college of agricultural sciences

OSU awards scholarships to 17 college-bound 4-H'ers

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The Oregon State University Extension Service's 4-H youth program has awarded almost $18,900 in scholarships to 17 high school seniors.

To qualify for the scholarships, students had to be members of 4-H for a minimum of three years, said Helen Pease, 4-H youth program coordinator with the OSU Extension Service. Judging was based on scholastic achievement, 4-H projects and activities and a personal essay. In the essay, applicants were asked to describe their growth in 4-H, emphasizing 4-H's five "C's" of youth development: competence, confidence, character, caring and compassion.

Scholarship recipient Katie Waldo of Corvallis compared her growth in 4-H to flipping through a photo album of her most meaningful experiences in the program. Those experiences included holding her first marketable lamb and attending the 4-H National Congress in 2011.

"These images and their stories will continue to remind me not only of who I am and what I've done but also how much I am capable of changing and the amazing things I can accomplish when I believe in myself and the people around me," she wrote in her essay.

Recipients of the statewide 4-H scholarships for 2013 are:

Albany: Clint Hamilton, $500, Duane P. Johnson 4-H Scholarship.

Aumsville: Raquel Albee, $3,500, Martha MacGregor Memorial 4-H Scholarship.

Canyon City: Josh Whitman, $1,000, Babe Coe Memorial 4-H Scholarship.

Central Point: Madison Gierloff, $1,250, Klein-Youngberg Family 4-H Scholarship.

Corvallis: Makai Bradley, $1,250, Klein-Youngberg family. Justine Ekman, $1,500, Judith K. Hofer Scholarship. Sam Greydanus, $1,000, CHS Foundation Scholarship. Megan Pinard, $1,000, Oregon 4-H Foundation. Ann Santich, $1,250, Klein-Youngberg family. Katie Waldo, $1,500, H. Joe Myers Memorial 4-H Scholarship.

Dallas: Jamie Kennedy, $557, O.M. Plummer Scholarship.

Hermiston: Bailey Burns, $1,000, A. Lois Redman 4-H Scholarship.

Philomath: Tessa Gourley, $1,000, Kate Thiess Memorial 4-H Scholarship. Courtney Kutzler, $500, Ted and Betty Dietz Memorial 4-H Scholarship. Tatiana Thompson, $1,000, Minnick Memorial 4-H Scholarship.

Sherwood: Janika Jordan, $1,000, Jeanne Leeson Memorial 4-H Scholarship.

More information on the scholarships is at http://bit.ly/14wppGy.

4-H is the largest out-of-school youth development program nationwide. The OSU Extension Service oversees Oregon's 4-H program, which reached nearly 117,000 youth in kindergarten through 12th grade via a network of 8,534 volunteers in 2012. Activities focus on areas like healthy living, civic engagement, science and animal care. Learn more about 4-H at http://bit.ly/14fEFHF.

Media Contact: 

Helen Pease, 541-737-1314

Fruit-damaging fly could hit record population in Northwest this year

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The spotted wing drosophila fly, which lays its eggs in fruit and makes it unmarketable, could reach record population levels in the Pacific Northwest this year, according to Oregon State University researchers.

"All indications estimate this season will be similar or worse than 2012, which was the worst on record," said Vaughn Walton, an entomologist with the OSU Extension Service. “Winter and spring temperatures in the Pacific Northwest have been warmer than last year, and heat equals larger populations of spotted wing drosophila.”

Originally from Asia, the spotted wing drosophila was first found stateside in California in 2008 and has since spread across the continent. The insect lays its eggs in ripe and ripening small and stone fruits, and its developing larvae eat the fruit. The cosmetic imperfections caused by the larvae make the fruit undesirable to most consumers.

The fly's favorite fruits include blueberries, cherries, blackberries, raspberries, peaches and plums. The pest has not impacted wine grapes so far, Walton added.

Walton expects spotted wing drosophila populations in the Pacific Northwest to rapidly build through July and August when most susceptible fruits ripen.

The economic stakes are high. In Oregon alone, farmers grew $198 million of berries in 2012, with blueberries accounting for $108 million of that, according to a report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Growers also sold $74 million of sweet cherries that year, the report said.

In the absence of detection and control measures, Oregon's small and stone fruit industry could lose $31 million per year, according to a report by the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics at the University of California.

Since the discovery of the pest in Oregon, OSU has been collaborating with scientists in California and Washington to better understand it and help growers deal with it. For example, researchers at OSU are seeing if a parasitic wasp that is native to the United States, known as Pachycrepoides vindemmiae, can be used to control the spotted wing drosophila. It lays its eggs in the fly's pupae, thus killing them.

OSU will also lead a trip to South Korea in August to search for and collect other similar wasps, including one known as Asobara japonica that lays its eggs in the spotted wing drosophila's larvae. Over the next few years, researchers will study these wasps in quarantine to determine if it attacks only the fly's larvae. If tests show the wasp does not harm other insects, Asobara japonica and others could be released in the U.S. in three to five years.

For now, OSU has found that insecticides are the best way to control the pest. OSU pesticide evaluator Joe DeFrancesco tested various compounds for use on strawberries, blueberries and caneberries to see which are most effective. OSU entomologist Peter Shearer has conducted similar work on cherries. The top-performing pesticides are on OSU's website at http://bit.ly/SWD_GrowerInfoOSU.

"To protect against severe economic damage, we've seen farmers spraying more than usual – and this year will probably be no exception," said Shearer. "If farmers use proper sprays at proper times, they should be able to prevent the flies from damaging fruit."

Last year, farmers in the Willamette Valley and Oregon's Mid-Columbia Basin sprayed an average of five to nine times to control spotted wing drosophila at an average cost of $169 an acre, said Walton. Before the fly landed in Oregon, the state's small fruit growers typically sprayed only twice a year to manage other pests, Shearer said. Oregon's blueberry growers alone spent $6 million last year to manage the spotted wing drosophila, Walton estimates.

OSU is also investigating the impact of cold weather on the insect's survival. Early data suggest that some adults can survive fluctuating conditions and can live for 150 days in the winter. Low humidity appears to negatively impact the fly's survival and reproduction, but tests are still ongoing to confirm these findings.

Additionally, OSU researchers have also helped develop an interactive map that estimates the fly's population throughout the U.S. based on temperature and weather conditions. In the mid-Willamette Valley, data suggest that three to five generations of the pest emerge during each growing season.

OSU is also advising growers to monitor for the fly by hanging homemade traps containing apple cider vinegar in plastic cups punctured with small holes that lure in the insect. Amy Dreves, an entomologist with OSU Extension, explains how to make them in a video at http://bit.ly/OSU_SWDtrap. Researchers are working to develop better baits and traps that catch the spotted wing drosophila earlier in the ripening season to help growers determine when to treat for the pest.

In addition, Bernadine Strik, a berry crops specialist with the OSU Extension Service, is monitoring the presence of the pest in an organic research plot and using organically-approved methods to control the fly.

More information on the fly is on OSU's website at www.spottedwing.org. The site features guides to identify the fly, advice for gardeners and commercial growers, and updates on OSU's research. It also contains links to the following guides published by the OSU Extension Service:

OSU's partners in the spotted wing drosophila project include the Oregon Department of Agriculture, Washington State University and the University of California, Davis. The work is funded by a $5.8 million grant from the USDA.

Media Contact: 

Vaughn Walton, 541-737-3485;

Peter Shearer, 541-386-2030 ext. 215;

Amy Dreves, 541-737-5576;

Bernadine Strik, 541-737-5434

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Spotted wing drosophila

Small and stone fruits are preferred foods of the spotted wing drosophila, an invasive pest that first arrived in the U.S. in 2008. (Photo by Vaughn Walton.)

Soil parasite costs Northwest wheat growers $51 million in lost revenue, says OSU

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A microscopic parasitic roundworm is costing Pacific Northwest wheat growers $51 million in lost revenue each year because it's cutting grain yields by an average of about 5 percent, according to estimates by Oregon State University researchers.

Called the root-lesion nematode, the transparent, eel-shaped roundworm lives in the soil and feeds on the roots of wheat, barley, oats and many other crops. This limits the crops' ability to take up nutrients and water, leaving plants with smaller heads and yellowed leaves.

"The presence of nematodes is usually confused with root rot, viruses or lack of nutrition because the effect on crops looks the same," said Dick Smiley, a plant pathologist at OSU's Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center in Pendleton. “But nematodes often go undetected because they're not well-known, and they're transparent and thinner than a human hair.”

Researchers have detected the root-lesion nematode in about 90 percent of fields sampled in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, according to Smiley, who has studied the pest since 1999. Population densities of nematodes high enough to reduce yields have been detected in 60 percent of fields sampled in Oregon and Washington. The roundworm wreaks the most havoc in drier areas where wheat and barley grow.

Most nematodes are beneficial to agriculture by helping decompose organic matter. Some, however, are parasitic to plants or animals. They spread easily, hitchhiking to new locations via the wind, animals, farm equipment and boots. It's nearly impossible to eradicate them once they're established.

Another harmful roundworm, the cereal cyst nematode, is also damaging wheat, barley and oats in the Pacific Northwest. First identified in western Oregon in 1974, it is now found in eight western states.

Wheat farmers in Idaho, Oregon and Washington are estimated to lose $3.4 million in revenue each year to cereal cyst nematodes, according to OSU calculations. Researchers arrived at the figure by considering a range of factors, including the percentage of fields infested with damaging densities of nematodes, as well as the yields and farmgate value for crops in these infested areas.

OSU scientists are studying crop management strategies to mitigate the worms' impact. The most effective tactic they've found is a three-year crop rotation where farmers skip two years between wheat plantings.

Rotations vary depending upon which nematode is causing problems. Root-lesion nematodes are well-managed by planting winter wheat the first year and spring barley the second year and then letting the field go fallow the third year. Cereal cyst nematodes are best-managed by rotating wheat or barley with broadleaf crops.

Crop damage can also be alleviated to a limited extent by applying extra fertilizer and water. There are no chemicals legally available for wheat and barley growers to kill the two types of nematodes.

OSU researchers have also tested more than 20 wheat, barley and oat cultivars to determine how badly yields are reduced. Most Pacific Northwest wheat varieties don't resist harmful nematodes.

In OSU's tests, nearly every variety suffered severe root injury. Only the hard red spring wheat WB-Rockland prevented cereal cyst nematodes from reproducing while also maintaining consistent yields. UI Stone, a soft white spring wheat, and Buck Pronto, a hard red spring wheat, allowed nematode populations to thrive but still produced a steady crop.

Additionally, University of Idaho, Washington State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and commercial wheat breeders are crossing sources of resistance with a number of wheat varieties to create new cultivars that can potentially stand up to the cereal cyst and root-lesion nematodes.

OSU researchers recommend growers have their soil tested for nematodes. Addresses for testing labs, as well as information about management strategies for farmers, are available in two OSU Extension factsheets at http://bit.ly/OSU_ExtBulletin3 and http://bit.ly/OSU_ExtBulletin2.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington State University and the University of Idaho are collaborators with OSU on its cereal cyst nematode research.

Media Contact: 

Richard Smiley, 541-278-4397

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OSU nematode expert Richard Smiley

Dick Smiley, a plant pathologist at Oregon State University, examines the roots of young wheat plants. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

OSU aims for 1,000 Lane County 4-H'ers

EUGENE, Ore. – In three to five years, the Oregon State University Extension Service aims to get more than 1,000 youth enrolled in its 4-H clubs in Lane County, which are returning after a two-year absence.

"Our goal is to grow our enrollment back to and even exceed what we historically had in the past," said John Punches, a regional Extension administrator. "I think we will grow much bigger over time."

The 4-H youth development program closed in 2010, when about 400 youth were members of clubs, because the county's government withdrew its funding for Extension. But thanks to donations, Extension in Lane County has been training club leaders and recruiting students since October 2012.

"4-H is back," Punches said. "It’s in a new format that will allow young people to get hands-on experience in everything from animals to art and marine science to machinery and food to photography – all while developing leadership skills and doing great things for the communities where they live."

Six general interest community 4-H clubs for students in grades 4-12 are open for enrollment in Eugene, Springfield and other parts of Lane County. Extension has trained 45 adult volunteers to lead the clubs and serve as mentors.

Annalisa Linn, 13, of Veneta, participated in 4-H two years ago. She signed up for the 4-H club in western Lane County in February and is looking forward to learning about photography, cake decorating and art. Two years ago, her family had to drive nearly two hours to Corvallis to participate in the 4-H program in Benton County.

"I'm just really happy it's back and I don't have to drive all the way to Benton," she said.

Members of each club will be able to decide what skills they want to learn. For example, one student could learn to show horses while another pupil in that same club learns to raise a puppy as a guide dog. Other topics could include woodworking, leather craft, public speaking, rocketry, crocheting, entomology and leadership development.

OSU Extension is also recruiting adult leaders with the aim of creating groups for Cloverbuds, a 4-H program for youth in kindergarten through third grade.

To lead 4-H in Lane County, Extension hired Kate Hammarback of Eugene, who comes with extensive experience in education and community organizing. Hammarback, who started Feb. 8, previously worked as a children's program teacher for the Oregon Research Institute. She will develop and establish clubs, recruit and train leaders, develop activities, collaborate with 4-H officials in neighboring counties and encourage kids to sign up for the clubs.

In the past several months, Extension officials and volunteers have raised more than $50,000 in donations and grants, which will fund the 4-H program in Lane County for its first year, Punches said. Retailer Coastal Farm and Ranch has pledged $100,000 in seed money for the first three years.

"Coastal's support has been instrumental in getting the 4-H program restarted in Lane County," Punches said.

In the long run, the Extension Service aims to sustain the program through enrollment fees, grants and more donations, Punches said.

For information about enrolling in 4-H as a student or volunteering as an adult, go to http://bit.ly/11DgZuK or call the OSU Extension Service in Lane County at 541-344-5043.

4-H is the largest out-of-school youth development program nationwide. Thousands of young people in kindergarten through 12th grade participate in OSU Extension's 4-H program each year in a variety of hands-on activities. The return of 4-H to Lane County means that OSU Extension now has a 4-H presence in every one of Oregon's 36 counties.

The following is a schedule of club meetings open to parents and youth:

  • West Lane Community Club: April 10 at 6 p.m., Veneta Fire Station, 88050 Territorial Hwy., Veneta
  • Eugene Community Club: April 15 at 6:30 p.m., Willakenzie Grange, 3055 Willakenzie Rd., Eugene
  • Springfield Community Club: April 18 at 6 p.m., Trinity Baptist Church, 1162 B St., Springfield
Media Contact: 

John Punches, 541-602-4689

Kate Hammarback, (541) 344-5043

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Kate Hammarback is the new 4-H coordinator for the Oregon State University Extension Service in Lane County. (Photo by Patty Driscoll.)


Children participate in a parachute activity at a 4-H summer camp in Lane County in 2006. New 4-H clubs are returning to Lane County after a funding shortfall ended the Oregon State University Extension Service's 4-H program there in 2010. (Photo by OSU's EESC.)

Remote-controlled aircraft to fly near Hermiston for potato research

HERMISTON, Ore. – Two small, remote-controlled aircraft are expected to start flying over potato fields in the Hermiston area this month as part of Oregon State University's efforts to help farmers more efficiently use water, fertilizers and pesticides to bolster yields and cut costs.

While taking photographs, the aircraft will fly over 50 acres of OSU's 300-acre Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center (HAREC), as well as several crop circles totaling about 1,000 acres at a research cooperative farm west of Boardman. The flights will take place at least three times a week until the potatoes are harvested in the fall, beginning with a test run Wednesday at the Boardman farm.

OSU researchers will use various cameras on the aircraft to photograph the potato plants. The cameras will include ones that detect different wavelengths of light. One of these wavelengths, infrared, is reflected by plants, but unhealthy plants reflect less of it, and in infrared photographs sick plants are much darker. Researchers will also explore using other wavelengths of light to determine which ones will be most helpful in identifying troubled plants.

Researchers aim to see if the cameras, which are capable of zooming in on a leaf, can detect plants that aren't getting enough fertilizer and water. They'll purposely reduce irrigation and fertilizer on some plants and will then see how quickly, if at all, the equipment detects the stressed plants. If it works, the scientists hope that the project will continue in subsequent years so they can test the cameras to also find plants that are plagued by insects and diseases. The idea is to help farmers take action before larger crop losses occur and it becomes more difficult and expensive to control the problem.

"The key is to pick up plants that are just beginning to show stress so you can find a solution quickly, so the grower doesn’t have any reduced yield or quality issues," said Phil Hamm, the director of HAREC. "This in turn can save money. It's an early warning system for plants with issues as well as an opportunity for growers to reduce costs by being more efficient in water and fertilizer use."

Potatoes were chosen as the focus of the research because they're a high-valued crop, expensive to raise and must be carefully managed to reduce internal and external blemishes and irregular growth spurts, said Don Horneck, an agronomist with the OSU Extension Service. One of Oregon's leading crops, the state's farmers sold $173 million of potatoes in 2012, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. But spuds are prone to devastating problems caused by diseases and insects, said Horneck, who is the lead researcher from OSU on the project.

"They are one of the most difficult and expensive crops to grow," he said, adding that it typically costs Hermiston farmers $4,000 or more per acre to grow them. That equates to about $500,000 for the average size of field in the area.

OSU hopes that the aircraft it tests will reduce these costs. The aircraft that will fly over OSU's land is called a HawkEye and is sold by a company called Tetracam. About the size of a suitcase and weighing only 8 pounds, its maximum flight time is 10-30 minutes. The hull-less, battery-operated machine is easy to operate and was made for farmers with plots of land that are less than one square mile. A motor and propeller allow it to take off on four wheels. A parachute keeps it in the air. Photos and videos of it are at http://bit.ly/10LDbjt.

A delta-winged aircraft made of plastic foam will fly over the private farm. Made by Procerus Technologies and called a Unicorn, it has a wingspan of no more than 6 feet and weighs less than 6 pounds. A bungee cord launches it like a slingshot. A factsheet on it is at http://bit.ly/XTqioS.

OSU is inviting the public to see the HawkEye fly during its potato field day at its Hermiston research center on June 26.

Allaying concerns about privacy, Hamm said, "These unmanned aircraft are for agricultural research only and will be used to do nothing more than that. This is about helping our local growers do a better job of growing crops, something HAREC has been doing for the past 102 years."

The Federal Aviation Administration has authorized the flights of the aircraft, which aren't allowed to fly higher than 400 feet and must stay within sight of the operator, typically less than a mile away.

OSU is leasing the aircraft from Boeing Research & Technology. n-Link, an information technology firm in Bend, is also a partner in the project. Ray Hunt, a plant physiologist with the USDA in Beltsville, Md., will collaborate with OSU's Horneck on the data analysis.

OSU aims to become one of the nation's premiere universities using unmanned aircraft for research. It is using or has plans to use them in studies on natural resources, wildlife, land-use management, forestry, oceanography and engineering.

Media Contact: 

Phil Hamm, 541-567-8321

College of Agricultural Sciences

About the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences: The college contributes in many ways to the economic and environmental sustainability of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. The college's faculty are leaders in agriculture and food systems, natural resources management, life sciences and rural economic development research.|College of Agricultural Sciences

OSU's agricultural art exhibit opens in Corvallis, then Roseburg

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The work of 17 handpicked artists is on display in the 31st year of an Oregon State University exhibit inspired by agriculture and its bounty.

The Art About Agriculture exhibit, sponsored by OSU's College of Agricultural Sciences, runs through April 25 at LaSells Stewart Center on campus in Corvallis. The public is invited to meet the artists at a reception in the center's Giustina Gallery April 19 from 6-8 p.m.

The artwork will then be on tour May 10 to June 30 in Roseburg at the Umpqua Valley Arts Association at 1624 W. Harvard Ave. A public reception will take place there on the opening night from 5-7 p.m.

This year's work explores agricultural bounty and community – from consumers to marketers to farmers – in drawings, paintings, photographs, prints, wood and sculptures. Artists drew inspiration from vineyards, farmers markets and their own vegetable gardens. They hail from Oregon, Washington and Alaska.

One of them, Sally Finch of Portland, created an abstract piece depicting rainfall graphs of dryland farming. She used graphite and acrylic ink. Christine Bourdette of Portland produced six-inch bronze figurines riding potatoes. Lynn Miller of Sisters painted "Corn Shatter – Ditch Parrot's Dream" in oil on canvas.

The College of Agricultural Sciences convened a committee of art professionals to nominate artists to participate in the exhibit. Sally Houck, director of the Newport Visual Arts Center, and Irene Zenev, executive director of the Benton County Historical Society and Museum, judged the artwork. With more than $4,500, from patrons’ annual gifts and program endowment earnings, the judges recommended purchasing some of the works for the college's permanent collection, and awarding Mike Van this year's only cash honorarium for his watercolor-and-charcoal piece, "All Will Be Fed."

"Art About Agriculture was created in response to a need to develop a bridge between rural and urban Oregonians," said OSU Professor Gwil Evans. He wrote the original grant proposal that funded the inaugural exhibit in 1983.  

Three decades later, 250 works of art in the exhibit's permanent collection grace the hallways, meeting rooms and offices at OSU, state agencies in Salem and government agencies throughout Oregon year-round, said Shelley Curtis, the directing curator for Art About Agriculture.

Participating artists:

Debra Beers - Portland, Oregon

Christine Bourdette - Portland, Oregon

Harrison Branch - Corvallis, Oregon

Mark Clarke - Eugene, Oregon

Sally Finch - Portland, Oregon

Caryn Friedlander - Bellingham, Washington

Yuji Hiratsuka - Corvallis, Oregon

Tracy Leagjeld - Portland, Oregon

Denise McFadden - Vancouver, Washington

Lynn Miller - Sisters, Oregon

Connie Mueller - Eugene, Oregon

Adam Ottavi - Ester, Alaska

Mike Rangner - Albany, Oregon

Sara Tabbert - Fairbanks, Alaska

Gary Tepfer - Eugene, Oregon

Maurice "Mike" Van - Eugene, Oregon

Jennifer Williams - Ridgefield, Washington

Media Contact: 

Shelley Curtis, 541-737-5534

OSU turns winemaking waste into food supplements and flowerpots

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers at Oregon State University have discovered how to turn the pulp from crushed wine grapes into a natural food preservative, biodegradable packaging materials and a nutritional enhancement for baked goods.

The United States wine industry creates a tremendous amount of waste from processing more than 4 million tons of grapes each year, mostly in the Pacific Northwest and California, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Wineries typically pay for the pulp to be hauled away, but a small percentage is used in low-value products such as fertilizer and cow feed.

"We now know pomace can be a sustainable source of material for a wide range of goods," said researcher Yanyun Zhao, a professor and value-added food products specialist with the OSU Extension Service. "We foresee wineries selling their pomace rather than paying others to dispose of it. One industry's trash can become another industry's treasure."

The pulp, which consists of stems, skins and seeds, is known as pomace and is packed with dietary fiber and phenolics, which have antioxidant effects. OSU researchers have dried and ground it to create edible and non-edible products.

For example, they extracted dietary fiber from pomace and turned it into powders that can be added to foods. Because the phenolics in pomace also control microbial growth and keep fats from deteriorating, OSU researchers also added the powdery fiber to yogurts and salad dressings to extend their shelf life by up to a week without changing taste and texture.

The researchers also used pomace to make colorful, edible coatings and films that can be stretched over fruits, vegetables and other food products. They contain antioxidants, seal in moisture and control the growth of some bacteria.

Additionally, the scientists added pomace powders, which are gluten-free, to muffins and brownies. They replaced up to 15 percent of the flour in the recipes with it and thus increased the fiber and antioxidants in the baked goods. The research continues as scientists are also adding pomace to yeast breads.

"Adding fiber-rich ingredients can change a dough's absorption qualities and stiffness," said OSU cereal chemist Andrew Ross. "We're trying to find the right balance of pomace in dough while measuring the bread for its density, volume, color and taste. Commercial bakeries need this information before using pomace flour for large-scale production."

OSU has also made pomace into biodegradable boards, which can further be molded into containers, serving trays and flowerpots. After burial in soil for 30 days, the products degraded by 50 percent to 80 percent.

Researchers found that the methods for making products from pomace vary depending on if the pulp is from red or white grapes. That's because winemaking processes differ for each varietal and they produce pulp with different levels of sugar, nitrogen, phenolics and other compounds. In their experiments, researchers used pomace from grapes that included Pinot Noir, Merlot, Morio Muscat and Muller Thurgau.

Now, OSU is seeking to establish partnerships with companies interested in marketing the products it developed.

The research has been published in various journals, including the Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Food Chemistry, and the Journal of Food Science.

Media Contact: 

Yanyun Zhao, 541-737-9151

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OSU reseracher Yanyun Zhao

Yanyun Zhao, a food scientist at Oregon State University, holds a muffin made with grape pomace. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

Fiber board made with wine grape pomace

Oregon State University made this biodegradable fiberboard from grape pomace, which consists of the skins, stems and seeds left over from winemaking. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

OSU makes oysters safer to eat with improved purification method

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University has improved an old method of making oysters safer to eat so that more bacteria are removed without sacrificing taste and texture.

The improved process nearly clears their digestive tracts of the bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which can cause gastroenteritis, an infection marked by severe abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Each year in the United States, more than 40,000 cases of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection are linked to the consumption of seafood, particularly raw oysters, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"This bacteria is a huge safety concern," said Yi-Cheng Su, an OSU professor of seafood microbiology and safety. “Cooking oysters easily kills it, but many consumers want to eat raw shellfish without worrying about foodborne illness. Oysters are also worth more to the seafood industry when alive.”

To make oysters safer, processors freeze, heat up or pressurize the mollusks. They also place them in tanks of clean seawater at room temperature. In the latter case, which is known as depuration, the shellfish filter clean water through their system and excrete most bacteria from their digestive tracts into the water. The dirty water is then filtered and sterilized with UV light.

But depuration at ambient temperature is not fully effective, researchers say. More than 10 percent of the Vibrio bacteria still remain after two days of depuration.

Pressurization, freezing and heat treatment kill all the Vibrio bacteria but they also kill the shellfish. Additionally, freezing and heat treatment negatively affect their taste, texture, shelf life and value.

Seeking a better alternative, Su and his colleagues tweaked the depuration method. They chilled the water to between 45 and 55 degrees and sterilized it with ultraviolet light. Their method eliminated 99.9 percent of the bacteria after four to five days. The oysters stayed alive during the purification, and their texture and taste were not altered. The new depuration process is also more cost-effective, Su said.

"Temperature-controlled depuration uses less electricity than other methods that rely on freezers, heat, pressurization and even radiation," he said. "Depuration systems are also relatively cheap to build – just a few shellfish holding tanks each equipped with a water pump, a UV sterilizer and a temperature control device."

The oysters still need to be placed in cold storage after the depuration process because warm environments allow any remaining bacteria to multiply quickly, nullifying the depuration process.

OSU researchers are also exploring ways to speed up the low-temperature depuration process by adding antimicrobial agents to the seawater in the tanks.

Oregon producers sold $3 million of farmed oysters in 2011, according to a report by the OSU Extension Service.

Media Contact: 

Yi-Cheng Su, 503-325-4531

Multimedia Downloads

OSU researchers Yi-Cheng Su

Researcher Yi-Cheng Su pulls an oyster from a depuration tank at Oregon State University's Seafood Laboratory in Astoria. As the oysters filter the water, they excrete harmful bacteria from their digestive tracts and become safe to eat. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

OSU brews up new online, on-site classes for beer makers

CORVALLIS, Ore. – To fill a knowledge gap among both professional and hobbyist beer-makers, Oregon State University has created several online and on-site short courses for brewers who want to refine their technical skills.

On-site offerings will take place this summer in the brewing hotspots of Portland, Bend and Corvallis, allowing students to network with some of the state's leading brewmasters. OSU professor and fermentation scientist Tom Shellhammer, who designed the curricula after consulting with industry leaders, will be the lead instructor for the classes.

"There are plenty of introductory-level brewing related courses and programs for beginners or home brewers to get into the field, but not many options for advanced classes for professional development," said OSU's Marian Ladenburg of University Outreach and Engagement, which developed the courses. “There's a need for them in the industry.”

To register and to see a video about the classes, go to http://bit.ly/13jyA8Z. The registration deadline is April 1.

The first course will begin May 15 with two days of online instruction on microbiology to be completed by June 10. It will be followed by in-class lessons at OSU's brewery June 17-18 in Corvallis. Students will learn how to properly handle yeast and identify and assess organisms that can spoil wort and beer.

The second class, which will focus on beer analysis, also begins May 15. Students must complete online lessons by June 10. Then they can take on-campus instruction at OSU's brewery June 19-20. Participants will learn to calculate and measure different characteristics of beer, including wort gravity, carbohydrates, calories, dissolved oxygen, clarity and color.

In both courses, class size is limited to 24 students and admission determined by experience level.

Students in either of these classes are eligible to enroll in a one-day tour of Willamette Valley farms that produce ingredients for beer, as well as OSU's hops and barley breeding facilities on June 21. The goal of the tour is to help participants develop a quality assurance program for their breweries.

From June 12-14, OSU will offer a sensory testing course at its Food Innovation Center in Portland. Students will learn to collect and analyze brewing data and develop their skills in evaluating beer flavor, clarity, color and foam. Students will also tour the brewery of Widmer Brothers Brewing in Portland.

The sensory testing course will be repeated in Bend from July 31-Aug. 2 at Deschutes Brewery. Class size is limited to 40 students in each location. Registration is open to brewers of any experience level. Applications are accepted on a first-come, first-served basis.

For those who want to pursue brewing beyond this summer's short courses, OSU offers a bachelor's degree in food science and technology with an option in fermentation science. To view a video about it, go to http://youtu.be/KYoiqRS-lKM.

"The food science program historically has had 40 to 50 people in it, but since 2001, that's been on a steady climb," said Shellhammer, who holds the Nor'Wester Professorship in Fermentation Science. "We have more than 200 students in the program now. Of those, 60 percent are students interested in becoming brewers or with a strong interest in the brewery science program. People want to start breweries and there's a lot of people interested in working in breweries."

About 2,000 craft breweries operate in the United States, according to the Brewers Association. Oregon is home to 134 brewing companies, according to the Oregon Brewer's Guild.

Media Contact: 

Tom Shellhammer, 541-737-9308

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Fermentation scientist Tom Shellhammer shoulders a beer keg at Oregon State University's brewery. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)