college of agricultural sciences

New research will dig deep into the hidden kingdom of fungi

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Fungi are master recyclers, turning waste into nutrients and providing humankind with everything from penicillin to pale ale. Although fungi are members of one of the world's most diverse kingdoms, we know relatively little about them.

That is about to change.

A new study headed by Joseph Spatafora, an Oregon State University professor of botany and plant pathology, will use powerful new tools of genomics to learn more about fungi. Spatafora and an international team of scientists will sequence the full set of chromosomes for 1,000 fungus species, creating at least two reference genomes for each recognized family within the fungal kingdom.

This project builds on the knowledge created by a previous 10-year study called Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life, also led by Spatafora. That study helped to develop a classification system of fungi from around the world and paved the way for creating a reference encyclopedia of what fungi exist, how they are related, what they do and how they do it.

"With this genome encyclopedia we'll have access to the playbook of fungi," Spatafora said, adding that the playbook is important to carbon cycling, food science, environmental cleanup, human health and more.

There are an estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, yet only about 100,000 species have been described. Spatafora credits recent advances in gene sequencing technology that will make it possible to unravel genetic details with speed and accuracy.

"We've used fungi for so many services to society for centuries without much knowledge about how they are assembled at a genomic level. Think about what we can discover with this powerful knowledge," he said.

The 1000 Fungal Genomes project is one of 41 projects funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute whose purpose is to enable scientists from universities and national laboratories around the world to explore the hidden world of microbes and plants for solutions to major challenges in energy, climate and environment. Spatafora leads an international team of researchers, including Jason Stajich at University of California at Riverside and Igor Gregorlev of the DOE Joint Genome Institute.

Fungi have an enormous impact on life and ecosystem functioning, as decomposers, pathogens, and essential components of the global carbon cycle. They are capable of degrading almost any biological material as well as many synthetic compounds. Therefore, fungi are useful in the development of alternative fuels, carbon sequestration and bioremediation of contaminated sites.

In order to harness this potential, the 1000 Fungal Genomes project will build a reference library as a foundation for accurate analyses of the enormous volumes of data that will be created through genomic research.

Fungal species to be analyzed will come from at least five science centers around the world, including University of Missouri at Kansas City; University of Arizona; USDA Center for Forest Mycology Research; USDA Northern Regional Research Laboratory; and the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Fungal Biodiversity Centre, the Netherlands.

The first year of the five-year project focuses on some of the most diverse classes of fungi that have been studied so far in these culture collections. As the project matures and as knowledge grows, the research will expand to include questions of sampling strategy, curation of data, research and analytical protocols, training and publications.

For more information on the 1000 Fungal Genomes project, see http://1000.fungalgenomes.org/home.

Story By: 

Joseph Spatafora, 541-5304

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Tricholoma cf. terreum grows on a forest floor in Oregon’s Coast Range. Photo by Lynn Ketchum.


Joseph Spatafora, a botanist at Oregon State University. Photo by Lynn Ketchum.

Canning seafood: How to prepare and process safely

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Canning is a popular method to preserve seafood and, with proper processing, home-canned seafood can be both high in quality and safe to eat.

A revised publication from Oregon State University Extension shows how to prepare and process seafood using pressure canner temperatures that will destroy the bacteria that cause foodborne illness.

"New to the publication are instructions on how to check home-canned seafood for spoilage and under processing and how to detoxify the seafood," said Carolyn Raab, OSU food and nutrition specialist.

"Food not canned to specifications can be spoiled by an invisible toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria," she said. "But you can make the seafood safe if you boil it for10 minutes or heat it in the oven using directions given in the publication," she said.

The publication is full of tips that make canning safe. It explains how to begin with fresh seafood, use a pressure canner that's in good condition, process for the correct time and temperature and end with a good seal.

Specific information is about recommended pressures to use with pressure canners for elevations from sea level too 8,000 feet and processing times for seafood in half-pint and pint jars. Individual preparation and processing directions are given for tuna, whole clams, minced clams, crab, oyster and shrimp.

The publication also gives answers to questions frequently asked, such as, "Is it safe to process seafood in a boiling water canner?" (No. It is not safe.) "Is it safe to leave salt out of canned seafood? (Yes. Add an amount suitable to your taste.) "Can previously frozen fish be canned? (Yes. Frozen fish can be canned. Thaw to refrigerator temperature first.)

The four-page "Canning Seafood" publication is available without charge online at http://bit.ly/OSUESpnw194 or call 1-800-561-6719 to order a folded brochure (same information) for $1.50 plus $3 shipping and handling.

You can search the OSU Extension catalog for more items on gardening and food preservation, including publications, books, videos and other educational media: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/results.php?cat=Gardening


Carolyn Raab, 541-737-1019

OSU Extension's online help center answers 2,600 questions in first nine months

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Since its launch in late March, the Oregon State University Extension Service's online help center has answered more than 2,600 questions about everything from how to sanitize birdhouses to how to make compost with manure.

The online service, called Ask an Expert, allows people to electronically submit questions and photos relating to any of OSU Extension's subject areas. These include gardening, food, agriculture, forestry, coastal and watershed issues, parenting, nutrition, community development and 4-H youth programs. The service can be accessed at http://bit.ly/OSUaae

The questions, in general, have reflected seasonal concerns, said Jeff Hino, the coordinator for Ask an Expert. Food safety questions were frequent during the summer and early fall as home cooks asked about recipes, pressure canners and pH levels. As winter closes in, more people have been asking about lawn care and pruning.

The system works like this: Nine people sort the queries by topic and forward them to the appropriate expert. These experts, 130 of them, come from a pool of people comprised of OSU faculty and a few Extension-trained Master Gardener volunteers. They respond via email, usually within two business days.

The following are some of the questions Ask an Expert has answered:

  • I have black moths flying all over my house. What are they?
  • We are in farm forest area near Mt. Hood and would like to remove some trees on our property. How do we find a reputable logger to help us?
  • I am looking for information on aging after 65.
  • I made too much pumpkin pie filling with raw eggs. Can I freeze it to use later?
  • How can I get rid of moles in my backyard?
  • I am looking for a 4-H program for my daughter and her dog. Do you have a show dog group around Beaverton?

One of the more urgent questions concerned a person who was feeling ill after eating unidentified wild berries from a yard. The person had not called a poison control center, which was the expert's first piece of advice. The expert also provided a guide to common poisonous berries, to not only help identify what plant was to blame but to help avoid other bad berries in the future.

This kind of experience demonstrates how the help center can be more useful than a search engine, Hino said. "If you go to a search engine, you get a bunch of links," he said. "If you go to Ask an Expert, you get an answer."

Because of the popularity of Ask an Expert, OSU Extension's website (extension.oregonstate.edu) now highlights a specific query and answer on its homepage each week, featuring questions that are timely and of interest to a broad audience. For example, a recent one from Washington County asked, "Do oak leaves make good mulch? I have heard they are too high in acid or something."

"The OSU Extension Service has always been about answering questions," Hino said. "This new system is a powerful and effective way for us to provide science-based information. It's really opening the door to a broader use of Extension."


Jeff Hino, 541-737-0803

Christmas trees are getting greener with new sustainability program

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Christmas trees have become a little bit greener this season with a new sustainability program that the Oregon State University Extension Service helped develop.

Trees from certified farms have met standards for protecting land, water, wildlife and the people who work on the farm. The trees bear a tag identifying their origin as a Socially and Environmentally Responsible Farm (SERF).

"A SERF-certified tree assures you that this real tree is grown using the best and safest methods known," said Chal Landgren, a Christmas tree specialist with OSU Extension who helped create the program.

To be certified, a farm must develop a plan for all it operations addressing five areas of social and environmental health: biodiversity, soil and water resources, integrated pest management, worker health and safety, and consumer and community relations.

OSU Extension provides training and support to growers in developing their sustainability plans. The Oregon Department of Agriculture conducts independent inspections of the farm, and the Pacific Northwest Christmas Tree Growers Association provides the final certification approval.

This is the first year that trees are available with this certification, Landgren said. Five farms are now SERF-certified in Oregon, and Landgren expects several more to come on board in the coming year.

Christmas trees are big business in Oregon, the nation's leading producer of holiday trees. The state's growers sold 6.4 million trees in 2010, grossing $91 million, according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service. About 1,600 operations cultivated 57,000 acres in Oregon last year and employed nearly 8,000 full-time and seasonal workers. The trees are shipped around the world.

Grown on sustainable farms, trees are cultivated just like other crops, said Mike Bondi, an OSU Extension forester and the director of the university's North Willamette Research and Experiment Center in Aurora. Growers plant one or more to replace every tree they harvest.

"People can feel good about purchasing real trees because they help reduce carbon emissions by absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen," Bondi said. "And real trees can be 100 percent recycled and turned into mulch or compost, so no waste goes into landfills."

The new certification program requires that Christmas tree farms:

• Protect and promote biodiversity. Certified operations must demonstrate that they protect natural features, waterways, fish and wildlife habitat and ensure that workers and equipment minimize harm to biodiversity.

• Use appropriate Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Certified farms must use least toxic methods to control insects, weeds, diseases and other pests, and provide training and evidence of IPM in decisions and actions.

• Create a safe environment for all workers. Certification requires health and safety training for employees and evaluating and reducing risks on the farm.

• Actively engage in long-term conservation of soil and water resources. Certified farms must use practices to prevent soil erosion and mitigate potential negative impact on water quality.

• Actively foster farm stewardship and environmental education in the community and with industry groups to preserve, protect and conserve natural resources.

"SERF certification reinforces the message that a real tree is a responsible choice for the holidays," Landgren said.

Information on the program is at http://www.serfcertified.org.

Story By: 

Chal Landgren, 503-678-1264 ext. 124

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Chal Landgren, a Christmas tree specialist with Oregon State University's Extension Service. (Photo by Tiffany Woods.)


Rick Fletcher, a recently retired forestry professor with the Oregon State University Extension Service. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

Oregonians have many choices for Christmas trees

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Although more than 90 percent of Oregon’s 7 million cut Christmas trees are shipped out of state each year, Oregonians have plenty of real-tree choices at retail lots or you-cut farms, or they can cut a tree on public land (with a permit in hand, of course).

Some Oregonians prefer a more open tree than the typical sheared Douglas-fir produced en masse for shipment out of state, said Rick Fletcher, forestry and Christmas tree specialist with the Oregon State University Extension Service.

 "The noble fir has been the most popular and most expensive Christmas tree in our region through time," Fletcher said. Native to the higher elevations in the Cascades and Coast Range, this blue-green tree, with distinctly layered branches is a pleasure to decorate and least likely to shed needles on your living room carpet.

"If you go up in the mountains to look for a noble, you might easily mistake a sub-alpine or Pacific silver fir for the noble,” said Fletcher. "If so, it is fine, although these other firs generally do not retain their needles as well as the nobles."

If you want to be able to tell which species you are cutting, you can order a copy of OSU Extension’s "Trees to Know in Oregon." It is $18 plus shipping and handling. To preview and order a copy online, go to: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/abstract.php?seriesno=EC+1450. Or call 1-800-561-6719 to order directly.

Next in popularity is the Douglas-fir, long the standard of the industry, Fletcher said, but many locals feel that these sheared trees look more like a bush than a tree.  If left unsheared, however, they grow so fast naturally that they look like the proverbial “Charlie Brown” Christmas tree.

"You will find Douglas-firs nice and fluffy and considerably cheaper,” he said. “If you keep them in water, the needles should stay on the tree for the month of December.”

If you want the smell of Christmas in your house, you might choose a grand fir, Fletcher said. It has dark green needles and a full shape. "Its only drawback is needle retention," he said. "If you wait until early December to cut it and keep it in water, it should hold its needles quite well."

New species now grown in Oregon include Nordmann and Turkish firs. "These species are very popular in Europe, and local growers are discovering their merits and beginning to grow them here also," Fletcher said. "Both have stiff, dark or silvery green foliage and a very nice shape. Their needle retention is excellent if kept in water."

Christmas tree permits are available at Forest Service and BLM District Offices:



Rick Fletcher, 541-766-3554

OSU study questions cost-effectiveness of biofuels and their ability to cut fossil fuel use

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study by economists at Oregon State University questions the cost-effectiveness of biofuels and says they would barely reduce fossil fuel use and would likely increase greenhouse gas emissions.

The idea that biofuels can reduce dependency on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change has led governments to promote them as substitutes for gasoline and petroleum-based diesel, using mandates and subsidies, said Bill Jaeger, the lead author on the study.

"Our results suggest that existing biofuel policies have been very costly, produce negligible reductions in fossil fuel use and increase, rather than decrease, greenhouse gas emissions," said Jaeger, a professor in the agricultural and resource economics department at OSU.

Biofuels were initially seen as a solution to energy and environmental problems, Jaeger said, because the carbon dioxide that's emitted when they're burned is equivalent to what they had absorbed from the atmosphere when the crops were growing. Thus, biofuels were assumed to add little or no carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

But the bigger picture is more complex, Jaeger said, in part because biofuels are produced and transported using fossil fuels. For example, nitrogen fertilizer, which is made using natural gas, is used to grow corn for ethanol. Additionally, growing biofuel feedstocks can push food production onto previously unfarmed land, according to well-documented research, Jaeger said. When this new acreage is cleared and tilled, it can release carbon that accumulated over long periods in soil and vegetation, thus increasing greenhouse gas emissions, he said.

The costs of these side effects tend to be overlooked by policies that focus only on gallon-for-gallon substitutions, he added.

The researchers focused on the major mandated and currently used biofuels worldwide: corn ethanol, soybean biodiesel, cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass grown in the United States, canola biodiesel produced in Europe, and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil and exported to the United States or Europe.

They evaluated them in terms of their contribution to reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. They also compared their costs and effectiveness to two alternative policies: an increase in the gas tax and the implementation of energy efficiency improvements.

Their results indicated that all of the biofuel crops were much less cost-effective than the two alternative policies in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use.

"Each dollar spent on energy improvement programs would be 20 times more effective in reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions than a similar cost for the corn ethanol program," Jaeger said. "Likewise, a gas tax increase would be 21 times more effective than promoting cellulosic ethanol."

Overall, it was estimated that U.S.-produced biofuels would cost between 20 and 31 times more than energy efficiency improvements that would reduce gas consumption by 1 percent. The study also reported that combining a gas tax increase with energy efficiency improvements could reduce U.S. fossil fuel use by more than 15 percent (or cut petroleum fuel use by more than 35 percent).

Next, the researchers looked at how much it would cost to achieve governmental targets for biofuel use and what the impact would be on fossil fuel use. In the U.S., the Renewable Fuel Standard calls for 15 billion gallons of conventional biofuel sources such as corn ethanol; 1 billion gallons of biomass-based diesel; 16 billion gallons of advanced cellulosic biofuels; and 4 billion gallons of other advanced biofuels to be used in transportation fuel by 2022. U.S. corn ethanol production has already reached 13 billion gallons, Jaeger said, but cellulosic ethanol, a so-called second-generation biofuel, is not yet commercially produced in the U.S.

The researchers concluded that all of these biofuel mandates combined would reduce fossil fuel use by less than 2.5 percent, or the same amount that a gas tax increase of 25 cents per gallon could achieve, but at an estimated cost of $67 billion compared with a cost of $6 billion with a gas tax.

To directly compare the cost-effectiveness of the biofuels with the two alternative approaches, part of the researchers’ analysis evaluated the biofuels in combination with forest carbon sequestration practices so that they would produce the same mix of reductions in fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions as a gas tax increase.

The study did not take into account the effect that increased production of biofuels might have on water use, pollution and food prices, all of which raise additional concerns about the merits of promoting biofuels, according to Jaeger.

The study is called Biofuel Economics in a Setting of Multiple Objectives and Unintended Consequences and was published in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. The study can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/1957/25614.


Bill Jaeger, 541-737-1419

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Canola seeds are used to make biodiesel. Photo by Lynn Ketchum.


One kilogram of canola seeds — the amount in the plastic bag — makes the amount of oil that’s in this flask. The seeds come from pods like the ones in this dried bouquet. Photo by Tiffany Woods.

'Discover the Scientist Within' workshop offered for middle school girls

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University will host a free workshop next February designed to encourage middle school girls to become interested in science and engineering.

Girls in grades 6-8 and their parents may register until Feb.10 for the workshop, called "Discovering the Scientist Within." It will be held on Saturday, Feb. 18, from 8:15 a.m. to 1:15 p.m. in the new Linus Pauling Center auditorium on campus. The first participants to register will receive first choice of tours.

Guest speakers will talk about their career path and how it led them to become scientists. Middle school girls will engage in hands-on activities and take tours to science labs on campus.

"The goal is to change the stereotypical perception that scientists are male," said Sujaya Rao, OSU crop and soil science professor.

Parents are welcome to attend the tours and a workshop about how they can encourage their daughters to consider a science or engineering career.

For program information contact Rao at 541-737-9038. To register, send e-mail with the student’s name and school to Sylvia Harvey at sylviaharvey@rocketmail.com.  


Sujaya Rao, 541-737-9038

Study finds Great Plains river basins threatened by pumping of aquifers

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Suitable habitat for native fishes in many Great Plains streams has been significantly reduced by the pumping of groundwater from the High Plains aquifer – and scientists analyzing the water loss say ecological futures for these fishes are “bleak.”

Results of their study have been published in the journal Ecohydrology.

Unlike alluvial aquifers, which can be replenished seasonally with rain and snow, these regional aquifers were filled by melting glaciers during the last Ice Age, the researchers say. When that water is gone, it won’t come back – at least, until another Ice Age comes along.

“It is a finite resource that is not being recharged,” said Jeffrey Falke, a post-doctoral researcher at Oregon State University and lead author on the study. “That water has been there for thousands of years, and it is rapidly being depleted. Already, streams that used to run year-round are becoming seasonal, and refuge habitats for native fishes are drying up and becoming increasingly fragmented.”

Falke and his colleagues, all scientists from Colorado State University where he earned his Ph.D., spent three years studying the Arikaree River in eastern Colorado. They conducted monthly low-altitude flights over the river to map refuge pool habitats and connectivity, and compared it to historical data.

They conclude that during the next 35 years – under the most optimistic of circumstances – only 57 percent of the current refuge pools would remain – and almost all of those would be isolated in a single mile-long stretch of the Arikaree River. Water levels today already are significantly lower than they were 40 and 50 years ago.

Though their study focused on the Arikaree, other dryland streams in the western Great Plains – comprised of eastern Colorado, western Nebraska and western Kansas – face the same fate, the researchers say.

Falke said the draining of the regional aquifers lowers the groundwater input to alluvial aquifers through which the rivers flow, creating the reduction in streamflow. He and his colleagues estimate that it would require a 75 percent reduction in the rate of groundwater pumping to maintain current water table levels and refuge pools, which is “not economically or politically feasible,” the authors note in the study.

Dryland streams in the Great Plains host several warm-water native fish species that have adapted over time to harsh conditions, according to Falke, who is with the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Brassy minnows, orange-throat darters and other species can withstand water temperatures reaching 90 degrees, as well as low levels of dissolved oxygen, but the increasing fragmentation of their habitats may impede their life cycle, limiting the ability of the fish to recolonize.

“The Arikaree River and most dryland streams are shallow, with a sandy bottom, and often silty,” Falke said. “The water can be waist-deep, and when parts of the river dry up from the pumping of groundwater, it is these deeper areas that become refuge pools. But they are becoming scarcer, and farther apart each year.”

Falke said the changing hydrology of the system has implications beyond the native fishes. The aquifer-fed stream influences the entire riparian area, where cottonwood trees form their own ecosystem and groundwater-dependent grasses support the grazing of livestock and other animals.

Pumping of regional aquifers is done almost entirely for agriculture, Falke said, with about 90 percent of the irrigation aimed at corn production, with some alfalfa and wheat.

“The impact goes well beyond the Arikaree River,” Falke said. “Declines in streamflow are widespread across the western Great Plains, including all 11 headwaters of the Republican River. Ultimately, the species inhabiting these drainages will decline in range and abundance, and become more imperiled as groundwater levels decline and climate changes continue.”

Other authors on the study include Kurt Fausch, Robin Magelky, Angela Aldred, Deanna Durnford, Linda Riley and Ramchand Oad, all of Colorado State University. The study was supported by the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station.

Story By: 

Jeff Falke, 541-754-4309

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Arikaree River

New OSU program grooms students to become top-notch workers

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new program at Oregon State University aims to help agricultural sciences and forestry students succeed in the workplace – and show employers that these OSU graduates are top-notch employees.

The program, called Leadership Academy, got under way this term with 10 students. Over the course of the year, participants will sharpen their ability to lead, think critically, communicate and work in a team.

"We heard feedback from employers that our graduates have impeccable technical skills, but that most job-seekers would benefit from additional development in these soft-skill areas," said Kellie Strawn, the director of the academy, which is run by the College of Agricultural Sciences.

Participants, who are selected after submitting an application and being interviewed, must meet regularly with a faculty mentor, develop personal goals, hold leadership roles on campus and in the community, and attend a biweekly campus seminar. They do not receive credit for participating in the academy but they do receive a small stipend. The program is only for students in the Agricultural Sciences and Forestry colleges.

"If employers want a well-rounded student who can come into a company and make an immediate impact, one who understands the importance of personal skills, communication, critical thinking and teamwork, then they need to go after Leadership Academy students," said Jonathan Velez, who teaches the seminar and holds the newly endowed Terence Bradshaw Leadership Academy Professorship.

The academy's hallmark is the one-on-one mentoring component, Velez said. It was the main draw for Tom Griffin, an environmental and economic policy major who plans to attend law school next year. His mentor is Sonny Ramaswamy, the dean of the College of Agricultural Sciences.

"The opportunity to network with a faculty member is going to help tremendously with making industry connections," said Griffin, who will intern for a congressman winter term.

The program is funded by the Terence Bradshaw endowment and contributions from individuals and businesses.

Velez hopes to double the number of academy students next year and eventually offer it to 50 to 60 students a year.

To watch a video about the program, go to: http://oregonstate.edu/media/rrjmb.


Kellie Strawn, 541-737-2661

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Kellie Strawn teaches a leadership seminar. (Photo by Rachel Beck.) Velez001RB

Oregon State University professor Jonathan Velez (left) and student Tom Griffin. (Photo by Rachel Beck.)

Oregon high school students chosen for National 4-H Congress

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Fourteen 4-H high school students from throughout the state have been selected as the Oregon delegation to attend the National 4-H Congress in Atlanta, Ga., during Thanksgiving weekend, Nov. 25–29. The theme for the congress has changed to “Become a Catalyst of Change.”

During the event, delegates will dedicate the second National 4-H Congress Habitat For Humanity house they helped build in Atlanta. Congress delegates donate funding for the houses, and employees of the Hyatt Atlanta, the yearly meeting place, provide the labor.

More than 1,300 4-H members from all 50 states and Puerto Rico attend the congress, which is often the highlight of a 4-H member's career. Delegates hear inspirational speakers, participate in cultural workshops, take part in a large-scale community service projects and visit historical sites near Atlanta.

A committee of the Oregon State University Extension 4-H Youth Development Program http://oregon.4h.oregonstate.edu/ selects delegates based on overall achievement in 4-H projects, leadership, communication, citizenship and community service. Finalists were chosen for National 4-H Congress in June at the State 4-H Summer Conference at OSU.

Delegates chosen for the 2011 National 4-H Congress are:


Astoria: Danielle Sampson

Bend: Kallee Salber

Corvallis: Katie Waldo

Eagle Creek: Kayla Cochran

Fairview: Sam Meisenhelder

Fossil: Marina Anglin

Grants Pass Jessica DeHaan

Jefferson: Donielle Miller

McMinnville: Connor Daggett

Molalla: Lauren Riback

Powell Butte: Kaitlin Brouhard

Roseburg: Sarah Gordon

Sherwood: Janika Jordan

Talent: Shae Rogers


Helen Pease, 541-737-1314