OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

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More funding for long-term studies necessary for best science, environmental policy

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Environmental scientists and policymakers value long-term research to an extent that far outstrips the amount of funding awarded for it, according to a study published today.

Graduate students and faculty members in the Oregon State University College of Science were part of a collaboration that evaluated the perceived benefits of long-term ecological and environmental studies – known as LTEES – to both researchers and those who determine environmental policy. 

The issue is particularly important because support for LTEES by agencies such as the National Science Foundation is declining even though such research is disproportionately valued in comparison to the one- to five-year studies the agencies tend to support.

The OSU group was among 36 researchers who collectively analyzed the perceived value of LTEES, which can run for multiple decades, in research published in BioScience. The evaluation noted the policymaking and scientific communities’ growing appreciation and demand for studies that last much longer than the ones typically being funded.

Specifically, the scientists found:

 

  • The greater a scientific journal’s impact factor – the frequency with which its articles are cited in other scholarly articles – the higher its percentage of articles dealing with long-term studies;
  • The longer a study lasts, the more an article about it is cited;
  • In the policy-informing ecological reports of the U.S. National Research Council, long-term environmental studies have representation that’s greater than their frequency in scientific journals;
  • The authors of those reports expressed more demand for LTEES than they did for short-term research.

 

“For a long time, ‘monitoring’ has been a word you never put in a grant proposal, simply because if you did your work was perceived as not being hypothesis-driven research,” said Mark Novak, assistant professor of integrative biology at Oregon State.

“But many environmental scientists have long known from personal experience that you can’t know the value of new events unless you’ve studied a system long enough. The relative investment in LTEES by ecologists and funders needs to be seriously reconsidered, because LTEES advance our understanding of ecology the most, and contribute disproportionately to informing policy.”

The collaboration also found that among the comparatively few long-term studies that do exist, most are limited to single species or pairs of species.

“It’s not that short-term research isn’t important,” said Bruce Menge, the Wayne and Gladys Valley Professor of Marine Biology at Oregon State. “Both short- and long-term are really valuable. A shorter term can give you a more mechanistic understanding of long-term patterns. But the longer time series you have, the more power you have to understand changes.

“Ideally short- and long-term should go hand in hand,” Menge said. “We’re hoping to provide a prod to funding agencies, and give at least those in an agency who do appreciate long-term research some ammunition for reconsidering the allocation of funds.”

Menge has been studying intertidal rocky zones at numerous sites on the Oregon coast for more than three decades, analyzing ecological processes and patterns of community structure. The intertidal community includes sea stars, whose population was nearly wiped out three years ago by an epidemic of sea star wasting disease.

“One of the consequences of the disease was a huge influx of baby sea stars after the peak of the wasting was over,” Menge said. “We wouldn’t have really known the significance of that if we hadn’t been keeping track of how abundant sea stars were over the last 20-some years. The influx would have been remarkable, but we’d have had no idea how remarkable it truly was.”

Species studied by another of Menge’s OSU colleagues, assistant professor Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, are rockfishes, important commercial fishes whose long lifespan is a challenge for researchers being funded for only a few years.

“Rockfish can live for more than 100 years,” she said. “Three years doesn’t do it for us. If we want environmental research that effectively informs policy, that means we need funding cycles – and funding agencies – to help build that long-term storehouse of science. That’s how we can meet the demand for policy-relevant data.”

Graduate students and faculty from the University of California, Santa Cruz, joined the Oregon State scientists in the collaboration.

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LTEES

Intertidal invertebrate research

Reducing pressure on predators, prey simultaneously is best for species’ recovery

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Reducing human pressure on exploited predators and prey at the same time is the best way to help their populations recover, a new study indicates.

The findings about synchronous recovery are important because historically about half the attempts at species restoration have amounted to a sequential, one-species-at-a-time tactic – usually the prey species first, then the predator.

This study suggests that a synchronous approach almost always produces a recovery that is more rapid and more direct – faster than predator-first recovery and less prone to volatile population fluctuations than prey-first recovery. Just as crucial, synchronous is also better for the humans who earn a living harvesting the two species.

Findings of the research were published today in Nature Ecology and Evolution.

“You might think the loss of income associated with reducing harvest on both species at the same time would be greater than reducing harvest on one species after another, but our work suggests that synchronous recovery is ultimately better for recovering the ecosystem, and better from an economic perspective as well,” said Mark Novak of the Oregon State University College of Science.

Because of overharvest, declines of multiple animal populations – including at least one species that consumes other harvested species – characterize many ecosystems, Novak notes.

Examples of paired population collapses wholly or partially attributable to trophy hunting, industrial fisheries or the fur trade are lions and wildebeest; Steller sea lions and Pacific herring; and mink and muskrat.

Novak, assistant professor of integrative biology, notes that in both terrestrial and marine resources management, population restoration and the setting of harvest quotas has long been a single-species endeavor.

Even in the more holistic ecosystem-based rebuilding of food webs – the interconnected chains of who eats whom – the dominant strategy has been to release pressure at the bottom, letting prey populations return to the point where they ought to sustain the top predators more readily, Novak said.

Collaborators at the National Marine Fisheries Center, including Shannon Hennessey, now a graduate student at OSU, led the study, which points out the limitations of both of these philosophies. It also highlights the room for improvement in policy tools that synchronous recovery management could fill.

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Young Steller sea lion

Steller sea lions

Scientists: Warming temperatures could trigger starvation, extinctions in deep oceans by 2100

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers from 20 of the world’s leading oceanographic research centers today warned that the world’s largest habitat – the deep ocean floor – may face starvation and sweeping ecological change by the year 2100.

Warming ocean temperatures, increased acidification and the spread of low-oxygen zones will drastically alter the biodiversity of the deep ocean floor from 200 to 6,000 meters below the surface. The impact of these ecosystems to society is just becoming appreciated, yet these environments and their role in the functioning of the planet may be altered by these sweeping impacts. 

Results of the study, which was supported by the Foundation Total and other organizations, were published this week in the journal Elementa.

“Biodiversity in many of these areas is defined by the meager amount of food reaching the seafloor and over the next 80-plus years – in certain parts of the world – that amount of food will be cut in half,” said Andrew Thurber, an Oregon State University marine ecologist and co-author on the study. “We likely will see a shift in dominance to smaller organisms. Some species will thrive, some will migrate to other areas, and many will die. 

“Parts of the world will likely have more jellyfish and squid, for example, and fewer fish and cold water corals.”

The study used the projections from 31 earth system models developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to predict how the temperature, amount of oxygen, acidity (pH) and food supply to the deep-sea floor will change by the year 2100. The authors found these models predict that deep ocean temperatures in the “abyssal” seafloor (3,000 to 6,000 meters deep) will increase as much as 0.5 to 1.0 degrees (Celsius) in the North Atlantic, Southern and Arctic oceans by 2100 compared to what they are now. 

Temperatures in the “bathyal” depths (200 to 3,000 meters deep) will increase even more – parts of this deep-sea floor are predicted to see an increase of nearly 4 degrees (C) in the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans.

“While four degrees doesn’t seem like much on land, that is a massive temperature change in these environments,” Thurber said. “It is the equivalent of having summer for the first time in thousands to millions of years.” 

The over-arching lack of food will be exacerbated by warming temperatures, Thurber pointed out.

“The increase in temperature will increase the metabolism of organisms that live at the ocean floor, meaning they will require more food at a time when less is available.” 

Most of the deep sea already experiences a severe lack of food, but it is about to become a famine, according to Andrew Sweetman, a researcher at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh and lead author on the study.

“Abyssal ocean environments, which are over 3,000 meters deep, are some of the most food-deprived regions on the planet,” Sweetman said. “These habitats currently rely on less carbon per meter-squared each year than is present in a single sugar cube. Large areas of the abyss will have this tiny amount of food halved and for a habitat that covers half the Earth, the impacts of this will be enormous.” 

The impacts on the deep ocean are unlikely to remain there, the researchers say. Warming ocean temperatures are expected to increase stratification in some areas yet increase upwelling in others. This can change the amount of nutrients and oxygen in the water that is brought back to the surface from the deep sea. This low-oxygen water can affect coastal communities, including commercial fishing industries, which harvest groundfish from the deep sea globally and especially in areas like the Pacific Coast of North America, Thurber said.

“A decade ago, we even saw low-oxygen water come shallow enough to kill vast numbers of Dungeness crabs,” Thurber pointed out. “The die-off was massive.” 

Areas most likely to be affected by the decline in food are the North and South Pacific, North and South Atlantic, and North and South Indian oceans.

“The North Atlantic in particular will be affected by warmer temperatures, acidification, a lack of food and lower oxygen,” Thurber said. “Water in the region is soaking up the carbon from the atmosphere and then sending it on its path around the globe, so it likely will be the first to feel the brunt of the changes.” 

Thurber, who is a faculty member in Oregon State’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences and the OSU College of Science, has previously published on the “services” or benefits provided by the deep ocean environments. The deep sea is important to many of the processes affecting the Earth’s climate, including acting as a “sink” for greenhouse gases and helping to offset growing amounts of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere.

These habitats are not only threatened by warm temperatures and increasing carbon dioxide; they increasingly are being used by fishing and explored by mining industries for extraction of mineral resources. 

“If we look back in Earth’s history, we can see that small changes to the deep ocean caused massive shifts in biodiversity,” Thurber said. “These shifts were driven by those same impacts that our model predict are coming in the near future. We think of the deep ocean as incredibly stable and too vast to impact, but it doesn’t take much of a deviation to create a radically altered environment.

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Andrew Thurber, 541-737-4500, athurber@coas.oregonstate.edu; Andrew Sweetman, +44 (0) 131 451 3993, a.sweetman@hw.ac.uk

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Sea pig (Image Courtesy of Ocean Networks Canada)

SeaPig

Methane seep (Image by Andrew Thurber, OSU)

CRSeep

“Late-life” genes activated by biological clock to help protect against stress, aging

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers at Oregon State University have discovered that a subset of genes involved in daily circadian rhythms, or the “biological clock,” only become active late in life or during periods of intense stress when they are most needed to help protect critical life functions.

The findings, made in research done with fruit flies and published today in Nature Communications, are part of a unique stress response mechanism that was previously unknown.

These genes may help to combat serious stresses associated with age, disease or environmental challenges, and help explain why aging is often accelerated when the biological clock is disrupted.

This group of genes, whose rhythmic activity late in life had not previously been understood, were named “late-life cyclers,” or LLCs, by former OSU graduate student and lead author of the study, Rachael Kuintzle. At least 25 such genes become rhythmic with age, and the function of some of them remains unclear.

“This class of LLC genes appear to become active and respond to some of the stresses most common in aging, such as cellular and molecular damage, oxidative stress, or even some disease states,” said Jadwiga Giebultowicz, a professor in the OSU College of Science, co-senior author on the study and international expert on the mechanisms and function of the biological clock.

“Aging is associated with neural degeneration, loss of memory and other problems, which are exacerbated if clock function is experimentally disrupted. The LLC genes are part of the natural response to that, and do what they can to help protect the nervous system.”

The increased, rhythmic expression of these genes during times of stress, scientists said, are another example of just how biologically important circadian rhythms are, as they help to regulate the activity of hundreds of genes essential to the processes of life. And as aging brings with it a host of new problems, the LLC genes become more and more active.

According to David Hendrix, an assistant professor in the OSU College of Science and College of Engineering, and co-senior author on the study, some LLC genes are known to play roles in sequestering improperly “folded” proteins or helping them refold. This could help prevent formation of protein aggregates that can lead to age-related neurodegeneration.

“Discovery of LLC genes may provide a missing link, the answer to why the disruption of circadian clocks accelerates aging symptoms,” Hendrix said.

The study also showed that intense stress at any point in life can cause some of the LLC genes to spring into action.

“In experiments where we created artificial oxidative stress in young fruit flies, the LLC genes were rhythmically activated,” said Eileen Chow, an OSU faculty research assistant and co-author. “Some of these same genes are known to be more active in people who have cancer. They appear to be a double-edged sword, necessary during times of stress but possibly harmful if activated all the time.”

Circadian rhythms, which are natural to an organism but synchronized by the light/dark cycle of a 24-hour day, are so important to life that the same genes controlling biological processes have been traced from fruit flies to humans, retained through millions of years of evolution.

These genes are found throughout the nervous system and peripheral organs, and affect everything from sleep to stress reaction, feeding patterns, DNA repair, fertility and even the effectiveness of medications.

People with routine disruptions of their circadian rhythms and sleep patterns have been found to have a shorter lifespan and be more prone to cancer.

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

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Jadwiga Giebultowicz, 541-737-5530

giebultj@science.oregonstate.edu

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More active with age
Rhythms change with age

New hydronium-ion battery presents opportunity for more sustainable energy storage

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new type of battery developed by scientists at Oregon State University shows promise for sustainable, high-power energy storage.

It’s the world’s first battery to use only hydronium ions as the charge carrier.

The new battery provides an additional option for researchers, particularly in the area of stationary storage.

Stationary storage refers to batteries in a permanent location that store grid power – including power generated from alternative energy sources such as wind turbines or solar cells – for use on a standby or emergency basis.

Hydronium, also known as H3O+, is a positively charged ion produced when a proton is added to a water molecule. Researchers in the OSU College of Science have demonstrated that hydronium ions can be reversibly stored in an electrode material consisting of perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydridem, or PTCDA.

This material is an organic, crystalline, molecular solid. The battery, created in the Department of Chemistry at Oregon State, uses dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte.

Graduate student Xingfeng Wang was the first author on the study, which has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, a publication of the German Chemical Society.

“This may provide a paradigm-shifting opportunity for more sustainable batteries,” said Xiulei Ji, assistant professor of chemistry at OSU and the corresponding author on the research. “It doesn’t use lithium or sodium or potassium to carry the charge, and just uses acid as the electrolyte. There’s a huge natural abundance of acid so it’s highly renewable and sustainable.”

Ji points out that until now, cations – ions with a positive charge – that have been used in batteries have been alkali metal, alkaline earth metals or aluminum.

“No nonmetal cations were being considered seriously for batteries,” he said.

The study observed a big dilation of the PTCDA lattice structure during intercalation – the process of its receiving ions between the layers of its structure. That meant the electrode was being charged, and the PTCDA structure expanded, by hydronium ions, rather than extremely tiny protons, which are already used in some batteries.

“Organic solids are not typically contemplated as crystalline electrode materials, but many are very crystalline, arranged in a very ordered structure,” Ji said. “This PTCDA material has a lot of internal space between its molecule constituents so it provides an opportunity for storing big ions and good capacity.”

The hydronium ions also migrate through the electrode structure with comparatively low “friction,” which translates to high power.

“It’s not going to power electric cars,” Ji said. “But it does provide an opportunity for battery researchers to go in a new direction as they look for new alternatives for energy storage, particularly for stationary grid storage.”

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hydronium-ion battery

Simulated PTCDA unit cell

Marine ecologist offers suggestions for achieving a strong, lasting ‘blue economy’

BOSTON – Incentive-based solutions offer significant hope for addressing the myriad environmental challenges facing the world’s oceans – that’s the central message a leading marine ecologist delivered today in during a presentation at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Jane Lubchenco, a distinguished professor in the Oregon State University College of Science, shared lessons from around the world about ways “to use the ocean without using it up” as nations look to the ocean for new economic opportunities, food security or poverty alleviation.

Elizabeth Cerny-Chipman, a former postdoctoral scholar under Lubchenco who’s now a Knauss Fellow at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, co-authored the presentation, titled “Getting Incentives Right for Sustained Blue Growth: Science and Opportunities.”

In her presentation, Lubchenco pointed out that achieving the long-term potential of blue growth will require aligning short- and long-term economic incentives to achieve a diverse mix of benefits. Blue growth refers to long-term strategies for supporting sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors as a whole.

“If we harness human ingenuity and recognize that a healthy ocean is essential for long-term prosperity, we can tackle the enormous threats facing the ocean,” Lubchenco says, “and we can make a transition from vicious cycles to virtuous cycles.”

Lubchenco and her collaborators note that the world’s oceans are the main source of protein production for 3 billion people; are directly or indirectly responsible for the employment of more than 200 million people; and contribute $270 billion to the planet’s gross domestic product.

“The right incentives can drive behavior that aligns with both desired environmental outcomes and desirable social outcomes,” Lubchenco says.

The first step in building increased support for truly sustainable blue growth, she says, is highlighting its potential. That means working with decision-makers to promote win-win solutions with clear short-term environmental and economic benefits. Governments, industry and communities all have important roles to play, Lubchenco notes.

“Another key step is transforming the social norms that drive the behavior of the different actors, particularly in industry,” Lubchenco says. “Finally, it will be critical to take a cross-sector approach.

“Some nations, like the Seychelles, Belize and South Africa, are doing integrated, smart planning to deconflict use by different sectors while also growing their economies in ways that value the health of the ocean, which is essential to jobs and food security. They are figuring out how to be smarter about ocean uses, not just to use the ocean more intensively.”

Prior to her presentation, Lubchenco gave a related press briefing on how to create the right incentives for sustainable uses of the ocean.

In November 2016, Lubchenco, Cerny-Chipman, OSU graduate student Jessica Reimer and Simon Levin, the distinguished university professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton University, co-authored a paper on a related topic for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Catch share

"Catch share" fisheries program

New protein could be key in fighting debilitating parasitic disease

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A naturally occurring protein has been discovered that shows promise as a biocontrol weapon against schistosomiasis, one of the world’s most prevalent parasitic diseases, Oregon State University researchers reported today in a new study.

Schistosomiasis is transmitted via flatworms shed by the freshwater snails that serve as the parasite’s non-human host. It’s a potentially life-threatening illness that affects more than 250 million people annually in tropical and subtropical countries, according to the World Health Organization.

The disease can cause frequent, painful or bloody urine; abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea; anemia; fever, chills and muscle aches; inflammation and scarring of the bladder; and enlargement of lymph nodes, the liver and the spleen.

While a drug called praziquantel is an effective treatment, there is no vaccination for schistosomiasis, and those who’ve had it develop no immunity.

But researchers in OSU’s College of Science have discovered a key new protein in a snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, that hosts and releases Schistosoma mansoni parasites that infect humans. Findings were published today in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

Known as Grctm6, the protein seems to prevent the snails from shedding at least some of the parasites that could go on to infect people working or playing in the water where the snails live.

“Shedding none would be great, but shedding fewer could still feasibly make a difference,” said the study’s corresponding author, Euan Allan, a postdoctoral scholar in the college’s Department of Integrative Biology. “If snails are releasing a smaller number of parasites into the environment, people are less likely to be infected.”

Three variants of Grctm6 naturally occur, Allan said, and one of them confers more resistance to Schistosoma than the others.

“What’s interesting about that, from kind of an eye in the sky look, is that in the future we might be able to increase prevalence of the more resistant version and create a new population of more resistant snails without actually interfering with their biological function,” Allan said. “That’s the next step.”

Attempts to control schistosomiasis by focusing on the snail hosts date to the 1950s, but earlier efforts involved either molluscicides – poisons – or the introduction of non-host snail species to eat or compete with the hosts.

 “Those approaches bring their own slew of problems,” Allan said. “We’d anticipate far fewer ecological consequences from gene-driving one of these naturally occurring proteins into a population of snails, because they’d remain natural in pretty much every other way – just instead of being more susceptible to Schistosoma, they’d be more resistant.”

Allan says it’s not yet clear if the protein makes snails less likely to pick up the parasite in the first place, more likely to have their immune system kill it, or less likely to shed it.

“It’s speculative, but our best guess is the protein helps a snail’s immune system better recognize the parasite,” he said.

“The real take-home of the work is that we’ve discovered a completely new protein that’s never been discovered in any other species. And this protein is involved in the extent of infection in an intermediate species, and potentially involved in the extent of human infection.” 

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Euan Allan, 541-737-2993

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Schistosome mansoni Schistosome mansoni, center

Disease “superspreaders” were driving cause of 2014 Ebola epidemic

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study about the overwhelming importance of “superspreaders” in some infectious disease epidemics has shown that in the catastrophic 2014-15 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, about 3 percent of the people infected were ultimately responsible for infecting 61 percent of all cases.

The issue of superspreaders is so significant, scientists say, that it’s important to put a better face on just who these people are. It might then be possible to better reach them with public health measures designed to control the spread of infectious disease during epidemics.

Findings were reported this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers concluded that Ebola superspreaders often fit into certain age groups and were based more in the community than in health care facilities. They also continued to spread the disease after many of the people first infected had been placed in care facilities, where transmission was much better controlled.

If superspreading had been completely controlled, almost two thirds of the infections might have been prevented, scientists said in the study. The researchers also noted that their findings were conservative, since they only focused on people who had been buried safely.

This suggests that the role of superspreaders may have been even more profound than this research indicates.

The research was led by Princeton University, in collaboration with scientists from Oregon State University, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Imperial College London, and the National Institutes of Health.

The concept of superspreaders is not new, researchers say, and it has evolved during the 2000s as scientists increasingly appreciate that not all individuals play an equal role in spreading an infectious disease.

Superspreaders, for instance, have also been implicated in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, in 2003; and the more recent Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012.

But there’s less understanding of who and how important these superspreaders are.

“In the recent Ebola outbreak it’s now clear that superspreaders were an important component in driving the epidemic,” said Benjamin Dalziel, an assistant professor of population biology in two departments of the College of Science at Oregon State University, and co-author of the study.

“We now see the role of superspreaders as larger than initially suspected. There wasn’t a lot of transmission once people reached hospitals and care centers. Because case counts during the epidemic relied heavily on hospital data, those hospitalized cases tended to be the cases we ‘saw.’

“However, it was the cases you didn’t see that really drove the epidemic, particularly people who died at home, without making it to a care center. In our analysis we were able to see a web of transmission that would often track back to a community-based superspreader.”

Superspreading has already been cited in many first-hand narratives of Ebola transmission. This study, however, created a new statistical framework that allowed scientists to measure how important the phenomenon was in driving the epidemic. It also allowed them to measure how superspreading changed over time, as the epidemic progressed, and as control measures were implemented.

The outbreak size of the 2014 Ebola epidemic in Africa was unprecedented, and early control measures failed. Scientists believe that a better understanding of superspreading might allow more targeted and effective interventions instead of focusing on whole populations.

“As we can learn more about these infection pathways, we should be better able to focus on the types of individual behavior and demographics that are at highest risk for becoming infected, and transmitting infection,” Dalziel said.

Researchers pointed out, for instance, that millions of dollars were spent implementing message strategies about Ebola prevention and control across entire countries. They suggest that messages tailored to individuals with higher risk and certain types of behavior may have been more successful, and prevented the epidemic from being so persistent.

Lead author on the study was Max Lau, a postdoctoral research associate at Princeton University focused on applying statistical methodology in epidemiological and ecological modelling. at Princeton University. Support and funding was provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the UK Medical Research Council.

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Benjamin Dalziel, 541-737-1979

benjamin.dalziel@oregonstate.edu

Leading marine researcher says scientists must speak, reach out and integrate into society

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A leading global marine ecologist today called on scientists to increasingly engage the public by demonstrating the value of their research.

Jane Lubchenco, a distinguished university professor in the Oregon State University College of Science and advisor in marine studies for the university, urged this action during a time in which she said scientific facts are being called into question.

She made the points in a commentary titled “Environmental Science in a Post-Truth World” published today in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, the journal of the Ecological Society of America.

“Access to information, and critical thinking, are essential for an informed democracy,” Lubchenco says. “A post-truth world, a U.S. cabinet full of climate deniers, suppression of science and scientists all threaten – seriously threaten – our democracy. Resistance is appropriate, but now, more than ever, scientists also need to engage meaningfully with society to address intertwined environmental and societal problems.”

Lubchenco, an internationally recognized expert on marine ecology, environmental science and climate change, is urging researchers to act boldly and creatively to counteract what she called a “pervasive” dismissal of facts exemplified by President Trump’s labeling of climate change as a hoax.

She outlines three parallel approaches for scientists to “rise to the occasion, find solutions and help create a better world”:

1)    Demonstrate the merits of science by making it accessible, which includes eschewing jargon in favor of plain language and acting in such a way that shows scientists are warm, caring human beings;

2)    Provide hope by highlighting successes, creating even more successes, and figuring out how to bring them to a meaningful scale;

3)    Modify academic reward structures to incentivize public engagement as a core responsibility.

Lubchenco, a former administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2009-13) and the first U.S. Science Envoy for the Ocean (2014-16), makes those points and others in her invited editorial.

She says facts are losing ground to appeals to emotion and personal belief in the shaping of public opinion. Lubchenco sounds a clarion call for the scientific community to do everything in its power to stand up for science and also to make research findings understandable, credible, relevant and accessible.

That includes, Lubchenco says, “getting off our lofty perches and being more integrated into society.”

“Fortunately, many politicians and other citizens still believe that decisions based on science are better decisions than those not based on science,” says Lubchenco, past president of the Ecological Society of America, the nation’s largest professional society of ecologists.

The challenges of the post-truth era demand that scientists serve in a way that responds to needs through interactions with citizens based on humility, transparency and respect, she says.

“Now’s the time for all scientists to take a quantum leap into greater relevance by helping people to understand how important our work really is,” Lubchenco says. “For example, the world has finally begun to make tangible progress in addressing climate change. We can’t let a post-truth mentality derail that or the other things we do to improve people’s lives.”

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Jane Lubchenco 1

Jane Lubchenco

Globe-trotting pollutants raise some cancer risks four times higher than predicted

CORVALLIS, Ore. -- A new way of looking at how pollutants ride through the atmosphere has quadrupled the estimate of global lung cancer risk from a pollutant caused by combustion, to a level that is now double the allowable limit recommended by the World Health Organization.

The findings, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition online, showed that tiny floating particles can grow semi-solid around pollutants, allowing them to last longer and travel much farther than what previous global climate models predicted.

Scientists said the new estimates more closely match actual measurements of the pollutants from more than 300 urban and rural settings.

The study was done by scientists at Oregon State University, the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, or PNNL, and Peking University. The research was primarily supported by PNNL.

"We developed and implemented new modeling approaches based on laboratory measurements to include shielding of toxics by organic aerosols, in a global climate model that resulted in large improvements of model predictions," said PNNL scientist and lead author Manish Shrivastava.

"This work brings together theory, lab experiments and field observations to show how viscous organic aerosols can largely elevate global human exposure to toxic particles, by shielding them from chemical degradation in the atmosphere."

Pollutants from fossil fuel burning, forest fires and biofuel consumption include air-polluting chemicals known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has identified several PAHs as cancer-causing agents.

But PAHs have been difficult to represent in past climate models. Simulations of their degradation process fail to match the amount of PAH that is actually measured in the environment.

To look more closely at how far PAHs can travel while riding shielded on a viscous aerosol, the researchers compared the new model's numbers to PAH concentrations actually measured by Oregon State University scientists at the top of Mount Bachelor in the central Oregon Cascade Range.

“Our team found that the predictions with the new shielded models of PAHs came in at concentrations similar to what we measured on the mountain,” said Staci Simonich, a toxicologist and chemist in the College of Agricultural Sciences and College of Science at OSU, and international expert on the transport of PAHs.

“The level of PAHs we measured on Mount Bachelor was four times higher than previous models had predicted, and there’s evidence the aerosols came all the way from the other side of the Pacific Ocean.”

These tiny airborne particles form clouds, cause precipitation and reduce air quality, yet they are the most poorly understood aspect of the climate system.

A smidge of soot at their core, aerosols are tiny balls of gases, pollutants, and other molecules that coalesce around the core. Many of the molecules that coat the core are what's known as "organics." They arise from living matter such as vegetation -- leaves and branches, for example, or even the molecule responsible for the pine smell that wafts from forests.

Other molecules such as pollutant PAHs also stick to the aerosol. Researchers long thought that PAHs could move freely within the organic coating of an aerosol. This ease of movement allowed the PAH to travel to the surface where ozone -- a common chemical in the atmosphere -- can break it down.

But scientists' understanding of aerosols has changed in the last five years or so.

Recent experiments led by PNNL coauthor Alla Zelenyuk show that, depending on the conditions, the aerosol coatings can actually be quite viscous. If the atmosphere is cool and dry, the coating can become as viscous as tar, trapping PAHs and other chemicals. By preventing their movement, the viscous coating shields the PAHs from degradation.

Researchers developed a new way of representing PAHs in a global climate model, and ran it to simulate PAH concentrations from 2008 to 2010. They examined one of the most carcinogenic PAHs in particular, called BaP. Simulations were compared to data from 69 rural sites and 294 urban sites worldwide, and showed that predictions from shielded PAHs were far more accurate than previous, unshielded ones.

Scientists also analyzed how far the protected PAHs could travel, using both old and new models. In all cases, the shielded PAHs traveled across oceans and continents, whereas in the previous version they barely moved from their country of origin.

To look at the impact globe-trotting PAHs might have on human health, Shrivastava combined a global climate model, running either the shielded PAH scenario or the previous unshielded one, with a lifetime cancer risk assessment model developed by coauthors Huizhong Shen and Shu Tao, both then at Peking University.

Globally, the previous model predicted half a cancer death out of every 100,000 people, which is half the limit outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PAH exposure. But using the new model, which showed that shielded PAHs actually travel great distances, the global risk was four times that, or two cancer deaths per 100,000 people, which exceeds WHO standards.

The WHO standards were not exceeded everywhere. It was higher in China and India and lower in the United States and Western Europe. The extent of shielding was also much lower over the tropics compared to the mid- and high-latitudes. As the aerosols traversed the warm and humid tropics, ozone could get access to the PAHs and oxidize them.

"We don't know what implications more PAH oxidation products over the tropics have for future human or environmental health risk assessments,” said Shrivastava. “We need to better understand how the shielding of PAHs varies with the complexity of aerosol composition, atmospheric chemical aging of aerosols, temperature and relative humidity. I was initially surprised to see so much oxidation over the tropics."

Other supporters of this research included the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, and the Department of Energy Office of Science.

Story By: 
Source: 

Staci Simonich, 541-737-9194

staci.simonich@oregonstate.edu

Mary Beckman, 509-375-3688

mary.beckman@pnnl.gov

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