after the temperature turning point in IPL, and further enables large-area, high-speed IPL to realize its full potential as a scalable and efficient manufacturing process.

Rajiv Malhotra, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at OSU, and graduate student Shalu Bansal conducted the research. The results were recently published in Nanotechnology.

“For some applications we want to have maximum density possible,” Malhotra said. “For some we don’t. Thus, it becomes important to control the densification of the material. Since densification in IPL depends significantly on the temperature, it is important to understand and control temperature evolution during the process. This research can lead to much better process control and equipment design in IPL.”

Intense pulsed light sintering allows for faster densification – in a matter of seconds – over larger areas compared to conventional sintering processes such as oven-based and laser-based. IPL can potentially be used to sinter nanoparticles for applications in printed electronics, solar cells, gas sensing and photocatalysis.

Earlier research showed that nanoparticle densification begins above a critical optical fluence per pulse but that it does not change significantly beyond a certain number of pulses.

This OSU study explains why, for a constant fluence, there is a critical number of pulses beyond which the densification levels off.

“The leveling off in density occurs even though there’s been no change in the optical energy and even though densification is not complete,” Malhotra said. “It occurs because of the temperature history of the nanoparticle film, i.e. the temperature turning point. The combination of fluence and pulses needs to be carefully considered to make sure you get the film density you want.”

A smaller number of high-fluence pulses quickly produces high density. For greater density control, a larger number of low-fluence pulses is required.

“We were sintering in around 20 seconds with a maximum temperature of around 250 degrees Celsius in this work,” Malhotra. “More recent work we have done can sinter within less than two seconds and at much lower temperatures, down to around 120 degrees Celsius. Lower temperature is critical to flexible electronics manufacturing. To lower costs, we want to print these flexible electronics on substrates like paper and plastic, which would burn or melt at higher temperatures. By using IPL, we should be able to create production processes that are both faster and cheaper, without a loss in product quality.”

Products that could evolve from the research, Malhotra said, are radiofrequency identification tags, a wide range of flexible electronics, wearable biomedical sensors, and sensing devices for environmental applications.

The advance in IPL resulted from a four-year, $1.5 million National Science Foundation Scalable Nanomanufacturing Grant in collaboration with OSU researchers Chih-hung Chang, Alan Wang and Greg Herman. The grant focuses on overcoming scientific barriers to industry-level nanomanufacturing. Support also came from the Murdock Charitable Trust and the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute.

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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unsintered and sintered

Unsintered, left, and sintered nanoparticles

Chemical trickery corrals ‘hyperactive’ metal-oxide cluster

CORVALLIS, Ore. – After decades of eluding researchers because of chemical instability, key metal-oxide clusters have been isolated in water, a significant advance for growing the clusters with the impeccable control over atoms that’s required to manufacture small features in electronic circuits.

Oregon State University chemists created the aqueous cluster formation process. It yielded a polyoxocation of zinc, aluminum and chromium that is not protected by the organic ligand shell that is usually required to capture such molecules from water.

“Our discovery is exciting in that it provides both new fundamental understanding and new materials, and useful applications are always built on a foundation of fundamental understanding,” said May Nyman, a professor of chemistry at Oregon State.

Metal oxides – compounds produced when metals combine with oxygen – serve a variety of important purposes. For example, titanium dioxide is a catalyst that degrades pollutants, and aluminum oxides and iron oxides are coagulants used as the first step in purifying drinking water.

“Metal oxides influence processes everywhere,” Nyman said. “They control the spread of contaminants in the environment. They are the touchscreen of your cellphone. The metal-oxide cluster forms are in your body storing iron and in plants controlling photosynthesis. Most of these processes are in water. Yet scientists still know so little about how these metal oxides operate in nature, or how we can make them with the absolute control needed for high-performance materials in energy applications.” 

Results of the research by the OSU College of Science’s Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry were recently published in the journal Chem.

“We devised some synthetic processes so we can trick the clusters into forming,” Nyman said. “The main thing that we do is control the chemistry so the clusters grow not in the solution where they are highly reactive, but only at the surface, where the water evaporates and they instantly crystallize into a solid phase. Once in the solid phase, there’s no danger of reacting and precipitating metal oxide or hydroxide in an uncontrolled way.”

The clusters created in the research are spherical, contain about 100 atoms, and measure 1 nanometer across.

“Once we have synthesized these, we can prepare a solution of them, and they’re all exactly the same size and contain the same number of atoms,” Nyman said. “This gives us control over making very small features.

“The size of the feature is controlled by the size of the cluster. All metals on the periodic table act differently, and only a few have the right chemistry that behaves well enough to yield these clusters. For the rest of them, we need to innovate new chemistries to discover their cluster forms. The transition metals are particularly hard to control, yet they are earth-abundant and some of the most important metals in energy and environmental technologies.”

Metal-oxo clusters are usually isolated from water with ligands – molecules that protect the cluster surface and prevent precipitation of metal hydroxides.

In this study, an OSU team that included graduate students Lauren Fullmer, Sara Goberna-Ferron and Lev Zakharov overcame the need for ligands with a three-pronged strategy: pH-driven hydrolysis by oxidative dissolution of zinc; metal nitrate concentrations 10 times higher than conventional syntheses; and azeotropic evaporation for driving simultaneous cluster assembly and crystallization at the surface of the solution.

Meanwhile, the team’s computational collaborators in Catalonia provided a deeper understanding of the most stable arrangement of metal and oxygen atoms in the cluster.

“Contrary to common cluster growth, the fully assembled cluster is never detected in the reaction solution,” Nyman said. “Because the reactive clusters do not persist in solution, uncontrolled precipitation of metal hydroxide is avoided. In this sense, we have discovered a new way metal oxides can grow.”

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Metal-oxide crystals

Glucose-monitoring contact lens would feature transparent sensor

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Type 1 diabetes patients may one day be able to monitor their blood glucose levels and even control their insulin infusions via a transparent sensor on a contact lens, a new Oregon State University study suggests.

The sensor uses a nanostructured transistor – specifically an amorphous indium gallium oxide field effect transistor, or IGZO FET – that can detect subtle glucose changes in physiological buffer solutions, such as the tear fluid in eyes.

Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, can lead to serious health complications unless glucose levels are carefully controlled. Problems can include retinopathy, blindness, neuropathy, kidney and cardiac disease.

Researchers in the OSU College of Engineering say sensors they fabricated using the IGZO FET will be able to transmit real-time glucose information to a wearable pump that delivers the hormones needed to regulate blood sugar: insulin and glucagon.

The sensor and pump would, in effect, act as an artificial pancreas.

“We have fully transparent sensors that are working,” said Greg Herman, an OSU professor of chemical engineering and corresponding author on this study. “What we want to do next is fully develop the communication aspect, and we want to use the entire contact lens as real estate for sensing and communications electronics.

“We can integrate an array of sensors into the lens and also test for other things: stress hormones, uric acid, pressure sensing for glaucoma, and things like that. We can monitor many compounds in tears – and since the sensor is transparent, it doesn’t obstruct vision; more real estate is available for sensing on the contact lens.”

The FET’s closely packed, hexagonal, nanostructured network resulted from complimentary patterning techniques that have the potential for low-cost fabrication. Those techniques include colloidal nanolithography and electrohydrodynamic printing, or e-jet, which is somewhat like an inkjet printer that creates much finer drop sizes and works with biological materials instead of ink.

The findings by postdoctoral scholar Xiaosong Du, visiting scholar Yajuan Li and,Herman were recently published online in the journal Nanoscale. The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation provided primary funding for the research.

Google has been working on a glucose-monitoring contact lens but its version is not fully transparent.

“It’s an amperometric sensor and you can see the chips -- that means it has to be off to the side of the contact lens,” Herman said. “Another issue is the signal is dependent on the size of the sensor and you can only make it so small or you won’t be able to get a usable signal. With an FET sensor, you can actually make it smaller and enhance the output signal by doing this.”

This research builds on earlier work by Herman and other OSU engineers that developed a glucose sensor that could be wrapped around a catheter, such as one used to administer insulin from a pump.

“A lot of type 1 diabetics don’t wear a pump,” Herman said. “Many are still managing with blood droplets on glucose strips, then using self-injection. Even with the contact lens, someone could still manage their diabetes with self-injection. The sensor could communicate with your phone to warn you if your glucose was high or low.”

The transparent FET sensors, Herman said, might ultimately be used for cancer detection, by sensing characteristic biomarkers of cancer risk. Their high sensitivity could also measure things such as pulse rate, oxygen levels, and other aspects of health monitoring that require precise control.

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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3D AFM

Transistor's nanostructure

Grand opening of Johnson Hall planned at OSU

CORVALLIS, Ore. — Johnson Hall, a new, $40 million College of Engineering facility that will be home to the School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University, will celebrate its grand opening on Sept. 23.

Johnson Hall’s 58,000-square-foot interior includes a 125-seat lecture hall, state-of-the-art research and teaching laboratories, and a center focused on improving recruitment and retention of engineering students.

The three-story structure is supported by five, 52-foot, freestanding concrete shear walls, engineered to withstand earthquakes and winds up to 90 mph. This design also enabled the placement of many large windows, which supply ample natural light throughout the building. The open, bright aesthetic is continued inside, with floor-to-ceiling glass walls.

“The transparent glass walls to the labs make research visible to anyone walking by, and the open floor plan concept encourages interest, innovation, and interdisciplinary collaboration,” said Scott Ashford, Kearney Professor and dean of OSU’s College of Engineering. “I look forward to the research made possible here.”

The building is named for longtime College of Engineering supporters Peter and Rosalie Johnson. Pete Johnson, a 1955 chemical engineering alumnus, revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment with his patented invention for making battery separator envelopes. The Johnsons committed $7 million to begin construction of the new facility, leveraging an earlier gift of $10 million from an anonymous donor and $3 million in additional private funds, matched by $20 million in state funds.

“This beautiful new facility honors the Johnson family and the many contributions they have made to the College of Engineering,” Ashford said. “We are so pleased to carry on Pete’s legacy of innovation by dedicating this space to collaborative research and hands-on learning for students.”

James Sweeney, head of the School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, said the building will foster the school’s continued growth and will further accomplishments in research and education.

“Johnson Hall will increase our reputation and standing among our peer institutions, and it will help us to continue to attract the top faculty and students to OSU,” Sweeney said. “It will provide them with the tools they need to make high impact on Oregon, across our country, and around the world.”

The grand opening, which is free and open to the public, will begin with a ceremony from 3:30-4 p.m. in front of Johnson Hall, at the intersection of S.W. Park Terrace Place and Monroe Street in Corvallis. Speakers will include OSU President Edward J. Ray, college officials, representatives of the Johnson family, and State Sen. Sara Gelser. Visitors will be invited to tour the building immediately following the ceremony.

Johnson Hall was designed by architecture firm SRG Partnership. It was built by Hoffman Construction, led by OSU College of Engineering alumni Kevin Cady ’84, senior operations manager; and Nathan Moore ’10, project manager.

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Keith Hautala, 541-737-1478

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James Sweeney, 541-737-3769

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Johnson Hall
Johnson Hall

johnsonsouth

New technology could improve use of small-scale hydropower in developing nations

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Engineers at Oregon State University have created a new computer modeling package that people anywhere in the world could use to assess the potential of a stream for small-scale, “run of river” hydropower, an option to produce electricity that’s of special importance in the developing world.

The system is easy to use; does not require data that is often unavailable in foreign countries or remote locations; and can consider hydropower potential not only now, but in the future as projected changes in climate and stream runoff occur.

OSU experts say that people, agencies or communities interested in the potential for small-scale hydropower development can much more easily and accurately assess whether it would meet their current and future energy needs.

Findings on the new assessment tool have been published in Renewable Energy, in work supported by the National Science Foundation.

“These types of run-of-river hydropower developments have a special value in some remote, mountainous regions where electricity is often scarce or unavailable,” said Kendra Sharp, the Richard and Gretchen Evans Professor in Humanitarian Engineering in the OSU College of Engineering.

“There are parts of northern Pakistan, for instance, where about half of rural homes don’t have access to electricity, and systems such as this are one of the few affordable ways to produce it. The strength of this system is that it will be simple for people to use, and it’s pretty accurate even though it can work with limited data on the ground.”

The new technology was field-tested at a 5-megawatt small-scale hydropower facility built in the early 1980s on Falls Creek in the central Oregon Cascade Range. At that site, it projected that future climate changes will shift its optimal electricity production from spring to winter and that annual hydropower potential will slightly decrease from the conditions that prevailed from 1980-2010.

Small-scale hydropower, researchers say, continues to be popular because it can be developed with fairly basic and cost-competitive technology, and does not require large dams or reservoirs to function. Although all forms of power have some environmental effects, this approach has less impact on fisheries or stream ecosystems than major hydroelectric dams. Hydroelectric power is also renewable and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

One of the most basic approaches is diverting part of a stream into a holding basin, which contains a self-cleaning screen that prevents larger debris, insects, fish and objects from entering the system. The diverted water is then channeled to and fed through a turbine at a lower elevation before returning the water to the stream.

The technology is influenced by the seasonal variability of stream flow, the “head height,” or distance the water is able to drop, and other factors. Proper regulations to maintain minimum needed stream flow can help mitigate environmental impacts.

Most previous tools used to assess specific sites for their small-scale hydropower potential have not been able to consider the impacts of future changes in weather and climate, OSU researchers said, and are far too dependent on data that is often unavailable in developing nations.

This free, open source software program was developed by Thomas Mosier, who at the time was a graduate student at OSU, in collaboration with Sharp and David Hill, an OSU associate professor of coastal and ocean engineering. It is now available to anyone on request by contacting Kendra.sharp@oregonstate.edu

This system will allow engineers and policy makers to make better decisions about hydropower development and investment, both in the United States and around the world, OSU researchers said in the study.

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Kendra Sharp, 541-737-5246

kendra.sharp@oregonstate.edu

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Small scale hydropower
Small scale hydropower

OSU to issue RFI on ship project after design completion

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The design phase for a project to construct a new regional class research vessel to replenish the United States academic fleet is complete and Oregon State University will issue a request for information (RFI) on Monday, May 2, to shipyards that may be interested in the vessel construction phase.

In January 2013, the National Science Foundation selected Oregon State as the lead institution to finalize the design and coordinate the construction of the vessel – and possibly up to two more – a project considered crucial to maintaining the country’s marine science research capabilities.

The design phase has been completed by The Glosten Associates, a naval architecture firm based in Seattle, and the RFI is a chance to generate market interest and to get feedback from industry on the design and other project documents. OSU plans to issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) in two phases beginning this summer – a technical phase to establish a competitive pool of qualified shipyards and a cost phase to elicit vessel cost proposals.

“The Request for Information issued on May 2 is a chance for us to make final tweaks in the preliminary design and to open up a dialogue with industry about the project,” said Demian Bailey, Oregon State University’s former marine superintendent and a co-leader on the project. “Once we issue the RFP this summer, it will become more difficult to alter the design or other project documents.”

Although similar in size, the new ship will differ greatly from the R/V Oceanus, built in 1975 and operated by OSU, and its sister ships, Endeavor, operated by the University of Rhode Island, and Wecoma (retired), according to Clare Reimers, a professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences and project co-leader.

“This class of ships will enable researchers to work much more efficiently at sea because of better handling and stability, more capacity for instrumentation and less noise,” Reimers said. “The design also has numerous ‘green’ features, including an optimized hull form, waste heat recovery, LED lighting, and variable speed power generation.”

These “regional class research vessels” are designed for studying coastal waters out to beyond the continental rise as part of the U.S. academic fleet that is available to all ocean scientists conducting federal and state-funded research and educational programs.

Among the design features:

  • Each regional class research vessel will be 193 feet, with a range of 7,064 nautical miles;
  • Cruising speed is 11 knots with a maximum speed of 13 knots;
  • There are 16 berths for scientists and 13 for crew members;
  • The ships can stay out at sea for 21 days before coming back to port.

The 2017 President’s budget calls for building two RCRVs, but until a final budget is passed by Congress the plan is to make ready a shipyard contract to build one RCRV with options for additional vessels.

After reviewing the proposals from industry, OSU will select a shipyard in early 2017. The NSF will assume ownership of the regional class research vessels, but Oregon State expects to operate the first vessel constructed, which will conduct science missions primarily in the eastern North Pacific Ocean basin.

Additional vessels would be operated in the Atlantic and Gulf regions of the U.S. by other institutions that the NSF would select in late 2017.

“These ships will also have the ability to operate near ice and are considered ‘ice classed,’ although they are not ice-breakers,” Bailey said. The first ship will likely be delivered in 2020.

More information about the project, including renderings, is available at: http://ceoas.oregonstate.edu/ships/rcrv/

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Demian Bailey, 541-737-0460, dbailey@coas.oregonstate.edu;

Clare Reimers, 541-737-2426, creimers@coas.oregonstate.edu

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This image of the ship is available at: https://flic.kr/p/FGRCR8

Tooth fillings of the future may incorporate bioactive glass

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A few years from now millions of people around the world might be walking around with an unusual kind of glass in their mouth, and using it every time they eat.

Engineers at Oregon State University have made some promising findings about the ability of “bioactive” glass to help reduce the ability of bacteria to attack composite tooth fillings – and perhaps even provide some of the minerals needed to replace those lost to tooth decay.

Prolonging the life of composite tooth fillings could be an important step forward for dental treatment, the researchers say, since more than 122 million composite tooth restorations are made in the United States every year. An average person uses their teeth for more than 600,000 “chews” a year, and some studies suggest the average lifetime of a posterior dental composite is only six years.

The new research was just published in the journal Dental Materials, in work supported by the National Institutes of Health.

“Bioactive glass, which is a type of crushed glass that is able to interact with the body, has been used in some types of bone healing for decades,” said Jamie Kruzic, a professor and expert in advanced structural and biomaterials in the OSU College of Engineering.

“This type of glass is only beginning to see use in dentistry, and our research shows it may be very promising for tooth fillings,” he said. “The bacteria in the mouth that help cause cavities don’t seem to like this type of glass and are less likely to colonize on fillings that incorporate it. This could have a significant impact on the future of dentistry.”

Bioactive glass is made with compounds such as silicon oxide, calcium oxide and phosphorus oxide, and looks like powdered glass. It’s called “bioactive” because the body notices it is there and can react to it, as opposed to other biomedical products that are inert. Bioactive glass is very hard and stiff, and it can replace some of the inert glass fillers that are currently mixed with polymers to make modern composite tooth fillings.

“Almost all fillings will eventually fail,” Kruzic said. “New tooth decay often begins at the interface of a filling and the tooth, and is called secondary tooth decay. The tooth is literally being eroded and demineralized at that interface.”

Bioactive glass may help prolong the life of fillings, researchers say, because the new study showed that the depth of bacterial penetration into the interface with bioactive glass-containing fillings was significantly smaller than for composites lacking the glass.

Fillings made with bioactive glass should slow secondary tooth decay, and also provide some minerals that could help replace those being lost, researchers say. The combination of these two forces should result in a tooth filling that works just as well, but lasts longer.

Recently extracted human molars were used in this research to produce simulated tooth restoration samples for laboratory experiments. OSU has developed a laboratory that’s one of the first in the world to test simulated tooth fillings in conditions that mimic the mouth.

If this laboratory result is confirmed by clinical research, it should be very easy to incorporate bioactive glass into existing formulations for composite tooth fillings, Kruzic said.

The antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass is attributed, in part, to the release of ions such as those from calcium and phosphate that have a toxic effect on oral bacteria and tend to neutralize the local acidic environment.

“My collaborators and I have already shown in previous studies that composites containing up to 15 percent bioactive glass, by weight, can have mechanical properties comparable, or superior to commercial composites now being used,” Kruzic said.

This work was done in collaboration with researchers from the School of Dentistry at the Oregon Health & Science University and the College of Dental Medicine at Midwestern University.

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Jamie Kruzic, 541-737-7027

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Bioactive glass

Gift establishes professorship in “humanitarian engineering” at Oregon State

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University’s humanitarian engineering program has received a major boost with a $1.5 million gift creating one of the nation’s only endowed professorships in this emerging field.

OSU alumni Richard and Gretchen Evans, of Northern California, made prior gifts that helped to launch OSU’s program two years ago, responding to growing interest among engineering students in making a lasting, positive impact on the world.

Humanitarian engineering seeks science- and engineering-based solutions to improve the human condition by increasing access to basic human needs such clean water or renewable energy, enhancing quality of life, and improving community resilience, whether in face of natural disasters or economic turmoil. Although the greatest needs often lie in developing countries, needs also exist locally.

Oregon State’s program is focused on disadvantaged communities in the Pacific Northwest as well as around the world.

“The technical skills of engineering are essential, but so are abilities we might call human skills – such as communication, problem-solving, leadership and the ability to work across cultures,” said Richard Evans, an OSU College of Engineering alumnus who was president and CEO of Alcan, a Fortune-100 mining company and aluminum manufacturer based in Montreal. “The humanitarian engineering curriculum is a structured way for engineers to practice those human skills in challenging, real world settings.”

Drawing on the humanities also encourages creative solutions by “thinking outside the box,” added Gretchen Evans, an artist and interior designer who graduated from OSU’s College of Education and subsequently completed master’s courses at Legon University in Ghana, West Africa. “Listening is so important – not just believing that we know all of the answers going into every situation.”

The first Richard and Gretchen Evans Professor in Humanitarian Engineering is mechanical engineering professor Kendra Sharp, who directs the program.

“One of the things that’s most exciting about humanitarian engineering is that it captures the interest of a more diverse group of prospective students than we typically see in engineering, including a significant number of women,” Sharp said. “We are thrilled that the Evans’ gift will help us channel students’ passion for making a better world. The stability provided by this endowment will make a huge difference as we move forward.”

Oregon State’s humanitarian engineering program is grounded in a campus-wide emphasis on engaged service that springs from the university’s historic land grant mission. Multiple student organizations, including OSU’s award-winning Engineers Without Borders chapter and the American Society of Civil Engineering student chapter, have been working on water, energy and other projects in under-served Oregon communities and the developing world.

Yet in contrast to humanitarian engineering programs that are primarily an extracurricular activity, Oregon State’s is one of a handful nationwide rooted in an academic curriculum. Exemplifying OSU’s commitment to collaborative, transdisciplinary research and education, the curriculum was put together by a diverse group of faculty led by the College of Engineering but also involving the humanities, public health and education. A new undergraduate minor in humanitarian engineering will be open for enrollment in the coming year.

OSU’s humanitarian engineering program is further differentiated by residing in a university that also offers a Peace Corps Master’s International program in engineering. OSU was the first university in Oregon to join this program, which allows a graduate student to get a master’s degree while doing a full 27-month term of service in the Peace Corps. In addition to PCMI degrees in other fields, Oregon State remains one of just 10 universities nationwide to offer this degree in engineering.

College of Engineering Dean and Kearney Professor of Engineering Scott Ashford said that the humanitarian engineering professorship positions Oregon State for national leadership in this area while supporting one the college’s highest goals.

“We are dedicated to purposefully and thoughtfully increasing the diversity of our students and faculty, building a community that is inclusive, collaborative and centered on student success,” Ashford said. “This is the community that will produce locally conscious, globally aware engineers equipped to solve seemingly intractable problems and contribute to a better world. That’s the Oregon State engineer.”

Richard Evans is a senior international business adviser and director of companies including non-executive chairman of both Constellium, producer of advanced aluminum engineered products, and Noranda Aluminum Holdings, a U.S. regional aluminum producer. He is an independent director of CGI, Canada’s largest IT consulting and outsourcing company. In addition to her art, primarily in acrylics and mixed media, Gretchen Evans volunteers as an art teacher in a low-income Oakland, California, school.

Over the last decade, donors have established 81 endowed faculty positions at Oregon State, an increase of 170 percent, through gifts to the OSU Foundation. These prestigious positions help the university recruit and retain world-class leaders in teaching and research, with earnings from the endowments providing support for the faculty and creating opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in the programs as well.

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Media Contact: 

Molly Brown, 541-737-3602

Source: 

Kendra Sharp, 541-737-5246

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Sharp with the Evanses

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Sharp in India