Contents: By Damage and Image
In progress
Contents: Alphabetical

alder flea beetle
aphid management
apple and thorn skeletonizer
apple ermine moth
ash whitefly
azalea bark scale
azalea lace bug
azalea sawfly
Bagrada bug
bark lice
Barypeithes root weevil
Beneficial nematodes
biocontrol of root weevils
birch aphid
black bean aphid
black cherry aphids
black stem borer
bluegum psyllid
Boisduval scale
branch and twig borer
brown marmorated stink bug

bronze birch borer
boxwood leafminer
boxwood psyllid
bulb flies
cabbage whitefly
carnation tortrix
carpet beetle (images)
Calligraph californica

Ceanothus stem gall moth
cereal leaf beetle
cherry ermine moth
chilli thrips
cinnabar moth
clay colored weevil
cottony camellia scale

crane flies
cypress tip moth

dogwood sawfly
Douglas fir sawfly
Douglas fir twig weevil
elm leafminer
European pine sawfly new
European pine shoot moth
European wool carder bee
emerald ash borer
Fall webworm
fir coneworm new
flatheaded cedar borer
ground beetle gallery
Hemerocallis gall midge new
hollyhock weevil
honeylocust plant bug
honeylocust pod gall midge
Heliothis phloxiphaga
holly bud moth
huckleberry root aphids
ground mealybug
Japanese beetle
lady beetle gallery
leaf weevil
light brown apple moth
Linden aphid new
lupine aphid new
Macrosiphum rhamni new
maple aphids
maple tip moth
maple midge
March flies
mountain ash sawfly
Myzocallis sp. on red oak new
Narcissus bulb fly
natural enemies gallery
oak ambrosia beetle
oak slug
oak twig gall wasp
obscure root weevil
Pacific flatheaded borer
peach tree borer
peach twig borer
pear blight beetle
pear psylla
pear leaf-curling midge
pear sawfly
pine needle scale
pine and cone spittlebug
poplar and willow borer
Psyllopsis fraxinicola
rose curculio weevil
rose midge
rove beetle gallery
rose stem girdler
sequoia pitch moth
soldier beetle gallery
snapdragon plume moth new
snakefly gallery
speckled green fruitworm
meadow spittlebug
spotted asparagus beetle
spruce twig aphid
tent caterpillars
viburnum leaf beetle
violet gall midge
western poplar clearwing
western spotted cucumber beetle
white pine weevil
woolly alder aphid new
woolly ash aphid
woolly beech aphid

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European Pine Shoot Moth (EPSM)

A shepherd's crook symptom or distorted tips of pine trees are indications of possible damage from European Pine Shoot Moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Denis & Schiffermuller). Feeding by the moth larvae in the buds cause the buds to wilt and turn brown. Continued feeding can kill the terminal bud, leaving lateral shoots to bend up, replacing the terminal with a crooked top. In addition to direct damage, nurseries producing pines for sale need to be aware of the regulations that are required for nurseries which ship to California, Montana, and Nevada (See ODA link below).

Host pines include red, Mugho, and ponderosa pine, which may be badly damaged, as well Scotch and Austrian pines.

The adult moths emerge from overwintered pupa within the buds and begin their flights in late May-June in western Oregon. They mate immediately and begin laying eggs at the base of needles, bud scales, and on twigs of the trees. The eggs hatch in seven-ten days. The young larvae spin a small web near the needle sheath and stems then bore into the base of needles where they feed. Later, as the larvae mature,they move into the buds to feed. Larvae remain in the buds to overwinter.



Clipping or sheering new growth in late June or July may reduce EPSM populations, which are concentrated on the tips of branches.

Chemical control measures are generally timed for 10 days after peak trap catch. Pheromone traps are available to monitor adult flight activity. In Oregon, the ODA monitors sentinel traps and first trap catch.

There are some very helpful websites devoted to management of EPSM.

Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Regulations for shipping to California, Montana, and Nevada:

OSU EPSM Degree Day Calculator: Scroll to select model from list.

Hoover, Greg. 2004. European Pine Shoot Moth. Penn State Extension. Accessed 10 June 2014

Miller, W., Hastings, A. and V. Carolin. 1970. European Pine Shoot Moth. USDA-Forest Service. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet No. 59. Revised November 1970).



Original version: <12 February 2004)

Last update <8 August 2019>

Author: R.L. Rosetta, Extension Nursery Integrated Pest Management, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University/NWREC.


EPSM larva
EPKSM larva

EPSM damage including beginning crooknecking
EPSM damage

EPSM adult emergence hole

EPSM emergence hole

EPSH damage and frass
EPSM frass
Adult EPSM
European Pine Shoot Moth adult
Photo: Eric LaGasa, WSDA
Website editor:
Robin Rosetta

Page last modified 8/8/19


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