Tragedy of the Commons

"The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248.

A classic metaphor that has affected environmental management for a generation. The commons metaphor is coming under increasing criticism, particularly from advocates of cooperative management. Hardin makes the point that there are problems for which there is no technical solution. The solution Hardin suggests is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon.

"The Eighteenth Century English Commons: A Model for Ocean Management," Susan S. Hanna, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Working Paper 89-106, September 1989.

A description of the operation of English village and village management of resources. The English management approach is applied to ocean management.

"On the Checks to Population," William Forster Lloyd, pp. 8-15, In Managing the Commons, Garett Hardin and John Baden (1977).

"The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin, pp. 16-30, In Managing the Commons, Garett Hardin and John Baden (1977). Another source for the classic article, plus many related articles of interest.

The common pasture metaphor

Life Boat Ethics

Garrett Hardin, 1974, Living on a Lifeboat, Bioscience, October 1974: 561-568.

an ethically troubling metaphor - perhaps we're all in the same boat

the solution is Draconian, pernicious

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Updated:Wednesday, 22-Sep-1999 12:42:08 PDT URL is