OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

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Oregon State University to offer religious studies degree program

CORVALLIS, Ore. – More than 20 years after the religious studies degree program was eliminated, Oregon State University is bringing it back. OSU students will be able to declare religious studies as a major beginning with the upcoming winter term.

The religious studies degree will emphasize religious literacy, helping students understand how religion shapes the world and affects society, said Amy Koehlinger, an assistant professor in the School of History, Philosophy, and Religion in the College of Liberal Arts at OSU.

“Religion is one of the most powerful social, economic and political forces in the world,” she said. “Given how fast globalization is occurring, religious literacy is becoming more and more important.”

Religious studies is the study of religion in an academic setting, with an emphasis on skills such as critical thinking, discernment, deliberation, responsibility, courage and civility. The program will emphasize how religion is used to make sense of the world, in good ways and in bad, Koehlinger said.

“A religious studies major gives students the opportunity to have a deep understanding of religion as a powerful social force,” she said. “Students are trained to think critically and neutrally, and with a lot of subtlety about religion.”

The religious studies program is housed in the School of History, Philosophy and Religion, but faculty members from throughout the College of Liberal Arts will teach courses for the new degree, Koehlinger said. The interdisciplinary approach to the study of religion will include courses in history, philosophy, anthropology, art, literature and film.

One area of emphasis is on the religions of Southeast Asia, including Budhhism, Hinduism and Islam. Associate Professor Stuart Sarbacker is an expert on the religions of India and Associate Professor Hung-Yok Ip is an expert on China.

Another area of emphasis is on religion and ethics as they relate to sexuality, friendship, forgiveness, end-of-life issues, the environment and medicine, said Courtney Campbell, the Hundere Professor in Religion and Culture at OSU.

The new program is well-suited to students who are interested in working internationally, in business, international relations or other fields; it’s also a good choice for students interested in graduate school in law, medicine or politics, Koehlinger said.

Students can earn a bachelor of arts, a bachelor of science or an honors bachelor of arts or science degree in religious studies. A minor in religious studies is also available. The new degrees were approved by the OSU Board of Trustees over the summer, with final approval from the state Higher Education Coordinating Committee, Campbell said.

The 2014 Ideas Matter lecture series sponsored by the Hundere Endowment for Religion and Culture will help showcase and celebrate the new major. The lecture series, titled “Healings and Hurtings: Religion, Self and the Body,” will focus on the connection between religion and the body.

Lectures are scheduled for Oct. 27, Nov. 5, Nov. 10 and Nov. 18. All events are free and open to the public and will begin at 7 p.m. in the Journey Room in the Memorial Union on the OSU campus in Corvallis. For a full listing of speakers and topics, visit http://bit.ly/ZtmVYj.

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Amy Koehlinger, 541-737-3433 or amy.koehlinger@oregonstate.edu; Courtney Campbell, 541-737-6196 or ccampbell@oregonstate.edu

A child’s poor decision-making skills can predict later behavior problems, research shows

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Children who show poor decision-making skills at age 10 or 11 may be more likely to experience interpersonal and behavioral difficulties that have the potential to lead to high-risk health behavior in their teen years, according to a new study from Oregon State University psychology professor.

“These findings suggest that less-refined decision skills early in life could potentially be a harbinger for problem behavior in the future,” said Joshua Weller, an assistant professor in the School of Psychological Science in OSU’s College of Liberal Arts.

However, if poor decision-making patterns can be identified while children are still young, parents, educators and health professionals may have an opportunity to intervene and help those children enhance these skills, said Weller, who studies individual differences in decision-making.

“This research underscores that decision-making is a skill and it can be taught,” he said. “The earlier you teach these skills, the potential for improving outcomes increases.”

His findings were published recently in the “Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.” Co-authors are Maxwell Moholy of Idaho State University and Elaine Bossard and Irwin P. Levin of the University of Iowa. The research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

The researchers wanted to better understand how pre-adolescent children’s decision-making skills predicted later behavior. To do so, they conducted follow-up assessments with children who had participated in a previous decision-making study.

About 100 children, ages 10 and 11, participated in the original study, where they answered questions that helped assess their decision-making skills. They were evaluated based on how they perceived the risks of a decision, their ability to use appropriate decision-making rules and whether their confidence about a decision matched their actual knowledge on a subject.

For the new study, researchers invited the original study participants - now 12 and 13 years old - and their parents back for a follow-up. In all, 76 children ages participated in the second study, which included a behavior assessment that was completed by both the parent and the child.

The behavior assessment included questions about emotional difficulties, conduct issues such as fighting or lying and problems with peers. Those kinds of behavioral issues are often linked to risky health behavior for teens, including substance abuse or high-risk sexual activity, Weller said.

Researchers compared each child’s scores from the initial decision-making assessment to the child’s and their parent’s behavioral reports. They found that children who scored worse on the initial decision-making assessment were more likely to have behavioral problems two years later.

“Previous studies of decision-making were retrospective,” Weller said. “To our knowledge, this is the first research to suggest how decision-making competence is associated with future outcomes.”

The research provides new understanding about the possible links between decision-making and high-risk behavior, Weller said. It also underscores the value of teaching decision-making and related skills such as goal-setting to youths. Some interventions have demonstrated promise in helping children learn to make better decisions, he said.

In another recent study, Weller and colleagues studied the decision-making tendencies of at-risk adolescent girls who had participated in an intervention program designed to reduce substance abuse and other risky behavior. The program emphasized self-regulation, goal-setting and anger management.

The study found that girls who received the intervention in fifth-grade demonstrated better decision-making skills when they were in high school than their at-risk peers who did not participate in the intervention program.

“Most people can benefit from decision-making training. Will it always lead to the outcome you wanted? No,” Weller said. “However, it boils down to the quality of your decision-making process.”

That is something that parents and other adults can help children learn. For instance, a parent can talk about difficult decisions with a child. By exploring multiple points of view or showing other people’s perspectives on the issue, the child learns to consider different perspectives, he said.

“Following a good process when making decisions can lead to more favorable outcomes over time,” Weller said. “Focus on the quality of the decision process, rather than the outcome.”

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Joshua Weller, 541-737-1358, Joshua.weller@oregonstate.edu

Photographer and conceptual artist John Hilliard to speak at OSU

CORVALLIS, Ore. – British photographer and conceptual artist John Hilliard will speak about his work on Tuesday, Oct. 28, beginning at 7 p.m. in LaSells Stewart Center on the Oregon State University campus in Corvallis.

His talk, “A Catalogue of Errors,” is free and open to the public. Hilliard’s appearance is part of the Visual Artists and Scholars lecture series sponsored by the School of Arts and Communication in the College of Liberal Arts at OSU.

Since the 1960s, Hilliard has been making photographic works that question the nature of photographic representation. A pioneer of conceptual photography, Hilliard will speak about his photographic practice and the nature of photographic representation and its failings.

“I have sought to conduct a critical interrogation of photography as a representational medium, but also to disclose and celebrate its specificity,” Hilliard has said of his work. “Many of its perceived failings (blurred or unfocused images, for example) might equally be considered as unique assets. Indeed, through a catalogue of errors one may yet arrive at one's correct destination.”

Hilliard has shown his work in numerous galleries and museums worldwide. From 1968 to 2010, he taught in various art departments, including the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam and the Slade School of Fine Art at University College London, where he is an emeritus professor in fine art.

The Visual Artists and Scholars lecture series brings world-renowned artists and scholars to campus to interact with students in the art department so they can learn what is required of a professional artist or scholar.

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OSU to present sixth International Film Festival Oct. 13-19

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University’s sixth International Film Festival, showcasing a diverse array of movies from international cultures, will be held Oct. 13-19 in Corvallis.

The festival is organized and hosted by the School of Language, Culture and Society in the College of Liberal Arts at OSU. The festival was launched in 2009 by faculty teaching film courses in foreign language and literature to showcase the variety of international cultures.

All screenings will be held at Darkside Cinema, 215 S.W. 4th St., Corvallis. The screenings are free and open to the public but attendees need to obtain a ticket at the Darkside before entering the auditorium. Seats are limited so early arrival is encouraged.

The schedule of screenings is:

Monday, Oct. 13, 6 p.m.: “The Golden Dream,” 2013, Guatemala, Spain and Mexico.

8 p.m.: “Not My Day,” 2014, Germany.

Tuesday, Oct. 14, 6 p.m.: “A Street in Palermo,” 2103, Italy, France, Switzerland.

8 p.m.: “Rise Up! And Dance,” 2014, Austria.

Wednesday, Oct. 15, 6 p.m.: “Heli,” 2013, Mexico, Netherlands, Germany and France.

8 p.m.: “When Inge is Dancing,” 2013, Germany.

Thursday, Oct. 16, 6 p.m.:  “Living is Easy with Eyes Closed,” 2013, Spain.

8 p.m.: “Sweet Alibis,” 2014, Taiwan.

Friday, Oct. 17, 6 p.m.: “Lola,” 1981, West Germany.

8 p.m.: “Horizon Beautiful,” 2013, Ethiopia, Switzerland. Actor Bryan Renzi will attend the film and a meet and greet will be held afterward.

Saturday, Oct. 18, 2 p.m.: “The Sky Has Four Corners,” 2011, Germany.

4 p.m.: “The Eternal Return of Antonis Paraskevas,” 2013, Greece and Czech Republic.

6 p.m.: “Run Boy Run,” 2013, France, Germany and Czech Republic.

Sunday, Oct. 19, 2:30 p.m.: “Ich-Udo,” 2012, Germany and United States.

3:15 p.m.: “Moments – The Photographer Robert Lebeck,” 2008, Germany. 

4 p.m.: “Roraima – Climbers of the Lost World,” 2013, Austria.

6 p.m.: “What They Don’t Talk About When They Don’t Talk About Love,” 2013, Indonesia.

 

For additional information about the festival or the films being screened, visit the festival web site at http://bit.ly/1t36jOz.

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Sebastian Heiduschke, 541-737-3957, Sebastian.heiduschke@oregonstate.edu

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"Living is Easy with Eyes Closed"

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"Heli"

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Oregon State to host hip-hop festival and concert Oct. 17

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University will host a Hip-Hop Festival, including an academic symposium and concert showcasing hip-hop music and culture, on Friday, Oct. 17, on the OSU campus in Corvallis.

Events will include a daylong symposium highlighting the role of hip-hop in international culture and history, featuring a conversation with pioneering female rapper MC Lyte, the first woman to release a solo rap album; and a presentation from Mare, a Zapotec hip-hop artist from Oaxaca, Mexico. An evening concert will feature artists Lil Flip, a rapper from Houston, Texas; and Portland-based rapper Illmaculate.

“Music isn’t just something we love – it affects how we experience and see culture as well as ourselves,” said Dana Reason, director of popular music studies and festival director. “We want to demonstrate how truly interdisciplinary hip-hop culture is and how it transcends boundaries.”

The festival is the first collaboration to stem from a new affiliate partnership between Oregon State’s College of Liberal Arts and the Los Angeles-based GRAMMY Museum. Museum executive director Bob Santelli will conduct an on-stage interview and conversation with MC Lyte during the symposium.  

“The hip-hop festival and symposium is an opportunity to celebrate our new partnership with the GRAMMY Museum, and will give students a window into the cultural significance of hip-hop on an international scale,” said Larry Rodgers, executive dean of the division of arts and sciences. “The speakers and performers we have lined up exemplify the genre's importance as an art form and as social and political commentary."

The symposium will run from 9 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Loren Kajikawa, of the department of musicology and ethnomusicology at the University of Oregon, will give a keynote address at 9 a.m. Two panel discussions featuring academic scholars discussing aspects of hip-hop’s impact on culture will also be held.

Symposium attendees also will have a chance to participate in workshops on beat-making; music technology, led by OSU music instructors; and graffiti, led by graffiti artists KujoRock and KangoKid.

The symposium is free and open to the public, but those interested in attending are encouraged to register in advance online because space is limited and some sessions may reach capacity. Register online at http://bit.ly/1DRD1eh.

The concert, which also will feature Los Angeles-based hip-hop producer Mike Gao and a performance from the Oregon State and University of Oregon B-Boys hip-hop dancers, will run from 7:15 p.m. to 11 p.m.

Concert tickets are free for students, faculty and staff with an OSU identification card; $15 in advance or $20 at the door. Tickets are available online at http://bit.ly/1DRD1eh. Students, faculty and staff are encouraged to reserve tickets online; the fee will be waived with a valid ID number.

Performances and presentations will be held in Reser Stadium on the club and loge levels, with additional events and exhibits in the plaza outside the stadium. The full schedule of events is available online at http://bit.ly/1rkVgSV.

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Visiting faculty members to read at Oregon State on Oct. 10

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Authors Nick Dybek and Inara Verzemnieks will read from their work on Friday, Oct. 10, at Oregon State University in Corvallis, beginning at 7:30 p.m. in the Valley Library. They are both visiting faculty members in OSU’s Master of Fine Arts program in creative writing this year.

Verzemnieks is a former reporter at The Oregonian and a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in feature writing. Her creative and journalistic work has appeared in publications such as The New York Times Magazine, Tin House, The Atlantic and Creative Nonfiction.

Her first memoir, which engages her family’s history and her own journey to reconnect with their homeland in Latvia, is forthcoming from Norton. She is the recipient of a Rona Jaffe Writer’s Award and the Richard J. Margolis Award of the Blue Mountain Center.

Dybek’s novel, “When Captain Flint Was Still a Good Man,” earned the 2013 Society of Midland Author Award and is described by The Economist as having “the momentum of a thrilling yarn, delivered as if by a scarred man by the consoling light of a fire.” Dybek is also the recipient of a Michener-Copernicus Society of America Award and a Maytag Fellowship, and his work has been featured in Granta New Voices.

The reading is part of the 2014-2015 Literary Northwest Series, sponsored by the MFA Program in Creative Writing in the School of Writing, Literature, and Film. The series brings Pacific Northwest writers to OSU and is made possible by support from the OSU Libraries and Press, the OSU School of Writing, Literature, and Film, the College of Liberal Arts, Kathy Brisker and Tim Steele and Grass Roots Books and Music.

The event is free and open to the public. It will be held in the rotunda at the Valley Library, 201 S.W. Waldo Place. A question-and-answer session and book signing will follow the reading.

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Auditions for OSU production of ‘Mother Courage’ to be held Oct. 1-2

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Auditions for “Mother Courage and Her Children,” the first production of Oregon State University Theatre’s 2014-15 season, will be held Oct. 1-2.

Auditions will be held from 6:30 to 9:30 p.m. each day in the Withycombe Hall Theatre, 2901 S.W. Campus Way, Corvallis. Free parking is available on the north side of the building. Auditions are open to anyone interested in performing, including high school and college students, OSU staff and members of the community.

Tryouts will consist of group readings from the script. Those interested in auditioning are asked to read the play in advance. Scripts will be available for temporary checkout from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday, Sept. 29, in the theatre office, Withycombe Hall Room 141.

The cast includes 32 characters but a core of 15 actors and actresses of all ages will perform multiple roles. Some characters will sing but the performers need not be trained singers. A few members of the cast may play an instrument on stage, and those auditioning are encouraged to bring an instrument if they have one. Performers also are encouraged to prepare a short, 30-second song without accompaniment to determine vocal ability and placement, though singing is not a requirement to be cast in the show.

“Mother Courage and Her Children,” by Bertolt Brecht, was written in the late 1930s as an anti-war play; it is harsh, grim and dark, with a sardonically humorous edge. It fits in with the theme of the 2014-15 University Theatre season, “War and Remembrance.”

Rehearsals will be held in the evenings, Sunday through Thursday, in October and early November. Performances will be held Nov. 13, 14, and 16 and Nov. 21-23.

For additional information contact director George Caldwell, george.caldwell@oregonstate.edu or 503-931-4222 or Arin Dooley, arin.dooley@oregonstate.edu or 541-737-2853.

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Lack of facial expression leads to perceptions of unhappiness, new OSU research shows

CORVALLIS, Ore. – People with facial paralysis are perceived as being less happy simply because they can’t communicate in the universal language of facial expression, a new study from an Oregon State University psychology professor shows.

The findings highlight the important role the face plays in everyday communication and indicates people may hold a prejudice against those with facial paralysis because of their disability, said Kathleen Bogart, an assistant professor of psychology in the College of Liberal Arts at Oregon State University.

“People are more wary and more likely to form a negative impression of someone with a disability,” Bogart said. “Identifying that stigma is the first step to addressing it.”

Bogart specializes in research on ableism, or prejudice about disabilities. Much of her work focuses on the psychosocial implications of facial movement disorders such as facial paralysis and Parkinson’s disease, which affect more than 200,000 Americans each year.

“Facial paralysis is highly visible,” Bogart said. “Everyone notices there’s a difference, but people have no idea why. They don’t understand the nature of the condition.”

Some basic facial expressions, including the smile, are communicated universally across cultures. But people with facial paralysis or other facial movement disorders may not be able to participate in that communication because they lack emotional expression and may seem unresponsive in social situations.

To better understand how those with facial paralysis are perceived by those without facial paralysis, Bogart conducted an experiment comparing how emotions are perceived based on different forms of communication.

About 120 participants, none of whom had facial paralysis, watched or listened to videos of people with varying degrees of facial paralysis and were asked to rate the subject’s emotions as the person recounted happy or sad experiences. Participants were assigned to videos highlighting several communication channels, including video of just the person’s face; video of the person’s face and body; or voice-only audio with no video; as well as combinations of different types of communication.

Those with severe facial paralysis were rated as less happy than those with milder facial paralysis across all the different communication types and combinations. Those with severe facial paralysis were also rated as less sad than those with milder facial paralysis.

The findings confirmed that people with facial paralysis experience stigma, but it also confirmed that people often rely on a combination of communication channels to perceive emotions, Bogart said.

That’s important because people with facial paralysis can adapt other communication channels, such as tone of voice or gestures, to enhance their communication ability, she said. Also, people interacting with someone with facial paralysis can be more watchful of other communication cues that might indicate emotion, she said. 

“It’s not all about the face,” Bogart said. “Studies like this tell us more about the way people communicate, verbally and non-verbally.” 

Her findings were published recently in the journal “Basic and Applied Social Psychology.” Co-authors of the study are Linda Tickle-Degnen of Tufts University and Nalini Ambady of Stanford University. The research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.

Bogart is now studying ways to help people with facial paralysis use compensatory strategies to improve communication. She has developed a social skills workshop for teenagers with facial paralysis and hopes to do more work like that in the future.

 “We know these strategies work, so let’s teach people to use those skills more,” she said. “A lot of people with facial paralysis do just fine, but there are some people who would like help or support.”

Making people aware of the stigma about facial paralysis and educating them about the causes and effects is the biggest key to reducing existing misconceptions and prejudices, Bogart said.

“People need to be able to recognize facial paralysis, and understand that they may need to pay more attention to communication cues beyond facial expression,” she said.

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Kathleen Bogart, 541-737-1357, Kathleen.bogart@oregonstate.edu

Grant will support, encourage women in academic STEM careers at OSU

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University has been awarded a $3.5 million grant from the National Science Foundation to improve conditions for women in the academic science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, disciplines.

The five-year ADVANCE grant will be used to help recruit, retain and promote more women in STEM and the social and behavioral sciences at OSU; provide support for women in STEM and implement policies and programs that aid in these efforts.

“The goal of the grant is to transform the institutional climate for women in the STEM fields,” said Susan Shaw, the grant’s principal investigator. “What we want is an institution where difference is welcome and the value of different perspectives and experiences is understood.”

OSU is the first institution in the state to receive an institutional transformation grant from the National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE program. ADVANCE began in 2001 with the goal of increasing the representation and advancement of women in STEM and developing a more diverse science and engineering workforce. Past grant recipients include the University of Washington, Michigan State University and Cornell University.

“Through ADVANCE, the National Science Foundation invests in the future of women in STEM,” said program director Beth Mitchneck. “Supporting institutional change that furthers the advancement of women faculty is a means to making the institution more receptive to talent from all backgrounds.”

Women have historically been underrepresented in the STEM fields ­in academia. In 2012, 23 percent of Oregon State’s STEM faculty, including faculty in the social and behavioral sciences, were women. Women accounted for 20.8 percent of the full professorships in those disciplines.

OSU leaders have taken significant steps to enhance diversity on campus in recent years, and the ADVANCE grant is designed to further the university’s goals, Shaw said.

“A lot of the previous ADVANCE grants have tended to look at women as one group,” said Shaw, who is director of the School of Language, Culture and Society and a professor of women, gender and sexuality studies in the College of Liberal Arts.

“We’re looking at women across differences – race, sexual identity, social, class,” she said. “Those intersections are critically important to understanding women’s professional experiences and challenges.”

A new version of the university’s Difference, Power and Discrimination faculty development program will be crafted to focus on STEM issues. The program includes a summer seminar for STEM faculty and administrators on theories about systems of oppression and the impacts gender, race and class may have on how people participate in an institution, Shaw said.

The first steps to implementing the grant are hiring a program manager and establishing a website for the project. The first faculty seminars are expected next summer, she said.

Shaw and several co-investigators, including faculty in the sciences and social sciences, also will research how OSU’s ADVANCE program is working. They will present findings at conferences, share best practices with other institutions and develop an online journal about program activities, Shaw said.

The co-investigators are Rebecca Warner, senior vice provost for academic affairs; Michelle Bothwell, associate professor of bioengineering in the College of Engineering; Sarina Saturn, assistant professor of psychology in the College of Liberal Arts; and Tuba Ozkan-Haller, professor of earth, ocean and atmospheric sciences and professor of civil and construction engineering.

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Susan Shaw, 541-737-3082, sshaw@oregonstate.edu

OSU sociologist: Policy will determine economic impact of legal marijuana

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The economic impact of legalizing marijuana in Oregon is difficult to estimate because the potential market will depend in large part on what kind of policies would be adopted if a proposed ballot measure passes in November, according to an Oregon State University sociologist who studies the issue.

“Marijuana is already a serious economic force in Oregon,” said Seth Crawford, an expert on the policies and market structure of marijuana in Oregon. “When you consider the proposed excise tax and additional revenue from income taxes, it could become a sizeable income stream for the state.”

Oregon voters will decide in November whether to legalize recreational marijuana production and use. Policymakers are trying to determine the economic impact of legalizing marijuana and Crawford’s research was recently cited in an economic report commissioned by backers of the ballot initiative, as well as by the state legislative revenue office.

If marijuana is legalized in Oregon, the state could net anywhere from $35 million to $105 million in new tax revenue per year, Crawford estimated in research published earlier this year in the Humboldt Journal of Social Relations.

Any additional expenses generated from legalizing marijuana would be small in comparison to money generated from the taxes, Crawford believes. Police and court expenses would be lower if marijuana use was legalized, he pointed out.

“From a purely economic standpoint, it’s a net win for the state’s budget,” he said. “There are still going to be enforcement issues, but the costs are likely to be lower than what is spent on enforcement now.”

The economic effect of legalizing marijuana will be determined in part by how much of the existing black market moves into the new legal market and by how much marijuana producers will be allowed to grow, Crawford said. Under the proposed ballot measure, the Oregon Liquor Control Commission would determine how marijuana would be legally sold and distributed.

“We won’t know what’s going to happen until those policies are settled, though the conversations have already begun in earnest,” said Crawford, an instructor in the School of Public Policy in the College of Liberal Arts.

Crawford also serves on the state’s Advisory Committee on Medical Marijuana, which advises the director of the Oregon Department of Human Services on administrative aspects of the state’s medical marijuana program. He has provided expert testimony on marijuana-related policies in Oregon.

Crawford specializes in analyzing social networks and began studying the underlying structure of marijuana production and user networks as a doctoral student several years ago because there was no available data on Oregon producers or users.

In his study of Oregon’s informal marijuana economy, Crawford surveyed Oregon residents 18 and older to collect information about marijuana use and sales patterns. He found that the average marijuana user pays about $177 per ounce of the drug and uses about 6.75 ounces per year.

Marijuana producers generally sell small amounts, earning less than $10,000 per year; they generally are educated and employed in other legitimate occupations, Crawford found. His research also indicated that many marijuana producers in the current black market live in economically depressed regions of the state, particularly in southern Oregon, and use marijuana sales to augment low incomes.

“It’s these small producers who have the most to lose in the policy development process,” Crawford said. “If they’re unable to participate in the legal market, marijuana legalization could result in increased economic inequality, particularly in traditional areas of production like southern Oregon.”

Setting a high tax rate or imposing hefty capital requirements could serve as barriers for current small-scale marijuana producers to enter the legal market, Crawford said. In Washington state, the requirements to obtain a permit were so stringent that many were shut out of the market, he said.

Also, Washington’s taxes and early supply woes put marijuana between $420 and $840 per ounce, while in Colorado, marijuana is slightly more than $260 per ounce after taxes. At rates that high, there is a strong chance users won’t actually enter the legal market; they’ll continue making small-scale purchases from friends or acquaintances or grow their own, Crawford said.

“We don’t know if people will go to retail stores,” he said. “If the ballot initiative passes, the market will be shaped by policies adopted by the OLCC.”

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Seth Crawford, 541-760-5419, seth.crawford@oregonstate.edu