Calvinism is a Christian theology started by French church reformer John Calvin. Its central themes were the absolute sovereignty of God and the doctrine of justification by faith alone. Calvinists denied that human beings were capable of free will and elaborated on convictions of predestination. Predestination is the belief that certain persons are chosen by God for salvation while others are committed to constant damnation. Calvinists believed that the bible was the way to a life of faith.
Humanism is an attempt at accentuating the dignity and importance of an individual. Humanism is a term most often associated with the fourteenth and fifteenth century literary and cultural movement that spread through western Europe. This philosophical thinking sought to rekindle Platonist beliefs and to influence literature, architectu re, and paintings of the times.
Arminianism is one of the early Rationalist sects of Protestantism. It is a tenet within Christianity that allows for human free will without going against the Bible or limiting God's power. Contemporary Arminianism means that predestination does not exist and that people have the right to follow or reject this belief system.
Protestantism is one of the three major sects of Christianity (the others being Roman Catholic and Orthodoxy). This movement began as a reform to the church in the sixteenth century, concluding in the Protestant Reformation. The objectives of the reformers were to bring the Christian faith back to its beginnings. The four main divisions that came out of the Protestant Reformation were Lutheran (Evangelical), Calvinist (Refo rmed), Anabaptist, and Anglican. Protestantism in contemporary times is a term used to describe Christians that are not Roman Catholic, Orthodox, or any other Eastern Christian religion. Because Protestantism is the youngest form of Christianity, it ha s certain distinguishing differences from the two older forms. It is characterized by a willingness to question opinions and authorities and to protest against abuses. Protestantism believes in the justification of elegance through faith, the authority of the Bible, and that the priesthood is of all believers.