Contents: By Damage and Image
(In progress)
Contents: Alphabetical
alder flea beetle
aphid management
apple and thorn skeletonizer
apple ermine moth
ash whitefly new
azalea bark scale
azalea lace bug Updated
bark lice
Barypeithes root weevil
Beneficial nematodes
biocontrol of root weevils
birch aphid
black stem borer
bluegum psyllid
branch and twig borer
brown marmorated stink bug

bronze birch borer
boxwood leafminer
boxwood psyllid
bulb flies
carpet beetle New
Calligraph californica

Ceanothus stem gall moth
cereal leaf beetle
cherry ermine moth
chilli thrips
cinnabar moth
clay colored weevil
cottony camellia scale
cutworm Updated
cypress tip moth

dogwood sawfly
Douglas fir sawfly
Douglas fir twig weevil
elm leafminer
European pine shoot moth
European shot-hole borer Updated
European wool carder bee
emerald ash borer
Fall webworm
flatheaded cedar borer
hollyhock weevil
honeylocust plant bug
honeylocust pod gall midge
Heliothis phloxiphaga
holly bud moth
huckleberry root aphids
ground mealybug
lady beetle gallery
leaf weevil
light brown apple moth
maple tip moth
maple midge
March flies
mountain ash sawfly
spruce aphid on spruce
oak ambrosia beetle
oak slug
obscure root weevil
Pacific flatheaded borer
peach tree borer
peach twig borer
pear psylla
pear leaf-curling midge
pear sawfly New
pine needle scale
poplar and willow borer
rose curculio weevil
rose midge
sequoia pitch moth
speckled green fruitworm
tent caterpillars
viburnum leaf beetle
violet gall midge
western poplar clearwing
western spotted cucumber beetle
white pine weevil
woolly ash aphid

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European Pine Shoot Moth (EPSM)

A shepherd's crook symptom or distorted tips of pine trees are indications of possible damage from European Pine Shoot Moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Denis & Schiffermuller). Feeding by the moth larvae in the buds cause the buds to wilt and turn brown. Continued feeding can kill the terminal bud, leaving lateral shoots to bend up, replacing the terminal with a crooked top. In addition to direct damage, nurseries producing pines for sale need to be aware of the regulations that are required for nurseries which ship to California, Montana, and Nevada (See ODA link below).

Host pines include red, Mugho, and ponderosa pine, which may be badly damaged, as well Scotch and Austrian pines.

The adult moths emerge from overwinter pupa within the buds and begin their flights in late May-June in western Oregon. They mate immedeately and begin laying eggs at the base of needles, bud scales, and on twigs of the trees. The eggs hatch in seven-ten days. The young larvae spin a small web near the needle sheath and stems then bore into the base of needles where they feed. Later, as the larvae mature,they move into the buds to feed. Larvae remain in the buds to overwinter.



Clipping or sheering new growth in late June or July may reduce EPSM populations, which are concentrated on the tips of branches.

Chemical control measures are generally timed for 10 days after peak trap catch. Pheromone traps are available to monitor adult flight activity. In Oregon, the ODA monitors sentinel traps and first trap catch is sent out via the PNW Nursery IPM email alert system, PNW Nursery IPM onTwitter, and the OSU Nursery Extension, Research, and Education Facebook page.

There are some very helpful websites devoted to management of EPSM.

Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Regulations for shipping to California, Montana, and Nevada:

OSU EPSM Degree Day Calculator:

Hoover, Greg. 2004. European Pine Shoot Moth. Penn State Extension. Accessed 10 June 2014

Miller, W., Hastings, A. and V. Carolin. 1970. European Pine Shoot Moth. USDA-Forest Service. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet No. 59. Revised November 1970). Accessed 10 June 2014

Shetlar, Dave. European Pine Shoot Moth. The Ohio State University Extension. Access 10 June 2014

Pest's of Trees and Shrubs: European Pine Shoot Moth. University of Minnesota


EPSM larva
EPKSM larva
Photo: Rosetta, OSU

EPSM damage including beginning crooknecking
EPSM damage
Photo: Rosetta, OSU

EPSM adult emergence hole

EPSM emergence hole
Photo: Rosetta, OSU

EPSH damage and frass

EPSM frass
Photo: Rosetta, OSU
Adult EPSM
European Pine Shoot Moth adult
Photo: Eric LaGasa, WSDA
Website editor:
Robin Rosetta

Page last modified 6/10/14


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