READINGS

Biotechnologies: Agriculture, Food, Natural Resource Issues

BIOLOGY 430-430H/530 & FOREST SCIENCE 430-430H/530

 

Required text (OSU bookstore)

Pringle, Peter. 2003. Food, Inc: Mendel to Monsanto - The Promises and Perils of the Biotech Harvest.  Simon and Schuster.  239 pp.

Optional text (In class distribution)

Biotechnology: Science and Society at a Crossroads.  National Agricultural Biotechnology Council Report 15.  A. Eaglesham, S. Ristow, R.W.F. Hardy, Eds.  292 pp. 

 

 

Tuesday

Thursday

 

1

Sep 28

Class overview & organization (Strauss)

 

Required

·  Pringle: pp. 1-37, 141-203

·  Informing the dialogue, Cornell, 2002

·  Agricultural biotechnolgy: savior or scourge? - NABC 13, pp. 32-45

·  Why are people hostile to biotechnologies?, 2004

 

Background

·  Labeling Genetically Engineered Foods - Ag Bioforum, 2003

·  Harvest on Horizon, Pew - 2001

·  Viewpoint: On the origin of specious critics, 1985

 

Patents

·    Peterson Lecture Outline 2004

·    Breeding sanity into the GM food debate, 2004

·    Access to intellectual property is a major obstacle to developing transgenic horticultural crops - California Agriculture, Vol 58 No. 2, pp. 1-10

·    Gene Patents: socially acceptable monopolies or an unnecessary hindrance to research?, 2001

·    Patenting Agriculture - Issues Online 2001

·    Basic requirements for patents

 

Pro-biotech overviews

·  The benefits of Biotech - Regulation 2003

·  Plant biotechnology: Current and potential impact for improving pest management in US agriculture - NCFAP, 2002

·  GM Foods Brochure

·  Good ideas are growing, 2004

 

Anti-biotech overviews

·  Genetically engineered crops: Myths or realities -Lecture, 2003

·  Ecological Impacts of Transgenic Crops on Agroecosystem Health, 2000

·  GMO Crops, a decade of failure, Friends of the Earth report - 1994-2004

·  FOODday article with sample of anti-biotech books, 2000

Sep 30

Status of biotech crops worldwide (Strauss)

 

Required

·  Pringle: pp. 79-95

·  Japanese controversies over transgenic crop regulation

·  A growing controversy: An effort to genetically create a Roundup-tolerant grass seed stalls because of market, scientific and regulatory dilemmas., Oregonian, Sep 12, 2004 .

·  Genes From Engineered Grass Spread for Miles-NY Times, 2004

·  The Travels of a Bioengineered Gene, NY Times Editorial, 2004

·  Public attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology - FAO, 2004

·  The Economic Impacts of Biotechnology Based Technological Innovations - FAO, 2004

·  Pew - Issues in Regulation, pp. 1-10

·  California Agriculture - Regulatory challenges reduce opportunity for horticultural biotechnology - Vol 58, No. 2, pp. 82-83, 106-109, 111

 

Background

·  Genetically modified crops in the United States - PEW, 2004

·  Environmental Impacts - FAO, 2003, Chapter 5 - Section B

·  The rapid emergence of GE modification in world agriculture: contested risks and benefits - Environmental Conservation, 2001

·  Landscape gene flow, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2004

·  Issues in the regulation of genetically engineered plants and animals, pp. 1-10 - PEW 2004

·  An assessment of the risks associated with use of antibiotic resistant genes in genetically modified plants, 2004

·  Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: current status and recommendations - ESA , 2003

·   US vs. EU Trade Issues Report - PEW, 2003

 

Farm-scale trials UK

·  Deciding the future of GM crops in Europe - Science, 2003

·  UK field-scale evaluations answer wrong questions - Nature Biotechnology, 2003

·  UK farm-scale evaluations of transgenic herbicide-tolerant crops - Nature Biotechnology, 2003

 

 

2

Oct 5

Origins of agriculture and plant breeding: (Peterson)

 

Required

· History of plant breeding, Colorado State U

· Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication - Nature, 2002

 

Oct 7

The Green Revolution (Peterson)

 

Required

·  Pringle: pp. 38-56

·  Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing? - IFPRI, 2003

·  Malthus foiled again and again - Nature, 2002

 

Background

·  From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution, FAO 2003, Chapter 3 - Section A

 

3

Oct 12

The science of genes (Filichkin)

 

Required

·  California Agriculture - 2004, Vol. 58, No. 2 pp. 71

·  DNA/transgenic plant basics, Colorado State U

·  From a source of choice: Review DNA structure, replication, expression; genome size, structure, transposons, and repetitive DNA ; genomic expression and sequencing methods such as microarray DNA chips, EST sequencing; genomic information databases, sequence comparisions between species; gene amplification/detection via PCR ; and DNA fingerprinting.  A few of the many choices: Cold Spring Harbor animated lessons, U Kansas Genetics Education Center, Gene school links 

 

Oct 14

Biotechnologies (Strauss)

 

Required

·  Virus resistant transgenic papaya helps save Hawaiian industry - California Agriculture, 2004, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp.92 -93

·  What is Agricultural Biotechnology? - FAO, Chapter 2 - Section A

 

Background

·  Good Ideas are Growing - Council for Biotechnology Information, 2003

·  A comparison between crop domestication, classical plant breeding, and genetic engineering - Crop Sci, 2002

·  Molecular strategies for gene containment in transgenic crops - Nature Biotechnology, 2002

·  Transgenic virus resistant papaya-from hope to reality - APS Net, 2004

 

4

Oct 19

Chemicals of concern (Jenkins)

 

Required

·  EU starts a chemical reaction - Science, 2003

·  Get a Load of the Mono-2-Ethylhexyl-Phthalate In That Guy - Washington Post, 2004

 

Background

·  Possible dispute over EU policy - Chemical & Engineering News, 2004

·  Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction - Mutation Research, 2000

·  EU parliament document / chemical registration

·  Breaking the cycle - EPA, 2002

Oct 21

Chemicals in the environment (Jenkins)

 

Required

·  Pollution gets personal - Science, 2004

·  Centers for Disease Control pp. 1-5, 2003

 

Background

·  Pharmaceutical, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US Streams, 1999-2000, 2002 Report

 

 

 

5

Oct 26

The food industry and regulation of food safety (McGorrin)

 

Required

·  Pringle: pp. 57-68, 96-120

·  Food safety evaluation of crops produced through biotechnology, 2002

·  FDA letter to Kitzhaber, 2002

·  NRC/IOM report Figure 1

 

Background

·  Institute of Food Technologists Expert Reports on biotechnology and foods (intro, labeling, benefits, concerns) , IFT 2002

·  Flies in the soup - European GM labeling legislation - Nature Biotechnology 2004

·  Biotech foods: a closed and reopened case - American Chem Soc, 2000

·  Questions linger over European GM food regulations - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

·  NRC/IOM GM Food Safety - Exec Summ

·  Beyond substantial equivalence -Nature, 1999

·  Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods - Plant Journal, 2001

·  Outline of FDA regulation GM food - FDA, 1992

·  The safety of GM foods produced through biotechnology - Society of Toxicology, 2003

Oct 28

Natural vs. synthetic chemicals (Sudakin)

 

Required

·  Botanical medicines - the need for new regulations, 2002

·  Regulatory framework for functional foods and dietary supplements, 2004

 

Background

·  Dietary Supplements: A framework for evaluating safety - National Research Council, 2004

 

6

Nov 2

Pest control, pesticides, and the story of DDT (Jepson)

 

Required

·  DDT: Ubiquity, persistence and risks, 2002

 

Background

·  Res & Regulation Pesticides 50 yrs, J Ag Food Chem, 2002

 

Lecture related notes

 

Nov 4

Ethics and animal rights: (Baggott)

 

Required

·  Ethics in practice - Iowa State, pp. 275-280

·  On telos and genetic engineering

·  Brave new birds: The use of animal integrity in animal ethics

·  Ethics and GM Foods -  NABC 13, pp. 183-197

·  New Nuffield report summary, pp. xxiii-xx

 

Background

·  Is repugnance wise? Visceral responses to biotechnology - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

·  Agricultural Ethics - Plant Physiology, 2004

·  Debating the precautionary principle: "Guilty until proven innocent" or "Innocent until proven guilty"? - Plant Physiology, 2003

·  A view from Edinburgh on cloning and genetic engineering

 

Lecture related notes

·  Vexing nature - Comstock - ethics

 

7

Nov 9

Organic and ecological agriculture (Stone, Durst)

 

Required

·  Organic Crop Production Overview - ATTRA, 2004 (pages 1-8 through "integrity"; 23, summary only; boxes on pp. 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22)

·  Organic: Is it the future of farming? - Nature, 2004

·  Urban myths of organic farming - Nature, 2001

·  Organic movement reveals a shift in the social position of science - Nature, 2001

·  Organics definition/exclusion of GMOs - OMRI, 2004

 

Background

·  Organic farming: science and belief

·  Detailed background paper on organics and GMOs - OMRI, 2000

·  Decision tree on GMOs and organic certification - OMRI, 2000

· National Organics regulation:  Peruse these sections: § 205.100 Applicability, § 205.101 Exemptions and exclusions, § 205.605 Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances, § 205.606 Non-organically produced agricultural products, § 205.607 Amending the National List

·  Concepts of intrinsic value and integrity of plants in organic plant breeding and propagation - Crop Science, 2003

·  Conventional and organic tomato agroecosystems, 1995

·  Mastitis in organic and conventional dairy herds, 2001

·  Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming, 2002

·  Sustainability of three apple production systems, 2001

·  Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification, 2002

·  Alternative and conventional farming and sustainability, Reganold

Nov 11

Sustainability and minimum tillage agriculture (Luna)

 

Required

·  Conservation Tillage Biotech - CTIC , 2004

·  Editorial: Missing the big picture - Nature, 2003

·  Book Review: Hybrids abounding - dangerous liaisons? When cultivated plants mate with their wild relatives - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

 

Required - Honors Section ONLY - Intellectual Property Controversies

·  Patenting Agriculture, 2001

·  Breeding sanity into the GM food debate, 2004

 

Background

·  Sustainable Agriculture, Scientific American 1990

·  Assessing the risks associated with new agricultural practices - Nature, 2002

·  The second silent spring? - Nature, 1999

·  Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops - Nature Biotechnology, 2002

·  Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices - Nature, 2002

·  Comparative environmental impacts of biotechnology derived and traditional soybean, corn, and cotton crops - CAST, 2002

 

 

8

Nov 16

Dolly, BST, and transgenic animals (Croney)

 

Required

·  Biotech in Barnyard - Pew, 2003, pp. 1-15

·  Animal Biotechnology: science-based concerns - NRC, 2002

·  Engineered fish: friend or foe

- Science, 2002

Background

·  Animal biotechnology and industry: Challenges and opportunities in the real world, 1999

·  BST and human safety - Michigan State , 1994

·  Ranking risks of gene-altered animals - NY Times, 2002

·  BST in cows health report, 1999

Nov 18 - Term Paper Outline Due

"Tacogate" (Sudakin)

 

Required

·  Starlink corn: a risk analysis - EHP, 2003

 

 

 

9

Nov 23

BT insect-tolerant crops (Jepson)

 

Required

·  Pringle: pp. 121-140

·  Are Bt crops safe? - Nature Biotechnology, 2003

·  Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Lessons from the first seven years - ISB, 2003, pp. 1-4

·  Editorial: Why Bt cotton pays for small-scale producers in South Africa - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

 

Background

·  New Leaf potato - NABC pp. 235-242

·  Resistance to Bt crops surprisingly absent from pests - Nature Biotechnology, 2003

·  Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the development of Bt transgenic plants, 2002

·  The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon - Plant Journal, 2001

Nov 25

Thanksgiving - No Class

 

10

Nov 30

Future foods and drugs (Strauss)

 

Required

·  Edible Vaccines - Scientific American, 2000

·  Fear of Pharming - Scientific American 2004

·  Pharming the Field  - PEW, 2003

·  Editorial: Drugs in crops - the unpalatable truth - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

·  Should we be pharming with food crops - NABC 15, 2003- pp. 191-195

·  Biopharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants - QJ Med, 2004

 

 

Background

·  On risk and plant-based biopharmaceuticals - Trends in Biotechnology, 2004

·  Going to "great lengths" to prevent the escape of genes that produce specialty chemicals - Plant Physiology, 2003

·  NABC 14, pp. 121-126, 143-152, 153-166

 

Dec 2 - Term Paper and all essays due / Class evaluations - Student Presentations

Who are the winners and losers?  (Strauss)

 

Required

·  Enhancing the crops to feed the poor - Nature, 2002

·  Insect resistant maize for Africa: lab to field and challenges along the way -   NABC 15, pp. 167-172

·  The Cartagena Protocol and the future of biotech - Nature Biotechnology, 2004

·  Can Biotechnology Meet the Needs of the Poor? - FAO, 2003, Chapter 1 - Section A

·  New Nuffield report summary, pp. xxiii-xx

 

Background

·  Opportunities for challenges to plant biotechnology adoption in developing countries - NABC 15 pp. 245-261

·  Plant biotechnology in China - Science, 2002

·  Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries - Science, 2003

·  Advances in plant biotechnology and its adoption in developing countries, 2003

·  The papaya story: a special case or a generic approach? -   NABC 15 pp. 223-230

·  World Hunger: 12 Myths - Second Edition, pp. 1 - 41

 

Final exam: Thursday Dec 9, 9:30 AM, Peavy Hall 104