Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 2
skip page navigationOregon State University    Department of Horticulture
Landscape Plants
Images, Identification, and Information
Volume 2  Copyright ©, Oregon State University,  1999-2014 

      Trying to identify a woody plant?  See the new woody plant data base.


This is Volume 2 of Oregon State University's Landscape Plants web site.   Landscape plants (mostly woody, i.e., shrubs and trees) in this volume are listed in alphabetical order by genus, from F (Fagus) through O (Oxydendrum).  From the list below select a letter which corresponds to the first letter of the genus you wish to view or, if listed, the genus itself (or search the Common Name List).
First letter of genus (or a Genus itself)
 Volume 1   A  Abelia  Abeliophyllum  Abies  Acca  Acer  Actinidia  Adansonia  Adenium
  Adenocarpus  Aesculus  Ailanthus  Akebia  Albizia  Alnus  Amelanchier  Amorpha
  Ampelopsis  Aralia  Araucaria  Arbutus  Arctostaphylos  Ardisis  Aronia
  Artemisia  Asimina  Athrotaxis  Atriplex  Aucuba  Azadirachta  Azara

  B  Baccharis  Bauhinia  Berberis  Betula  Brachyglottis   Buddleia  Bumelia  Buxus

  C  Callicarpa  Callitropsis  Calluna  Calocedrus  Calycanthus   Camellia  Campsis  Caragana
  Carissa  Carnegiea  Carpenteria  Carpinus  Carya  Caryopteris  Castanea  Catalpa
  Cathaya  Ceanothus  Cedrus  Celastrus  Celtis  Cephalanthus  Cephalotaxus  Ceratonia
  Cercidiphyllum  Cercidium  Cercis  Cercocarpus  Chaenomeles  Chamaebatiaria
  Chamaecyparis  Chilopsis  Chimonanthus  Chionanthus
  ×Chitalpa  Choisya  Chrysolepis  Chrysothamnus
  Cinnamomum  Cistus  Cladrastis  Clematis  Clerodendrum  Clethra
  Coleogyne  Cornus  Corylopsis  Corylus  Cotinus  Cotoneaster  Crataegus
  Cryptomeria  Cunninghamia  ×Cupressocyparis  Cupressus  Cydonia  Cytisus

  D  Daboecia  Daphne  Daphniphyllum  Dasiphora  Davidia
  Deutzia  Diospyros  Dirca  Disanthus  Drimys

  E  Edgeworthia  Elaeagnus  Encelia  Enkianthus  Ephedra  Erica  Eriobotrya
  Escallonia  Eucalyptus  Eucommia  Euonymus  Evodia  Exochorda
 Volume 2
current
 
F  Fagus  ×Fatshedera  Fatsia  Feijoa  Ficus  Firmiana  Fontanesia  Forsythia
  Fouquieria  Fothergilla  Fragaria  Franklinia  Fraxinus  Fremontodendron  Fuchsia

  G  Garrya  Gaultheria  Genista  Ginkgo  Gleditsia  Grevillea  Gymnocladus

  H  Hakea  Halesia  Hamamelis  Hebe  Hedera  Heptacodium
  Heteromeles  Hibiscus  Hippophae  Holodiscus  Hovenia  Hydrangea  Hypericum

  I  Iberis  Idesia  Ilex  Illicium  Itea

  J  Jasminum  Juglans  Juniperus

  K  Kalmia  Kalopanax  Kerria  Kniphofia  Koelreuteria  Kolkwitzia

  L  Laburnum  Lagerstroemia  Larix  Larrea  Laurus  Lavatera  Leucothoe  Leycesteria
  Ligustrum  Lindera  Liquidambar  Liriodendron  Lithocarpus  Lithodora
  Lonicera  Loropetalum  Luma

  M  Maackia  Maclura  Magnolia  Mahonia  Malus  Manglietia  Maytenus
  Melaleuca  Menziesia  Metasequoia  Microbiota  Microcachrys
  Mitchella  Morus  Myrica  Myrtus

  N  Nandina  Neviusia  Nothofagus  Nyssa

  O  Oemleria  Olea  Olearia  Oplopanaxa  Osmanthus  Ostrya  Oxalis  Oxydendrum
 Volume 3

P  Pachysandra  Paeonia  Parakmeria  Parrotia  Parrotiopsis
  Parthenocissus  Passiflora  Paulownia  Paxistima  Phellodendron  Philadelphus
  Phillyrea  Photinia  Physocarpus  Picea  Pieris  Pinus  Pistacia
  Pittosporum  Platanus  Platycarya  Podocarpus  Polygonum  Polystichum
  Poncirus  Populus  Potentilla  Prumnopitys  Prunus  Pseudolarix  Pseudotsuga
  Ptelea  Pterocarya  Pterostyrax  Punica  Purshia  Pyracantha  Pyrus

  Q  Quercus  Quillaja

  R  Rhamnus  Rhaphiolepis  Rhododendron  Rhodotypos  Rhus  Ribes
  Robinia  Rosa  Rosmarinus  Rubus

  S  Salix  Sambucus  Santolina  Sapindus  Sarcococca  Sassafras   Sciadopitys
  Sequoia  Sequoiadendron  Shepherdia  Sideroxylon  Simmondsia  Skimmia  Sophora
  Sorbus  Spiraea  Stachyurus  Stewartia  Styrax  Symphoricarpos  Symplocos  Syringa

  T  Taiwania  Tamarix  Taxodium  Taxus  Ternstroemia  Tetradium  Thevetia
  Thuja  Thujopsis  Tibouchina  Tilia  Toona  Trachelospermum  Trachycarpus  Tsuga

  U  Ulex  Ulmus  Umbellularia

  V  Vaccinium  Vancouveria  Viburnum  Vinca  Vitex  Vitis

  W  Waldsteinia  Washingtonia  Weigela  Widdringtonia  Wisteria  Wollemia

  X  Xanthocyparis      Y  Yucca      Z  Zanthoxylum  Zelkova  Ziziphus
For a limited number of herbaceous annuals or perennials see:
 Volume 4  Herbaceous Ornamental Plants

Some additional items:
Fagus       Fagaceae
Beech       FA-gus
A genus of about 10 species of monoecious (male and female flowers borne on the same plant), deciduous trees with smooth bark and slender shoots.  Leaves are simple, alternate, 2-ranked, entire to dentate.   Flowers are small.  Fruit a stiff hairy capsule which splits into 4 sections to release 2, rarely 3, glossy tan-brown nuts.  Native northern temperate regions.  Only one species, F. sylvania, is widely grown outside of its native range.
Fagus: the Greek and Latin name for these trees.
  • Fagus grandifolia      [American Beech]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaves and buds)  (leaves, comparison)  (leaf and margin (May), comparison)
          (male and female flowers)  (leaves and fruit)  (leaves and fruit)  (young trees in habitat, fall)  (leaves, fall)
          (trunk, bark)  (winter buds, comparison)  (winter bud)  (info)
  • Fagus sylvatica      [European Beech]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaves, comparison)  (leaf and margin, comparison)  (male and female flowers)
          (leaves, fruit and buds)  (leafy twig and fruit)  (branches, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (fruit at seed drop, fall)
          (plant habit,winter; trunk, bark)  (winter buds, comparison)  (winter bud)  (info)

       Several selections of Fagus sylvatica:
      Fallopia japonica  [Japanese Knotweed, Mexican Bamboo]   see  Polygonum cuspidatum
    × Fatshedera       Araliaceae
    Fatshedera       fatz-HED-er-a
    A single intergeneric hybrid, the result of a cross between Fatsia japonica (Japanese Fatsia) and Hedera helix (English Ivy). (see below).
    Fatshedera: name derived from the two genera from which it was developed, namely Fatsia and Hedera.
  • × Fatshedera lizei      [Fatshedera]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flower clusters)  (info)

  • Fatsia       Araliaceae
    Fatsia       FAT-see-a
    A genus of 3 species of evergreen shrubs or small trees with foliage crowed at the branch tips.  Leaves very large, leathery, palmately 7-11 lobes.  Flowers in terminal clusters, in umbels, some unisexual, 5 petals.  Native to eastern Asia, especially Japan, Taiwan.
    Fatsia: an adaptation of the Japanese name fatsi, for F. japonica.
  • Fatsia japonica      [Japanese Fatsia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaves and flower cluster)  (flower cluster)
          (fruit clusters and leaves)  (info)


  •   Feijoa   See Acca

      Feijoa sellowiana   See  Acca sellowiana
    Ficus       Moraceae
    Fig       FI-kus
    Around 800 species of deciduous or evergreen latex bearing trees, shrubs, and woody vines.  Leaves are usually simple and alternately arranged, large variation in size.  Flowers unisexual, small, enclosed within a fleshy recetacle (the fig).  The mature recetacles are of varying size and color.   Native to tropical and subtropical regions in both hemispheres.
    Ficus: the ancient Latin name for the edible fig.
  • Ficus carica      [Common Fig]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaves and young fruit)  (young fruit)
          (mature and immature fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (branches and twigs, winter)
          (twigs, buds, winter)  (info)
    Firmiana       Sterculiaceae
          fir-me-AH-na
    A genus of 9 species of shrubs and trees.  Leaves simple, alternate, margins entire or lobed, long petiole.  Flowers unisexual, 5-parted, in terminal or axillary clusters (panicles or racemes), calyx yellow, petals absent.  Fruit leaflike, leathery, dehiscing before mature, seed globose.  Native to east Asia and one species in east Africa.
    Firmiana: after Karl von Firmian, governor of Lombardy region of Italy and supporter of the botanic garden of Padua.
  • Firmiana simplex      [Chinese Parasol Tree]     Common Name List
          (expanding leaves, spring)  (plant habit, early summer and fall)  (leaves)
          (leaf)  (fruit)  (leaf, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (twig, bud, winter)  (info)

  • Fontanesia       Oleaceae
    Fontanesia       
    A single species, see below.
  • Fontanesia philliraeoides subsp. fortunei      [Fontanesia]       Common Name List
          (leaves)  (developing fruit)  (plant habit, Nov.)  (fruit and leaves, Nov.)  (fallen seeds, Nov.)
          (fruit clusters, winter)  (winter twig)  (info)
    Forsythia       Oleaceae
    Forsythia       for-SITH-ee-a
    About 6 species of deciduous shrubs, its branches are gold-green, have chambered pith or hollow, and covered with lenticels.  Leaves opposite, usually simple, serrate or entire.  Flowers are yellow and appear before leaves, corolla deeply divided into 4 parts, united as a short tube.  Native to central Europe and eastern Asia.
    Forsythia: after William Forsyth (1737-1804), Scottish gardener and writer, he became the superintendent of Royal Gardens, Kensington, Palace.
  • Forsythia × intermedia      [Border Forsythia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, early spring flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (sheared habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers)  (plant habit, winter, spring, and summer)
          (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (dormant twigs, buds)  (info)

  • Forsythia viridissima   [Greenstem Forsythia]  Common Name List
          (info)

      Two cultivars:
    Fothergilla       Hamamelidaceae
    Fothergilla, Witch Alder       foth-er-GIL-a
    A genus of two deciduous shrub species (F. gardenii and F. major) that are native to southeastern U.S.  Most noticeable in spring when their bottle brush-spike flower heads appear before the leaves.

           The two species are similar but Fothergilla major, relative to F gardenii, grows to a larger size, its flower spikes tend to be larger, its leaves are about 50 percent larger, and the toothing on the leaf margin near the tip is more pronounced.  In addition, F. major does not sucker, whereas F. gardenii is moderately suckering and can in time form small spreading colonies (Paul Cappiello, Bernheim Arboretum, Clermont, Kentucky).

    Fothergilla: after John Fothergill (1712-80), English physician and gardener with an interest in growing American plants.
  • Fothergilla gardenii      [Dwarf Fothergilla]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (flowers, spring)  (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)  (plant habit, fall)
          (plant habit, fall (again))  (leaves, fall)  (info)


  •    A selection of Fothergilla gardenii:
  • Fothergilla major      [Large Fothergilla]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers)
          (flower head and expanding leaf)  (info)

  • Fouquieria       Fouquieriaceae
          fo-KAIR-e-a
    Some 11 species of succulent spiny shrubs to trees.  Leaves simple, alternate, blades deciduous, petioles becoming spines, also with secondary leaves.  Flowers showy, red, purple to creamy yellow or white, tubular or campanulate.  Fruit a capsule, about 2.5 cm long.  Native to Mexico and adjacent U.S. states; Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
    Fouquieria: after P. E. Fouquier (1776-1850), a French physician and medical consultant.
  • Fouquieria splendens    [Ocotillo]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (stems)  (leaves and thorns)  (flowering, in habitat and landscape)  (flower clusters)
          (opening flower clusters)  (flower cluster)  (info)
    Fragaria       Rosaceae
    Strawberry       fra-GARE-ree-a
    About 12 species of highly stoloniferous perennial plants.  Leaves alternate, compound, 3 leaflets.  Flowers white, 5-8 petals, 10-30 stamens, 10-80 carpels.  Fruit many small, glabrous with achenes on the surface of an enlarged, fleshy receptacle.  Native to the northern temperate zones and Chile.
    Fragaria: from the Latin fragrans, fragrant, alluding to the aroma of the fruit.
  • Fragaria chiloensis    [Sand, Beach or Chilean Strawberry]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (leaves, flowers and stolons)  (info)

  • Franklinia       Theaceae   (Camellia Family)
          frank-LIN-ee-a
    Most authorities (e.g., Krüssmann, G. 1976; Griffiths, 1994) describe Franklinia as a monotypic genus only containing Franklinia alatamaha (see below).  The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening (Huxley, A., 1992), describes the genus as containing about 70 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees native to southeast Asia and, at one time, southeastern North America.
    Franklinia: after Benjamin Franklin (1706-90).
  • Franklinia alatamaha      [Franklin Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (leaves and flower buds)  (leaves and flowers, early fall)  (flower)
          (plant habit, fall)  (flower and leaves, fall)  (leaves, late fall)  (winter twig and buds)  (info)

  • Fraxinus       Oleaceae  (Olive Family)
    Ash       FRAKS-i-nus
    A genus of some 65 species of shrubs and trees, mostly deciduous and native to temperate regions.  Leaves are opposite and compound (pinnate).  Flowers are small, bisexual or unisexual, not ornamental, and appear before the leaves.  Fruit is a 1-seeded samara ("key") with a flattened, thin wing (reminiscent of a canoe paddle).  Females of some species bear numerous large clusters of fruit, sometimes considered unattractive and messy.  Native to temperate North America, Europe, and Asia, with a few found in the tropics.
    Fraxinus: the Latin name for the ash.

    Caution:  Fraxinus species native to North America are threatened by an Asian insect, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis).  Emerald ash borer is an exotic beetle that was first discovered in the U.S. in southeastern Michigan near Detroit in the summer of 2002.   The adult beetles nibble on ash foliage but cause little damage.  However, the larvae (the immature stage) feed on the inner bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients.  The insect probably arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material carried in cargo ships or airplanes originating in its native Asia.  Emerald ash borer has become established in a large portion of North America, the area is bordered by Ontario and Quebec on the north, Tennessee and North Carolina on the south and from the Atlantic Coast west to Minnesota and Kansas (see http://www.emeraldashborer.info/)
  • Fraxinus americana     [White Ash]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaflet)  (leaves and fruit clusters)  (developing fruit)
          (plant habit, early fall)  (plant habit, fall)  (foliage, fall)  (leaf, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (dormant twig)  (info)


  •   A popular cultivar of Fraxinus americana:
       Fraxinus angustifolia ‘Raywood’   see  Fraxinus oxycarpa ‘Raywood’
  • Fraxinus anomala     [Singleleaf Ash]     Common Name List
          (plant in habitat)  (plant in habitat)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flowering branches)  (leaves and flower cluster)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Fraxinus excelsior     [Euopean or Common Ash]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, several trees)  (leafy shoots)  (leaf)  (leaflets, underside)
          (immature fruit cluster and fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (buds)  (info)


  •    Two selections of Fraxinus excelsior:                                     A popular selection in North America:
  • Fraxinus latifolia   [Oregon Ash]   Native List  Common Name List
          (male flowers, spring)  (female flowers, spring)  (expanding leaf)  (developing fruit, spring)
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, woods and landscape)  (leaf)  (leaves and fruit)  (leaflets and twig)
          (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (leaf, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (twigs, bark, winter)  (info)

  • Fraxinus ornus       [Flowering Ash]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring flowering)  (plant habit, spring and fall)  (leaves and flower clusters)
          (flower cluster and leaves)  (flowers)  (plant habit, summer)  (leaves and fruit)
          (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (twig, buds, winter)  (info)

  • Fraxinus oxycarpa ‘Raywood’      [Raywood Ash, Claret Ash]      Common Name List
          (opening male flower buds, early spring)  (row of trees, summer)  (plant habit)  (canopy, open)
          (leaves)  (leafy shoot)  (fruit clusters)  (row of trees, fall)  (plant habit, fall)  (foliage and leaf, fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (dormant twig, buds)  (info)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica       [Green Ash]      Common Name List
          (male flowers, spring)  (plant habit)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaflets and twig)  (fruit (seed) clusters)
          (plant habit, fall)  (leaflets, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (twigs and buds, fall and winter)  (buds, winter)
          (info)


  •   Three selections of Fraxinus pennsylvanica:
      Comparison of two popular Ash cultivars:
                      Fraxinus americana Autumn Purple® and Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Marshall’

                      (leaves, summer)  (leaflets, summer)  (leaflets, underside and margin)  (trees, fall)  (leaves, fall)
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata       [Blue Ash]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaflet, underside)  (trunk, bark)
          (winter twigs, buds, stems)  (info)
  • Fraxinus sieboldiana       [Siebold Ash]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flower clusters)  (info)
    Fremontodendron       Sterculiaceae
    Flannel Bush, Fremontia       free-mont-o-DEN-dron
    Two, or possibly three, species (F. californicum, F. mexicanum, and possibly F. decumbens) of more or less broad-leaved evergreen shrubs and trees.  Leaves alternate, unlobed or palmately 3-, 5-, or 7-lobed.  Flowers solitary, showy, calyx petaloid, 5-lobed, 3 bract at the base of the calyx, petals absent.  Native to Arizona, California and Mexico.
    Fremontodendron: after Major-General John C. Fremont, American explorer and plant collector in the western U.S.
  • Fremontodendron ssp.       [Flannel Bush]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering shoots)  (leaves and flower)
          (flowers)  (flower)  (developing fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Fuchsia       Onagraceae
    Fuchsia, Lady's Eardrops       FU-shah, fu-SHI-a, fu-K-si-a
    A genus of over 100 species of erect, procumbent, climbing shrubs, as well as epiphytes and small to medium trees.  Underground parts are sometimes tuberous or with swollen stems.  Leaves alternate, opposite or in whorls.  Flowers are mono or bisexual, on slender pedicels (stalks), often pendulous, perianth (calyx + corolla) tubular with a nectary at the base, 4 sepals spreading to recurved, 4 petals or absent, rolled together or spreading, 8 stamens in 2 unequal ranks.  Native to Central and South America, including Mexico and Tierra del Fuego, and New Zealand and Tahiti.  Most fuchsia cultivars are he result of breeding between many different species.
    Fuchsia: after Leonhart Fuchs, (1501-1566), German physician and herbalist.
  • Fuchsia magellanica       [Magellan Fuchsia, Hardy Fuchsia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (flowering branches)  (leaves)  (flowers)  (info)
    Garden Art  (courtesy of Associated Plumbers)
    Garrya       Garryaceae
    Silktassel, Tasseltree       GAR-i-a
    About 18 species of evergreen trees or shrubs, dioecious, branches usually ascending, 4-sided at first, pubescent when young.  Leaves opposite, simple, leathery, entire, short petiole.  Small flowers in pendulous female and male catkins.  Fruit is a round, leathery, dry, 2-seeded berry.
    Garrya: after Nicholas Garry (d. 1830) of the Hudson Bay Company, who helped David Douglas on this plant collecting trips to the Pacific Northwest.
  • Garrya elliptica    [Wavyleaf Silktassel, Coast Silktassel]  Native List  Common Name List
          (male catkins, early winter)  (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (male catkins and leaves)
          (plant habit, after flowering)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaves, comparison)  (info)
  • Garrya flavescens   [Yellowleaf Silktassel, Ash Silktassel]    Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (info)

  • Garrya fremontii    [Fremont Silktassel]  Native List  Common Name List
          (leaves and catkins, winter)  (shoots, leaves, catkins, early spring)  (plant habit and catkins)
          (branches)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves, comparison)  (plant habit, fruiting, and fruit cluster)
          (plant habit, fruiting, and ripe fruit cluster)  (info)
    Gaultheria       Ericaceae
          gawl-THEE-ree-a
    Some 170 species of evergreen, sometimes deciduous, shrubs, often spreading by underground stems.  Leaves simple, alternate, with a short petiole.  Flowers white, urn-shaped, usually appear in late spring or early summer.  Fruit is a capsule, often enclosed by a fleshy colored calyx.  Native to North and South America, West Indies, and Japan to Australia.
    Gaultheria: after Jean-François Gaulthier (1708-1758), botanist and physician of Quebec.
  • Gaultheria miqueliana      [Miquel's Spicywintergreen]   Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer flowering)  (plant habit, summer flowering)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit cluster)  (info)

  • Gaultheria mucronata    (syn. Pernettya mucronata)   [Chilean Pernettya]   Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (flowers)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)


  •   A cultivar of Gaultheria mucronata:
  • Gaultheria procumbens       [Wintergreen]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flowers and leaves)  (leaves and fruit, fall)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Gaultheria shallon    [Salal]  Native List  Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (plant habit, late spring flowering)  (leaves)  (flowers)
          (plant habit, summer)  (shoot)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (ripening fruit)
          (fruit cluster and fruit)  (info)

  • Gaultheria tetramera         
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (leaves and fruit)  (leaves)  (fruit cluster)  (info)

  • Genista        Fabaceae, Leguminosae
    Broom, Woadwaxin       je-NIS-ta
    About 90 species of shrubs, often prostrate, and small trees, mostly deciduous, but may appear evergreen because of green, flattened branchlets.  Leaves simple to trifoliate, sometimes absent.  Flowers usually yellow and the fruit an elliptic, flat capsule, with 2 chambers, containing small winged seeds.  Native to Europe, Mediterranean to western Asia.
    Genista: classical Latin name for broom, used by Virgil.
  • Genista lydia       [Lydia Broom]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering shoots)  (emerging shoots)  (info)
  • Genista pilosa       [Silkyleaf Woadwaxen, Silkyleaf Broom]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers and leaves)  (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)
          (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Ginkgo       Ginkgoaceae
    Ginkgo       GINK-go
    A single species, a deciduous tree (Ginkgo biloba).  Based on fossil evidence, this species has existed almost unchanged for over 200 million years.  Native to China, and currently found wild in two locations.
    Ginkgo: from the Chinese yin-kuo, silver apricot, apparently from the Japanese pronunciation, ginko.
  • Ginkgo biloba      [Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, open)  (emerging leaves)  (leafy shoot)  (leaf)  (leaves and female flower)
          (female flower cluster)  (female flowers)  (male flower clusters)  (fruit development)  (leaves and fruit)
          (ripening fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves and fruit, fall)  (ripe fruit)  (ripe fruit and seed)
          (plant habit, winter)  (trunk, bark)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)


  •    A dwarf form:
    Gleditsia       Fabaceae, Leguminosae
    Honeylocust       gle-DITS-ee-a
    About 14 species of deciduous trees, usually with simple or branched thorns on the branches and trunks.  Leaves alternate, compound (pinnate or bipinnate), with as many as 30 leaflets.  Flowers small, green-white, perfect of unisexual, in axillary clusters (racemes).  Fruit oblong, flat to nearly cylindrical, with many rounded seeds.  Native to eastern Asia, North and South America, tropical Africa, and Iran.
    Gleditsia: after German botanist Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786), director of the Berlin Botanical Garden and friend of Linnaeus.
  • Gleditsia macracantha            
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (trunk, bark and thorns)  (info)
  • Gleditsia triacanthos      [Honeylocust]      Common Name List     
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoot)  (leaf and fruit)  (thorns on branches)  (thorns on trunk)  (info)

       A thornless form is more commonly used in landscapes:
    Grevillea       Proteaceae
    Spider Flower       gre-VIL-le-a
    Some 250 species of evergreen shrubs and trees.  Leaves alternate, often toothed or lobed.  Flower clusters terminal, flowers paired, tubular, subtended by a bract; often rich in nectar.  Hardiness varies, but generally rather tender, some tolerate frost.  A large number of hybrids and other garden forms (see the Sunset Western Garden Book for those available in California and southwestern U.S.).  Native to Australia.
    Grevillea: After Charles F. Greville (1749-1809), co-founder of the Royal Horticultural Society and once vice-president of the Royal Society of London.
  • Grevillea aquifolium      [Holly Grevillea]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves and flowers)  (flowers and leaves)  (info)

  • Grevillea lanigera      [Woolly Grevillea]     Common Name List
          (info)


  •   A cultivar of Grevillea lanigera:
  • Grevillea robusta      [Silky Oak]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Grevillea rosmarinifolia      [Rosemary Grevillea]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flower cluster and leaves)  (info)

  • Grevillea victoriae      [Royal Grevillea]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoots)  (leaf)  (flower cluster, opening)
          (flower cluster)  (info)

  • Gymnocladus       Fabaceae, Leguminosae
           jim-NOK-ladus
    Five species of deciduous trees with thick, knotty, branches.  Leaves alternate, large, compound (bipinnate), leaflets ovate and thin.  Flowers green-white, in short clusters, calyx 5-lobed, 5 equal, oblong petals, 10 stamens.  Fruit oblong, ultimately woody, seeds flat and hard.  Native to the U.S. and China.
    Gymnocladus: from the Greek, gymnos, naked, and klados, branch, referring to its deciduous habit in which its stout branches are devoid of foliage for nearly half the year.
  • Gymnocladus dioica   (syn. G. dioicus)   [Kentucky Coffeetree]       Common Name List
          (emerging leaves)  (plant habit, late spring)  (expanding leaves)  (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)  (leaves)
          (leaf)  (flower clusters)  (flowers)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit and leaves, fall)
          (plant habit and fruit, winter)  (mature fruit and seed)  (trunks, young trees)  (trunk, bark)
          (twig and buds, winter)  (buds, winter)  (info)

  •           Trouble in the woods!
    Hakea       Proteaceae
    Pincushion Tree       HAK-ee-a
    About 110 species of shrubs and small trees.  Leaves alternate, leathery, often linear and needle-like, some are toothed and lobed.  Flowers in short axillary clusters, flowers-paired and subtended by a common bract, often with brightly colored protruding styles; often rich in nectar.  Fruit is a woody capsule containing two seeds.
    Hakea: for Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake (1745-1818), German patron of botany.
  • Hakea microcarpa       [Small-fruited Hakea]    Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branches and leaves)  (leaves)  (info)
    Halesia       Styracaceae
    Silverbell       ha-LE-zhi-a
    Only 4-5 species of deciduous shrubs or small trees, branches cylindrical (round in cross section).  Leaves alternate, simple, thin petioles with stellate pubescence.  Flowers in axillary clusters, white, rarely pale rose, pendulous, corolla 4-parted or 4 lobed.  Fruit a dry oblong drupe with 2 or 4 longitudinal wings.  Native to eastern North America and China (1 species).
    Halesia: after Stephan H. Hales (1677-1761), English minister-naturalist, author of Vegetable Staticks; he surmised that plants obtain part of their nutrition from the air and that sunlight may play a role in "ennobling the priciples of vegetables."
  • Halesia carolina   (formerly, Halesia tetraptera)    [Carolina Silverbell]    Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring flowering)  (flowers and fruit)  (plant habit, summer)  (leafy shoot)
          (leaves)  (developing fruit)  (mature fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)


  •    The following is now included in Halesia carolia, formerly it was considered separate.  However, this "type" grows to a larger size and has larger flowers.
    Hamamelis       Hamamelidaceae
    Witchhazel       ham-a-MAY-lis
    Five species of deciduous shrubs or small trees; branches and buds with stellate pubescence.  Leaves resemble those of Corylus, simple, alternate, ovate to obovate, margins toothed, and base oblique, petioles short, large stipules.  Flowers appear in short, axillary clusters at or after leaf fall or before new growth in spring, fragrant, calyx 4-lobed and persistent, 4 petals, linear and crumpled in the bud, to 2 cm, mostly yellow, but also red and orange.  Fruit 2-parted, with 2 black seeds that are explosively released when ripe.  Native to North America, Europe and Asia.
    Hamamelis: from the Greek for pear-shaped fruit, but apparently applied to a different plant.
  • Hamamelis × intermedia       [Witchhazel (hybrid)]     Common Name List
         (plant habit, summer)  (leaves, summer)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (buds, fall)
          (buds and fruit)  (plant habit, winter)  (flowers, winter)  (info)


  •   Several cultivars of Hamamelis × intermedia:
  • Hamamelis virginiana      [Common Witchhazel]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves and flowers, fall)
          (plant habit, flowering, late fall)  (flowers)  (fruit and flowers)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Hamamelis vernalis      [Vernal Witchhazel]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowering branch)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Hebe       Scrophulariaceae
    Hebe       HEE-be
    About 75 species of evergreen shrubs, or even small trees.  Leaves opposite, 2-ranked or decussate (leaf pairs at right angle to the pair above and below), rounded to lanceolate, short petiole or sessile, often somewhat fleshy or scale-like and closely appressed (superficially resembling a dwarf conifer in appearance, these are known as whipcord hebes).  Flowers in axillary or subterminal clusters, white to pink, mauve to lilac or blue, corolla short-tubular, limb expaned, 4-lobed; 2 stamens protruding beyond the corolla (exserted).   Most Hebe species are native to New Zealand, some are from Australia, Chile and isolated sites in the South Pacific.
          The classification of members of this genus is confused and confusing and Phillips and Barber (1981, p.154) have expressed this as followes: "Hebe was herself a goddess, but she was also a handmaid to the senior gods, whose goblets she was required to keep filled with nectar.  She seems to have been a bit of a tippler herself, for the plants she has godmothered are a pretty mixed up lot.  Their morals in their antipodean settlements are decidedly promiscuous and even the botanists of New Zealand, where most of them dwell, are puzzled about their lineages."
    Hebe: from the Greek hebe, youth.
  • Hebe ‘Emerald Gem’      [Emerald Gem Hebe, Green Globe Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (shoots, leaves)  (info)
  • Hebe ‘Hinerua’      [Hinerua Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (shoots, leaves)  (info)
  • Hebe ‘Karo Golden Esk’      [Karo Golden Esk Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (shoots, leaves)  (info)
  • Hebe ‘Patty's Purple’      [Patty's Purple Boxleaf Hebe, Patty's Purple Veronica]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves)  (flowers)  (shoots, "portrait")  (info)

  • Hebe pinguifolia ‘Pagei’       [Pagei Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Hebe traversii       [Traversii Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves and flowers)  (flowers)  (leaves and fruit)  (info)

  • Hebe ‘Wiri Joy’      [Wiri Joy Hebe]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (info)
    Hedera       Araliaceae
    Ivy       HED-er-a
    About 11 species of woody, evergreen, climbing or creeping plants, with distinct juvenile (sterile) and arborescent (mature, fertile) stages.  In the juvenile climbing stage plants are supported by aerial rootlets.  Leaves alternate, simple, sometimes lobed in the juvenile stage, more nearly entire in the arborescent stage, all leaves glabrous, frequently glossy.  Flowers perfect, in globose clusters, yellow-green, calyx 5-lobed, 5 stamens, alternate with petals.  Fruit 3-5 seeded, black to yellow berry.  Native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia.
    Hedera: the Latin name for the plant.
  • Hedera helix     [English Ivy]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, climbing)  (juvenile form)  (adult form)  (adult and juvenile forms)  (adult, flowering and flowers)
          (plant habit, fruiting adult )  (flowers and developing fruit)  (info)
    Heptacodium       Caprifoliaceae
          hep-tuh-KOH-dee-um
    A single species in this genus (see below)
    Heptacodium: hepta seven, codium, heads; a reference to the seven flowers per whorl.
  • Heptacodium miconioides     [Seven Son Flower]      Common Name List
          (leaves, expanding, spring)  (mature leaves and flower buds)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flower cluster)
          (flowers)  (leaves and flowers)  (plant habit, flowering late summer)  (flowers and red sepals)
          (plant habit, fall)  (leaves and buds)  (leaves and buds)  (plant habit and leaves, late fall)
          (trunks, bark and buds)  (info)
    Heteromeles       Rosaceae
          het-er-o-MAY-leez
    A single species in this genus (see below)
    Heteromeles:(Greek), a different apple
  • Heteromeles arbutifolia     [Toyon, Christmasberry, California Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaves and young fruit)  (young fruit and leaves)  (leaf)  (plant habit, winter)
          (fruit and leaves, winter)  (info)
  • Hibiscus       Malvaceae
    Mallow, Rose Mallow, Giant Mallow       hi-BIS-kus
    Some 200 or more species of shrubs and trees, as well as annuals, herbaceous perennials, and subshrubs.   Leaves alternate, palmately veined, with short petioles.  Flowers usually solitary and axillary, corolla broad campanulate, 5 petals, yellow, lavender, red, and other colors, often with a basal purple spot.  Fruit is a capsule, ovoid or oblong, 5-seeded.  Native to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
    Hibiscus: the Greek name for mallow.
  • Hibiscus syriacus      [Rose of Sharon, Shrub Althea]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves)  (flower)  (flowers)  (flowers, double)
          (plant habit, fall)  (fruit and seeds)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)


  •     A few selections of Hibiscus syriacus:                         Two selctions on the same rootstock:
    Hippophae       Elaeagnaceae
    Sea Buckthorn       hi-PO-fa-ee
    Three to six or more species of deciduous, dioecious trees or shrubs, most parts of which are at least initially scaly- pubescent.  Leaves simple, generally alternate, linear, willow-like.  Flowers borne before leaves on previous year's growth.  Fruit globose, drupe-like, usually orange.  Native to China and Himalayas.
    Hippophae: classical Greek name for another plant, possibly prickly spurge (Stearn, 1996)   Hippophae is apparently classical Latin for “shining horse,” the name may have been coined long ago after it was noted that feeding the leaves to horses improved their health and made their hair shiny.
  • Hippophae rhamnoides      [Sea Buckthorn]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, in a landscape)  (shoot, mostly underside)  (leaves)  (shoot tip, fall)
          (leaves and buds, fall)  (branch with thorns)  (stem, bark)  (info)
    Holodiscus       Rosaceae
          ho-lo-DIS-kus
    Eight species of deciduous shrubs.  Leaves alternate, simple, pinnately lobed, dentate, tomentose.  Flowers small, numerous, usually in large, pendulous clusters (panciles), 5 petals, rounded, 20 stamens.  Fruit made up of 5 indehiscent achenes, 1-2 seeded.  Native to western North America to Columbia.
    Holodiscus: from the Green holo, whole; discus, disc, refers to the unlobed disc lining the hypanthium (cup around the ovary).
  • Holodiscus discolor    [Oceanspray]  Native List  Common Name List
          (plant habit, in the forest)  (plant habit, in landscape)  (flowers and leaves)  (leaves)
          (leaves)  (flower cluster)  (plant habit, Sept.)  (fruit clusters, Sept.)  (info)

  • Hovenia       Rhamnaceae
          ho-VE-ni-a
    Two species of woody, deciduous shrubs or trees.  Leaves alternate, simple, 3-veined from base, margin toothed or rarely entire.  Flowers 5 calyx lobes, 5 petals, white, very small and very concave, enclosing the 5 stamens.  Fruit 3 chambered, berrylike.  Native to Eastern and southern Asia.
    Hovenia: for David Hoven, an Amsterdam senator.
  • Hovenia dulcis      [Raisintree, Japanese Raisintree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoot)  (leaf)  (leaves and flower clusters)
          (flowers)  (leaves and fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Hydrangea       Hydrangeaceae
    Hydrangea       hi-DRAN-je-a
    About 100 species of evergreen or deciduous shrubs, also small trees or climbers, often with exfoliating bark when mature.  Leaves simple, opposite or in whorls of 3, usually rounded-ovate, entire or toothed.  Fertile flowers are rather inconspicuous, in contrast to showy infertile flowers which are usually arranged on the outer ring of the cluster (corymb or panicle).  Fertile flowers are bisexual with 4-5 sepals, 4-5 petals, small, white, blue, or pink.  The conspicuous part of infertile flowers is often enlarged, colored, petal-like sepals, true petals may be much reduced or absent.  Fruit is a many seeded capsule.  Native to China, Japan, and Himalaya, Philippines, Indonesia, and North and South America.
    Hydrangea: from Greek hydor, water. and aggeion, vessel; a reference to the cup-shaped fruit.
  • Hydrangea anomala var. petiolaris      [Climbing Hydrangea]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, before and at flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters and leaves)
          (leaves)  (plant habit, winter)  (buds, winter)  (info)

  • Hydrangea paniculata      [Panicle Hydrangea]      Common Name List
          (info)


  •   A few cultivars of Hydrangea paniculata:
  • Hydrangea quercifolia       [Oakleaf Hydrangea]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves)
          (leaves and immature flower clusters)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flowers)
          (plant habit, after flowering)  (flowers clusters after bloom)  (leaves and flowers, fall)
          (bark)  (info)

  • Hypericum       Guttiferae, Hypericaceae
          hi-PER-i-kum
    A large and diverse genus, over 400 species, consisting of herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, and small trees, either evergreen or deciduous, the stems have pale or dark glands.  Leaves are opposite or in whorls, usually entire or sometime fringed with glands, short petioles.  Flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary clusters, bisexual, 5-parted calyx and corolla, petals yellow, numerous stamens in 5, rarely 4, equal bundles.  Fruit is usually a 3-5-celled capsule.  Found mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, only a few species are woody shrubs.
    Hypericum: the Greek name, apparently from Greek, hyper, above, and eikon, a picture, it was hung above pictures to ward off evil spirits.
  • Hypericum androsaemum      [Tutsan]       Common Name List
          (flowers)  (shoot)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (fruit clusters)
          (ripening fruit and leaves)  (ripe fruit)  (info)

  • Hypericum calycinum      [Creeping St. John’s Wort, Aaron’s Beard]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves and flower)  (flower)  (flower, comparison with H. 'Hidcote')
          (plant habit, after flowering)  (shoot)  (leaf, comparison with H. 'Hidcote')  (plant habit, fall)
          (winter, cold damage)  (info)

  • Hypericum ‘Hidcote’      [Hidcote Hypericum]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (flower and leaves)  (leaves)  (flower and leaves)  (flower)
          (flower, comparison with H. calycinum)  (leaves, comparison with H. calycinum)
          (info)

  • Hypericum kouytchense      [Kouytchense Hypericum]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower)  (info)

  • Iberis       Cruciferae
    Candytuft       i-BEE-ris
    About 30 species of low growing annuals, perennials, and subshrubs.  Leaves simple, alternate, linear or obovate.  Flowers in clusters (raceme or corymb), each with 4 sepals, 4 petals, outer ones larger than inner petals, white or purple.  Fruit broad, pod-like, often winged.
    Iberis: from Iberia, Spain, source of most species.
  • Iberis sempervirens      [Evergreen Candytuft]       Common Name List
          (leaves)  (leafy shoot)  (flowers opening)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (flowering)
          (plant habit, after flowering)  (info)


  •   Two cultivars of Iberis sempervirens:
    Idesia       Flacourtiaceae
    Iigiri, Ligiri, Wonder Tree       i-DE-ze-a
    A single species in this genus (see below). Idesia: after Eberhard Ysbrant Ides, a Dutch traveler in China (1691-95).
  • Idesia polycarpa      [Iigiri, Ligiri, Wonder Tree]       Common Name List
          (leaf blade)  (flowers,fruit, early July)  (winter twig, bud)  (info)

  • Ilex       Aquifoliaceae
    Holly       I-leks
    Over 400 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs, trees, and climbers, even some epiphytes.  Leaves simple, alternate, rarely opposite, margins spiny, serrate, or entire; stipules present.  Flowers usually dioecious, small, axillary, solitary or in small clusters, 4-8 sepals fused at base, 3-8 petals fused at base, 4-8 stamens.  Fruit a berry.  Found most places, except in western North America and Australia.
    Ilex: from a similarity to the leaves of the evergreen oak, Quercus ilex.
  • Ilex aquifolium      [English Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flowers, female and male)  (leaves and immature fruit)  (foliage and ripe fruit)
          (fruiting branch,)  (shoots, juvenile and adult)  (info)

  • Ilex × attenuata  'Foster #2'    [Foster's #2 Holly]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (foliage and fruit)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit and leaves)  (fruiting branch)  (info)
  • Ilex cornuta      [Chinese Holly]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, sheared, flowering)  (plant habit, bonsai, flowering)  (flowers)  (info)

      Two cultivars of Ilex cornuta:
  • Ilex crenata       [Japanese Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, hedge)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (leaves and flowers)
          (leafy shoots, comparison)  (info)


  •   A few cultivars of Ilex crenata:
  • Ilex glabra      [Inkberry, Gallberry]      Common Name List
          (info)

      A popular cultivar of Ilex glabra:
  • Ilex latifolia      [Lusterleaf Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (leaves and fruit)  (shoot)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Ilex × meserveae       [Meserve Hybrid Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branch with snow)  (leaves and fruit)  (stem and leaves)
          (leaves and fruit, "portrait")  (info)

  • Ilex paraguariensis      [Yerba Matá, Maté, Paraguay Tea]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves and fruit clusters)  (leaves and fruit)  (leaves (underside) and fruit)  (info)

  • Ilex verticillata      [Winterberrry, Winterberry Holly, Michigan Holly]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)  (plant habit fruiting, late summer)  (fruiting branches)
          (fruit and leaves)  (fruit, winter)  (plant habit, late winter)  (info)


  •   Selections of Ilex verticillata:
    Illicium       Illiciaceae
    Anise Tree       i-LISS-i-um, il-LIK-ee-um
    About 40 species of broadleaf evergreen shrubs or trees, found in warm-temperature or subtropical regions.  Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, margin entire.  Flowers perfect, axillary, solitary, 3-6 sepals, petaloid, many petals.  Fruit star-shaped, a whorl of 1-seeded follicles, finally dehiscent.  Mostly native to southeast Asia, but two species in the US (I. floridanum and I. parviflorum).
    Illicium: from illicio, to attract, a reference to the fragrance.
  • Illicium floridanum      [Florida Anise Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Illicium henryi      [Henry Anise Tree]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, small shrub)  (leaves)  (info)
    Itea       Grossulariaceae, Iteaceae
          i-TE-a
    About 10 species of evergreen and deciduous shrubs and trees; branches have chambered pith.  Leaves alternate, simple, dentate.  Flowers white, cream, or green-white, small, many per cluster (raceme or spike), 5 petals, 5 stamens.  Fruit, capsule, many seeded.  Native to northeastern Asia and eastern North America.
    Itea: Greek name for willow, a reference to the somewhat willow-like pendulous catkins.
  • Itea virginica       [Sweetspire, Virginia Sweetspire]      Common Name List
          (leaves, comparison)  (info)


  •   Two selection of Itea virginica:
    Jasminum       Oleaceae
          JAS-mi-num
    About 200 species of deciduous or evergreen upright, climbing or twining shrubs, branches angular or cylindrical, sometimes with green bark.  Leaves opposite or alternate, odd pinnate or reduced to only 1 leaflet.  Flowers yellow, white or red, fragrant, in terminal or axillary clusters at branch tips, corolla with a narrow tube, 4-9 lobes, 2 stamens.  Fruit a dark berry.  Found in the tropics and subtropics, one species in the U.S.
    Jasminum: a Latinized form of yasmin, the Persian name of the plant.
  • Jasminum mesnya   (syn. Jasminum primulinum)   [Primrose Jasmine]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (flowers)  (leaves)  (info)
  • Jasminum nudiflorum      [Winter Jasmine]     Common Name List
          (flowering habit and branches, winter)  (rounded shrub, winter)  (flowering branches, winter)
          (flowers and stems)  (flowers)  (plant habit, summer)  (plant habit, hedge, summer)  (foliage)
          (shoots and leaves)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Jasminum polyanthum      [Pink Jasmine]     Common Name List
          (flowers and leaves)  (leaf)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Juglans       Juglandaceae
    Walnut       JU-glanz
    Some 15 species of deciduous, monecious trees, rarely shrubs; branches have chambered pith.  Leaves alternate, compound (odd-pinnate), leaflets serrate or entire, aromatic.  Male flowers in axillary, long, pendulous, many flowered catkins and female flowers in few flowered, terminal spikes.  Fruit (nut) is a drupe, in an indehiscent, thick pericarp; the inner shell is hard and furrowed, the seed is furrowed, edible.  Native to North and South America, southeaster Europe, Asia.
    Juglans: from the Latin Jovi glans, from jovis, of Jupiter, and glans, acorn or nut.
  • Juglans ailantifolia      [Japanese Walnut]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy branches)  (leaves)  (trunks, bark)  (info)

  • Juglans californica      [Southern California or California Walnut]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (info)

  • Juglans cinerea      [Butternut]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaflets)  (leaflet, upper surface and margin)  (leaflets, underside)
          (female flower cluster)  (developing fruit and leaves)  (nut (fruit) with leaflet)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Juglans microcarpa      [Texas or Little Walnut]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, young tree)  (leaves)  (leaves)  (leaf)
          (fruit and leaflets)  (winter twig, buds)  (info)

  • Juglans nigra      [Black Walnut]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, winter and summer)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaflets)  (leaf, comparison)  (leaf, comparison)
          (male catkins, flowers)  (female flowers)  (developing fruit)  (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit, fall)
          (leaves and fruit, fall)  (fruit, fall)  (fruit and nut, fall)  (plant habit, winter)  (trunk, bark)
          (winter twigs and buds)  (info)

  • Juglans regia       [English or Persian Walnut]      Common Name List
          (male catkins and female flowers)  (plant habit, summer)  (leafy branches)  (leaves)
          (leaves and developing fruit)  (developing fruit)  (leaf, comparison)  (plant habit, fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (fruit and nut, fall)  (winter twigs and buds)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Predator of Juglans nigra and Juglans regia fruit.

  • Juniperus            Cupressaceae
    Juniper                 ju-NIP-er-us
    Conifer, evergreen, trees or shrubs, wide variation in growth habit.  Bark of truck and main branches usually thin, shredding.  Leaves, opposite, needle-like or scale-like, always needle-like on young plants, mature plants may have both leaf forms.  Berry-like cones, maturing to a dark blue or bluish-black, ripening in second or third year.  They are some of the toughest evergreen landscape plants, and because of this they are often overused.
  • Juniperus cedrus        [Canary Island Juniper]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branchlets)  (needles (leaves))  (info)
  • Juniperus chinensis       [Chinese Juniper]     Common Name List
          (plant habit and trunk, bark)  (plant habit, very old tree)  (trunk of very old tree)  (info)

      Some cultivars of Juniperus chinensis:
  • Juniperus communis   [Common Juniper]  Native List   Common Name List
          (prostrate habit in native habitat)  (plant habit, prostrate)  (plant habit, semi-upright)
          (plant habit, upright)  (leaves (needles))  (branches, needles, "portrait")  (info)


  •   Some cultivars of Juniperus communis:
  • Juniperus conferta       [Shore Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (branch)  (branchlets)  (branchlets and fruit)
          (needles)  (branch, comparison with J. procumbens ‘Nana’)  (info)

      A variegated cultivar of Juniperus conferta:
  • Juniperus deppeana       [Alligator Juniper]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, in habitat)  (plant habit, in a landscape)  (branchlets and leaves)
          (fruit "cones" and branchlets)  (fruit "cones")  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Juniperus ‘Grey Owl’        [Grey Owl Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (branchlets and cones)  (info)

  • Juniperus horizontalis       [Creeping Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, in habitat)  (plant habit, several cultivars)  (plant habit, separate plants)
          (elongating branches)  (branchlets with fruit)  (plant habit, winter)
          (branches, winter)  (info)


  •   A few cultivars of Juniperus horizontalis:
  • Juniperus monosperma       [Oneseed Juniper]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branchlets, leaves)  (info)

  • (Juniperus Monster)    [Juniper Monster]     

  • Juniperus occidentalis   [Western Juniper]   Native List   Common Name List
          (young stand, eastern Oregon)  (in habitat)  (in habitat)  (plant habit)  (branch, branchlets)
          (branchlets, spring)  (juvenile branchlets)  (adult branchlets)  (adult branchlets, leaves)
          (branchlet arrangement)  (branches, branchlets and fruit, fall)  (branchlets, leaves and fruit, fall)
          (young stem and trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Juniperus osteosperma   [Utah Juniper]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, in habitat)  (plant habit, in a landscape)  (foliage)  (branchlets and cones)
          (cones and branchlets)  (branchlets and leaves)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • J. × pfitzeriana ‘Wilhelm Pfitzer’   see Juniperus chinensis ‘Pfitzeriana’

  • Juniperus pingii        [Ping Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branchlets)  (info)
  • Juniperus procumbens       [Japanese Garden Juniper]     Common Name List
          (info)

      The most common cultivar of Juniperus procumbens:
  • Juniperus rigida       [Temple Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branchlets)  (info)
  • Juniperus sabina       [Savin Juniper]     Common Name List
          (info)

      A common cultivar of Juniperus sabina:
  • Juniperus scopulorum       [Rocky Mountain Juniper]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branchlets)  (info)

      A few selections of Juniperus scopularum:
  • Juniperus squamata ‘Blue Star’      [Blue Star Singleseeded Juniper]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, several plants)  (plant habit)  (branchlets)  (branchlets)  (info)

  • Juniperus virginiana       [Eastern Redcedar]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (plant habit, summer)  (plant habit, summer and winter)  (informal hedge)
          (plant habit, container grown)  (branch with fruit)  (fruit and branchlets)  (branchlets)  (leaves, male cones)
          (row of trees, winter)  (branchlets, winter)  (bark, trunk)  (info)


  •   A selection of Juniperus virginiana:
    Kalmia       Ericaceae
          KAL-mee-a
    Seven species of evergreen or deciduous shrubs.  Leaves opposite, alternate, or in whorls, entire, leathery, occasionally sessile.  Flowers in terminal or axillary clusters, corolla is 5-lobed, pleated with 10 pouches, 10 stamens with an anther in each pouch.  Native to North America and Cuba.  There are two species native to the Pacific Northwest, the Bog Laurels, K. occidentalis and K. microphylla (syn. K. polifolia var. microphylla), which are low shrublets.
    Kalmia: after Peter Kalmia, Finnish student of Linnaeus.
  • Kalmia latifolia      [Mountain-laurel]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower buds and leaves)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flowers)  (flowers)
          (flowers, close-up)  (shoot)  (leaves)  (leaves and fruit)  (info)

  • Kalopanax       Araliaceae
          kal-oh-PAN-aks
    A single species in this genus (see below).
    Kalopanax: from the Greek, kalos, beautiful, and Panax, ginseng.
  • Kalopanax septemlobus      [Castor-aralia, Haragiri, Tree-aralia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branch)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (flower/fruit cluster and leaves)
          (flower/fruit cluster)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
    Kerria       Rosaceae
    Japanese Kerria, Japanese Rose       KER-e-a
    A single species in this genus (see below).
    Kerria: after William Kerr (died 1814), a gardener at Kew, who collected in East Asia.
  • Kerria japonica      [Japanese Kerria, Japanese Rose]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Kniphofia       Liliaceae
          nee-FOF-ee-a
    Nearly 70 species on perennials with short thick rhizomes forming large clumps or a few crowns from which arise linear grass-like leaves.  Form an erect scape (leafless flower stalk or peduncle) which carries a dense or lax flower cluster (raceme) on its apical quarter.  The tubular flowers range from white, yellow, green, orange, to bright red.
    Native to South Africa, mountains of east Africa, tropical Africa, Ethiopia, Madagascar and Yemen.
  • Kniphofia uvaria      [Red-hot Poker, Torchlily]       Common Name List
            (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters)  (info)

  • Koelreuteria       Sapindaceae
    Golden Raintree       kol-ru-TEE-ri-a
    Three species of flat topped, spreading, deciduous trees or shrubs.  Leaves alternate, simple or bipinnate.  Flowers yellow in large terminal clusters.  Fruit is a bladder-like inflated capsule.
    Native to China and Taiwan.
    Koelreuteria: after Joseph Gottlieb Koelreuter (1733-1806), German professor of botany.
  • Koelreuteria paniculata      [Golden Raintree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (young leaves)  (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaf)  (leaves)  (flower cluster, flower)  (flowers)
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (foliage and fruit)  (fruit)  (leaves, flowers and fruit)
          (plant habit, summer)  (mature fruit)  (plant habit and leaves, fall)  (leaflets, fall)
          (trunk, bark)  (plant habit, winter)  (winter twigs and buds)  (info)


  •   An upright cultivar of Koelreuteria paniculata:
    Kolkwitzia       Caprifoliacease
    Beautybush       kolk-WIT-ze-a
    Only a single species in this genus (see below).
  • Kolkwitzia amabalis       [Beautybush]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leafy shoot)  (flowering branch)  (flowers)
          (flower cluster)  (flowers, comparison)  (cluster remnants, late summer)  (young shoot, comparison)
          (leaves, fall)  (trunks, bark)  (info)

  • Laburnum       Fabaceae
    Goldenchain Tree       la-BER-num
    Two species (L. alpinum and L. anagyroides) of deciduous shrubs or small trees with green bark.  Leaves alternate, compound (3-parted), leaflet nearly sessile (attached directly, without supporting stalk).  Flowers yellow in simple, terminal clusters (racemes).  Fruit is a several seeded pod.  Native to southern Europe and Asia Minor.
    Laburnum: the Latin name.
  • Laburnum × watereri      [Goldenchain Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring flowering)  (flower cluster development)  (flower clusters)
          (leaves and flowers)  (fruit development)  (plant habit, flowering and fruiting)
          (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (winter twigs and buds)  (info)

  • Lagerstroemia       Lythraceae
    Crape Myrtle, Crepe Myrtle       la-ger-STRO-me-a
    About 50 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs and trees.  Leaves opposite, however apical ones are frequently alternate, usually ovate, base rounded, margin entire.  Flowers in axillary or terminal clusters (panicles), 6 petals, often crumpled, margins undulate, rose, purple, to white, long style.  Fruit is a dehiscent capsule, winged seeds.
    Lagerstroemia: after Magnus von Lagerstrom (1691-1759), a Swedish merchant and friend of Linnaeus.
    The common name is spelt both Crape Myrtle and Crepe Myrtle.  The traditional Southern spelling is "Crepe" Myrtle because the delicate flowers resemble crepe paper.
  • Lagerstroemia fauriei      [Japanese Crape Myrtle]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaves and flower buds)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Lagerstroemia floribunda      [Asian Crape Myrtle, Kedah Bungor]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flowers)  (leaves)
          (flowers, leaves and fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Lagerstroemia indica      [Common Crape Myrtle]    Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves)  (shoots)  (flowers)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)
          (trunks, bark)  (trunk, bark)  (winter branch, twigs, buds)  (info)


  • Lagerstroemia Hybrid         [Hybrid Crape Myrtle]    Common Name List
          (info)

    Two Lagerstroemia Hybrid cultivars:
    Larix       Pinaceae
    Larch       LAR-iks
    About 12-15 species of deciduous coniferous trees with spreading or pendulous branches.  Leaves, needle-like, soft, thin, spiraling and widely spaced on long shoots, in dense clusters on short shoots.  Female cones erect, ripening is about 6 months, green, red, or purple, than brown.  Native to the Northern Hemisphere.
    Larix: the classical Latin name.
  • Larix decidua      [European Larch]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (shoots and needle cluster)  (male and female cones, spring)
          (cones and new leaves, spring)  (cone development)  (spent cone, after seed drop)
          (plant habit, fall)  (branches and leaves, fall)  (leaves and cones, early winter)
          (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Larix gmelinii      [Dahurian Larch]    Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branches)  (cones and leaves (needles))  (trunk, bark)  (info)


  • Larix kaempferi      [Japanese Larch]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, young tree)  (leaves)  (elongating shoot)  (plant habit, fall)  (info)


  •   Two cultivars of Larix kaempferi:
  • Larix laricina      [Tamarack, Eastern Larch]    Common Name List
          (native habitat, bog edge)  (plant habit)  (branches)  (branches with cones)  (needle clusters)
          (cones)  (plant habit, fall)  (branches with cones, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Larix occidentalis   [Western Larch]  Native List   Common Name List
          (female cone and emerging shoots, spring)  (expanding leaves, spring)  (plant habit, summer)
          (branches with cones)  (leaf clusters)  (developing cone and leaves)  (cone at seed release)
          (leaves and cones)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Larix russica  (syn. L. sibirica)    [Siberian Larch, Russian Larch]    Common Name List
          (plant habit and leaves and cone)  (leaf (needle) custers)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Larrea       Zygophyllaceae
    Creosote Bush       
    Five species of evergreen, xerophytic shrubs.  Leaves alternate, lobed or pinnate, have gummy secretions and a distinctive creosote-like odor, especially after a rain.  Flowers are solitary, yellow, 5 oblong spoon-shaped petals.  Fruit rounded, soft, hairy.  Native to the deserts of southwestern U.S. to South America.
    Larrea: after John Anthony Hernandez de Larrea, Spanish clergyman and benefactor of the sciences.
  • Larrea tridentata      [Creosote Bush]     Common Name List
          (in its habitat)  (plant habit)  (leafy shoot)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves, flowers and fruit)
          (flowers and fruit)  (fruit and leaves)  (stem, bark)  (info)

  • Laurus       Lauraceae
    Laurel       LA-rus
    Two species of broad-leaved evergreen shrub or trees.  Leaves alternate, simple, aromatic when crushed.  Flowers in axillary clusters, unisexual or sometimes bisexual, female flowers with 2-4 staminoides, and male flowers with at least 12 stamens.  Fruit is a black berry.  Native to southern Europe (L. nobilis) and Canary Islands and Azores (L. azorica).
    Laurus: the Latin name for these plants.
  • Laurus nobilis      [True Laurel, Bay Laurel, Sweet Bay]     Common Name List
          (leaves and flower buds)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves and flowers)
          (flower cluster and leaves)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Lavatera       Malvaceae
    Tree Mallow       lah-va-TEE-ra
    Some 25 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs or soft wooded shrubs.  Leaves simple, palmately angled or lobed, long petiole.  Flowers showy, calyx in 3-9 segments that are fused at the base to form a shallow cup, 5 petals, white or rose-purple.  Native to Mediterranean to northwest Himalaya, central Asia, eastern Siberia, Australia, and Baja California and California (including L. assurgentiflora, Malva Rosa).
    Lavatera: after the Lavater brothers, 16th century Zurich naturalists.
  • Lavatera thuringiaca      [Tree Lavatera]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Leucothoe       Ericaceae
          lu-KOTH-o-e
    About 45 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs.  Leaves alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, and usually dentate.  Flowers in axillary or terminal clusters, calyx 5-parted, corolla ovate to tubular, white, 10 stamens.  Fruit a capsule, 5-valved, seeds small and numerous.
    Leucothoe: after Leucothoe of Greek mythology, daughter of Orchamus, king of Babylon, and "allegedly" (apparently not established in a court trial) changed into a shrub by her lover Apollo.
  • Leucothoe axillaris      [Coast Leucothoe]    Common Name List
          (plant habit, early spring)  (leaves, early spring)  (info)
  • Leucothoe davisiae       [Sierra Laurel, Western Leucothoe]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flower clusters)  (plant habit, after flowering)  (fruit clusters and leaves)
          (fruit clusters)  (info)

  • Leucothoe fontanesiana      [Drooping Leucothoe]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branch)  (flowers and leaves)  (new growth)  (info)

  • Leucothoe grayana          
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoots)  (leaf)  (info)
  • Leucothoe racemosa   (syn. Eubotrys racemosa)   [Sweetbells Leucothoe]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring flowering)  (flower clusters)  (leaves, spring)  (plant habit, summer)
          (leaves, summer)  (leaves, fall)  (fruit cluster)  (info)

  • Leycesteria       Caprifoliaceae
          li-ses-TE-ri-a, lest-E-ree-a
    Six species of deciduous or semi-evergreen suckering shrubs, stems arise from the base, cane-like, hollow, and becoming woody (lignified) in the second year.  Leaves simple, opposite, with petioles.  Flowers in terminal and axillary nodding clusters with colorful bracts, corolla tube usually 5-lobed, 5 stamens, 5 sepals.  Fruit is many-seeded berry  Native range from western Himalaya to southwestern China.
    Leycestria: after William Leycester, Chief Justice of Bengal during the early 19th century.
    Leycesteria formosa      [Pheasant-eye, Himalaya Honeysuckle]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves and flowers)  (flower cluster)  (fruit clusters)  (info)
    Ligustrum       Oleaceae
    Privet       li-GUS-trum
    About 50 species of evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees.  Leaves opposite, simple, entire, glabrous, with short petioles.  Flowers small, white, in terminal clusters (panicles), corolla tubular, 4-lobed, 2 stamens.  Fruit a black, fleshy drupe, 1-4 seeded.  Native to Europe, northern Africa, eastern and southeastern Asia, Australia
    Ligustrum: the Latin name for privet.
  • Ligustrum japonicum      [Japanese Privet, Waxleaf Privet]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (large plant, flowering)  (leaves)  (shoot and leaves)
          (leaves and flowers)  (flowers)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)


  •   A variegated cultivar of Ligustrum japonicum:
  • Ligustrum ovalifolium ‘Aureum’      [Golden Privet]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flowering shoot)  (info)
  • Ligustrum sinense      [Chinese Privet]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (leaves and flowers)  (flower cluster and flowers)
          (flowers, fruit and leaves)  (plant habit)  (leaves and immature fruit)  (leaves and fruit clusters, winter)
          (fruit cluster and leaves)  (info)
    Lindera       Lauraceae
    Spicebush       lin-DER-a
    About 80 species of aromatic, evergreen or deciduous shrubs or trees.  Leaves alternate, margin entire or 3-lobed.  Dioecious – male and female plants.  Flowers yellow, in dense clusters (umbels), subtended by 4 bracts; male flowers with 9-12 anthers and female flowers with 9 staminoides.  Fruit a 1-seeded drupe, rounded, fleshy or dry.
    Lindera: after Johann Linder (1678-1723), Swedish botanist and physician.
  • Lindera benzoin      [Spicebush]     Common Name List
          (flowers and emerging leaves)  (plant habit, late spring)  (shoot, expanding leaves)
          (leaves and developing fruit)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (leafy branch and leaf)
          (fruiting branches)  (plant habit, fall)  (plant habit and leaf, fall)
          (plant habit and fruit, winter)  (winter twig, bud)  (info)
    Liquidambar       Hamamelidaceae
    Sweet Gum       li-kwid-AM-bar
    Four species of deciduous trees, often with corky bark on young branches and a fragrant resin.  Leaves alternate, simple, long, slender stalked, palmately lobed, 3-7 lobes, margin serrate, glossy green.  Flowers unisexual, male flowers lacking a calyx or corolla, female flowers with a fused calyx, also lacking a corolla, ovaries of individual flowers fused.  Fruit composed of many capsules fused in a globose head.
    Liquidambar: from the Latin liquidus, liquid, and ambar, amber, a reference to its fragrant resin.
  • Liquidambar formosana      [Formosan Sweetgum]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (leaves, again)  (leaves, fall)  (info)

  • Liquidambar orientalis      [Oriental Sweetgum]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Liquidambar styraciflua      [(American) Sweetgum]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (foliage)  (leafy shoot)  (leaf)  (flowers)  (fruit)  (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit, fall)
          (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (leaf, fall)  (stems)  (trunk, bark)  (fruit clusters, winter)  (seeds)
          (seeds)  (winter buds)  (info)


  •   Several selections of Liquidambar styraciflua:
    Liriodendron       Magnoliaceae   (Magnollia Family)
    Tulip Tree       lir-ee-o-DEN-dron
    Two species of deciduous trees.  Leaves alternate, simple, broadly oblong, truncate at apex.  Flowers terminal, solitary, "tulip-shaped", 3 outspread sepals and 6 upright petals (Some authorities do not distinquish between the sepals and petals and the parts are listed as 9 tepals.), numerous stamens.  Fruit is cone-like, composed of numerous single-seeded, winged achenes.  Native to eastern North America (L. tulipifera) and China, Indochina (L. chinense).
    Liriodendron: from Greek, leiron, lily, and dendron, tree.
  • Liriodendron chinense      [Chinese Tuliptree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaf)  (fruit)  (info)

  • Liriodendron tulipifera      [Tuliptree, Yellow Poplar, Tulip Poplar]      Common Name List
          (flowers and leaves, spring)  (flower and flower bud)  (flower development)  (flower)
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaf)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit development)  (plant habit, fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (fruit, at seed drop, winter)  (mature fruit and seeds,winter)  (winter twigs, buds)
          (trunks, bark)  (info)


  •   A cultivar of Liriodendron tulipifera:
    Lithocarpus       Fagaceae
    Tanoak, Tanbark Oak       lith-o-KAR-pus
    About 300 species of oak-like evergreen trees.  Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, entire (mostly) or dentate.  Flowers unisexual, male flowers in erect, simple or branched spikes, female flowers at the base of the male spikes or in special catkins, 4-5-lobed calyx, petals absent.  Fruit a hand shelled, acorn-like nut.  Native to southeast Asia and Indonesia, 2 species in Japan, and one in western North America (i.e., L. densiflorus).
    Lithocarpus: from the Greek lithos, hard, and carpos, fruit, a reference to the hard-shelled fruit.
  • Lithocarpus densiflorus   [Tanoak, Tanbark Oak]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit, tree form)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaves, young catkins and fruit)  (developing fruit)
          (plant habit, shrub form)  (leaves, catkins and developing fruit)  (male catkin flowers)
          (leaves and developing fruit)  (leaves and maturing fruit)  (maturing fruit)  (info)

  • Lithodora       Boraginiaceae
    Lithodora       lith-o-DO-ra
    Seven species of low-growning, spreading, evergreen shrubs and subshrubs.  Leaves linear, lanceolate, to obovate, hairy.  Flowers 5-lobed, funnel-shaped, blue (often) or white.  Native range from southwestern Europe to southern Greece, Turkey, and Algeria.
    Lithodora: stone gift; rock dwelling.
  • Lithodora diffusa      [Lithodora]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, start of flowering)  (leaves and flowers)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flowers and leaves)  (info)

  • Lonicera       Caprifoliaceae
    Honeysuckle       lon-ISS-er-a
    About 180 species of deciduous or evergreen, bushy, twining or creeping shrubs.  Leaves opposite, usually simple, entire, short petiole or sessile, upper leaf pairs often fused, forming a disc.  Flowers in axillary pairs or in whorls of 6 in terminal clusters, 5 sepals, corolla often tubular with 5 lobes.  Fruit is black, red, yellow, or white, many seeded.  Native to the Northern Hemisphere.
    Lonicera: after Adam Lonitzer (1528-86), a German naturalist and author of a popular herbal.
  • Lonicera ciliosa    [Western Trumpet Honeysuckle]  Native List  Common Name List
          (plant habit, in woods)  (flowering shoot)  (flowers and leaves)  (leaf margin)  (info)
  • Lonicera fragrantissima      [Winter Honeysuckle]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, winter)  (flowers)  (flower)  (mature leaves, winter)  (young leaves, spring)
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaves, summer)  (leaf and margin)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)

  • Lonicera involucrata    [Twinberry, Black Twinberry]  Native List  Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (young shoots)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flowers)  (plant habit, fruiting and fruit)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Lonicera maackii      [Amur Honeysuckle]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, large plant in flower)  (flowers and foliage)  (leaves and flowers)  (leafy shoot, summer)
          (leaves and ripening fruit)  (leaves and ripe fruit)  (ripe fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Lonicera nitida      [Box Honeysuckle]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (shoots)  (shoots, "portrait")  (leaves, comparison)  (info)


  •   A few cultivars of Lonicera nitida:
  • Lonicera pileata      [Privet Honeysuckle]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, larger)  (branches)  (branch)  (new shoots and flowers)
          (fruit and leaves)  (leaves, comparison)  (info)

  • Lonicera tatarica       [Tatarian or Tartarian Honeysuckle]     Common Name List
          (info)


    Loropetalum       Hamamelidaceae  (Witch Hazel Family)
    Fringe Flower       lo-ro-PET-a-lum
    Two or three species of evergreen shrubs or small tree to 3 m.  Leaves simple, alternate, to 5 cm, entire, slightly asymmetrical at the base.  Flowers in terminal clusters of 6-8, calyx 4-lobed, 4 petals, whitish, long (to 2.5 cm) and strap-like.  Fruit a woody capsule.
    Loropetalum: from the Greek loron, thong, and petalon, petal; a reference to the long, narrow petals.
  • Loropetalum chinense      [Chinese Fringe-flower]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers and leaves)  (leaves and flowers)
          (flowers)  (info)

  • Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum     [Pink-flowering (Chinese) Fringe-flower]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring flowering, sheared)  (habit of old plant, flowering)  (flowers and new leaves, spring)
          (plant habit, summer)  (flowering shoots)  (flower and leaves)  (info)

  • Luma       Myrtaceae
          LU-ma
    Four species of evergreen shrubs or small trees.  Leaves opposite, simple, often elliptic, pinnately veined.  Flowers single or in a cluster of three, four petals and calyx lobes.  Fruit a berry, slightly spongy.   Native to Argentina and Chile.    These plants are sometimes listed or placed in Eugenia, Myrceugenella, or Myrtus.
    Luma: native Chilean name.
  • Luma apiculata    (syn. Myrtus luma)  [Arrayan, Palo Colorado]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, small plants)  (shoots and leaves)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flowering shoots and flowers)  (fruit and leaves)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Maackia       Fabaceae
    Maackia       MAK-ee-a
    Six species of deciduous trees, leaves alternate, compound (odd-pinnate), leaflets opposite or nearly so, short stalked, margin entire.  Flowers white in dense upright culsters (racemes), fruit (pod), linear-oblong, 1-5 seeded.   Native to eastern Asia.
    Maackia: after Richard Maack, Russian naturalist (1825-1886)..
  • Maackia amurensis      [Amur Maackia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (expanding leaves and leaflets)  (mature leaf)  (flower cluster and flowers)
          (developing fruit)  (foliage, fall)  (leaflets, fall)  (small trunk, bark)  (winter twig, buds)  (info)
  • Maackia chinensis      [Chinese Maackia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer fruiting)  (fruit clusters and leaves)  (leaf)  (fruit cluster)  (info)
    Maclura       Moraceae
    Osage-orange       ma-KLU-ra
    About 12 species of deciduous shrubs, trees, and climbers with axillary thorns.  Leaves alternate, simple, and entire.  Female flowers in dense heads with long filamentous styles, and small male flowers in short spikes or racemes.  Fruit united into large large, globose, multiple fruit.  Native to south central U.S. and Asia and Africa.
    Maclura: after William Maclura (1763-1840), American geologist.
  • Maclura pomifera       [Osage-orange]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branch with leaves)  (leaves)  (mature spines (thorns))
          (flowers, male and female)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit)  (fruit, surface and internal)
          (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (female tree, late fall)  (plant habit, winter)
          (plant habit, winter)  (trunk, bark)  (winter branch and twigs)  (info)

  • Magnolia       Magnoliaceae
    Magnolia       mag-NO-li-a
    About 125 species of evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs. Buds silver to gray pubescent.  Leaves alternate or clustered and appearing as if whorled, broadly elliptic to ovate, glossy, margin entire.  Flowers large, terminal, white, rose-pink, purple, some species yellow.  Native to east Asia, North and Central America, and Himalaya.
    Magnolia: after Pierre Magnolia (1638-1715), Professor of Botany and Director of Montpellier Botanic Gardens, France.
  • Magnolia acuminata      [Cucumber Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoot)  (leaf)  (flower bud and leaves)  (flowers and leaves)  (flower)
          (green fruit, early summer)  (mature fruit with emerging seeds, fall.)  (plant habit, fall)  (trunk, bark)
          (info)

  • Magnolia Black Tulip™      [Black Tulip Magnolia]     Common Name List
          (flower bud, opening)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (flower)  (flower)  (info)
  • Magnolia ‘Butterflies’      [Butterflies Magnolia]    Common Name List
          (flowering branches)  (flower)  (info)
  • Magnolia ‘Caerhays Belle’      [Caerhays Belle Magnolia]    Common Name List
          (flower bud, opening)  (flower)  (info)
  • Magnolia campbellii      [Campbell Magnolia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower)  (flower)  (info)
  • Magnolia denudata      [Yulan Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (flowers)  (unopened flower)  (opening flower)  (center of flower)
          (plant habit, summer)  (leaves and fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (dormant buds)  (info)

  • Magnolia ‘Elizabeth’      [Elizabeth Magnolia]    Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (unopened flower)
          (flowers)  (unopened flower and parts)  (flower near petal drop)  (info)

  • Magnolia grandiflora      [Southern Magnolia, Bullbay]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves and flower bud)  (leaves and flower)  (leaves)  (flower)  (center of flower)
          (leaves and fruit)  (immature fruit)  (leaves and mature fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Magnolia kobus      [Kobus Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit and flower buds, winter)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flower)  (leaves)
          (plant habit, summer)  (immature fruit and leaves)  (mature fruit and leaves)  (info)
  • Magnolia liliiflora      [Lily Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, spring)  (flowers, before opening)  (flowers, opening)  (flower)  (plant habit, summer)
          (leaves and young fruit)  (leaves and fruit, fall)  (leaves, comparison)  (info)

  •        A cultivar of Magnolia liliiflora
            
    ‘Nigra’
  • Magnolia × loebneri      [Loebner Magnolia]       Common Name List
          (info)


  • A cultivar of Magnolia × loebneri:


  • Magnolia macrophylla      [Bigleaf Magnolia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves and flower bud)  (leaf)  (leaf base and underside)  (flower, bud and opening)
          (flower)  (immature fruit, August)  (fruit, after drop)  (plant habit, leaf drop)  (plant habit, winter)
          (branches and bud)  (info)

  • Magnolia ‘Randy’      [Randy Magnolia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (info)
  • Magnolia salicifolia      [Willowleaf or Anise Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (fruit clusters and leaves)  (seed cluster and leaves)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Magnolia sargentiana var. robusta       [Sargent's Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers)  (flower)  (info)

  • Magnolia sieboldii      [Siebold or Oyama Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flower buds and leaves)  (flower bud, about to open)
          (flower, opening)  (open flower)  (inside flower)  (leaf)  (info)
  • Magnolia × soulangiana      [Saucer Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering (again))  (flowers)  (flowering branch)
          (flower, before and at opening)  (single flower)  (leaves)  (leaves, comparison)
          (immature and mature fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (dormant buds)  (info)

  • Magnolia ‘Star Wars’      [Star Wars Magnolia]    Common Name List
          (plant habit and flowering branches)  (info)
  • Magnolia stellata      [Star Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (flower buds, winter and spring)  (plant habit, flowering)  (young plants, flowering)  (flowers)
          (flowers, pink cultivar)  (leaves)  (leaves, comparison)  (leaves and developing fruit)
          (mature fruit releasing seeds)  (leaves and flower bud, fall)  (info)


  •  Two cultivars of Magnolia stellata:
  • Magnolia tripetala      [Umbrella Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  ("umbrella" of leaves)  (flower buds)  (flower and leaves)
          (leaves and flower)   (leaves and immature fruit)  (ripe fruit and leaves)  (leaves, fall)
          (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Magnolia virginiana      [Sweetbay Magnolia]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (branches)  (branch, leaves)  (leaves)  (flower bud and flower)
          (leaves and immature fruit)  (immature and mature fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
    Mahonia       Berberidaceae
    Oregon Grape, Holly Grape, Grape Holly       ma-HO-ni-a
    About 70 species of evergreen shrubs and small trees.  This genus has now been included in the genus Berberis, however, in commercial horticulture these plants are still known as Mahonia.   Leaves are alternate or in whorls at the top of stems, compound (usually pinnate), leaflets are sharply spiny-serrate, in opposite pairs, often glossy.  Flowers are yellow, or white or maroon.  Fruit are berry-like, plum-red to black.  Native to the Americas and Asia.
    Mahonia: after Bernard McMahon (born 1816), American nurseryman.
  • Mahonia aquifolium (syn. Berberis aquifolium)  [Oregon Grape, Oregon Grape Holly]  
          Native List
       Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaves, comparison)  (flower cluster and leaflets)
          (flowers)  (immature fruit)  (plant habit, summer)  (fruit and leaves)  (plant habit, winter, full sun)
          (leaves in winter)  (info)

     A common cultivar of Mahonia aquifolium:
  • Mahonia lomariifolia      [Chinese Mahonia, Burmese Mahonia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaf)  (flower clusters and leaves)  (flowers)  (fruit and leaves)  (info
  • Mahonia × media ‘Arthur Menzies’  [Arthur Menzies Mahonia]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (leaves and fruit)  (info)

  • Mahonia nervosa (syn. Berberis nervosa)  [Longleaf Mahonia, Cascade Mahonia]  
          Native List
       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit, in woods)  (plant habit, in landscape)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flower clusters)  (leaf)  (leaf)  (leaf, comparison)  (plant habit, winter)  (leaf, winter)  (info)

  • Mahonia pinnata   (syn. Mahonia pinnata subsp. pinnata)   [California Barberry, California Holly Grape]
           Common Name List
          (info)


  •   One of the subspecies:
  • Mahonia repens (syn. Berberis repens)  [Creeping Mahonia]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (foliage and fruit)  (fruit cluster)  (leaves)  (leaves, comparison)
          (leaves, fall)  (plant habit, winter)  (leaf, winter)  (info)

  • Malus       Rosaceae
    Flowering Crabapple       MA-lus
    An apple (Malus) is considered a crabapple if the diameter of its fruit is 2 inches (5 cm) or less.   There are some 20-30 crabapple species.   Crabapples are usually cross-fertile and freely hybridize, a plant breeders dream.   The number of crabapple types (cultivars) is unknown, but it may be near 900, according to T. L. Green (Amer. Horticulturist. Feb., 1996), and some 200 are available from nursery sources.   About 50 crabapples are listed in the Oregon Association of Nurserymen Buyers Guide.   Crabapples are especially popular in the Midwest and eastern US. They are adaptable to varying soil conditions, but do best in a heavy loam that is well drained, moist, and acidic.   Common diseases and insect pests include fireblight, cedar apple rust, apple scab, powdery mildew, canker, scale, borers, and aphids.
    Malus: the Latin name for apple.
  • Malus × atrosanguinea      [Carmine Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flower buds and leaves)  (flowers)
          (leaves and flowers, after petal fall)  (leaves and fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Malus  Brandywine®      [Brandywine Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, young trees flowering)  (flowering branch)  (flowers)  (flowers, after petal fall)
          (leaves)  (info)
  • Malus floribunda      [Japanese Flowering Crabapple]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower buds and leaves )  (flowers)  (leaves and fruit)
          (fruit, late summer)  (info)

  • Malus fusca   [Western Crabapple]   Native List  Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves, margin)  (older leaves)  (developing fruit and leaves)
          (mature fruit and leaves)  (fruit)  (fruit clusters, fall)  (info)

  • Malus hupehensis      [Tea Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowering branches)
          (flower buds and leaves)  (flowers)  (flower)  (flowers at petal fall)  (plant habit, summer)
          (fruit, fall)  (info)

  • Malus ‘Indian Summer’      [Indian Summer Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers)  (foliage and fruit)  (leaves and fruit)
          (fruit)  (info)
  • Malus ‘Prairifire’      [Prairifire Crabapple]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering branches)  (flowers and leaves)
          (new leaves, after flowering)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Malus × robusta      [Cherry Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers)  (flower)  (leaf)  (developing fruit)
          (leaves and ripe fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
  • Malus sargentii      [Sargent Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves, buds and opening flowers)  (flowering branch)  (flower)
          (flowers after petal fall)  (leaves on vigorous shoots)  (ripe fruit)  (plant habit, fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (trunk, suckers)  (info)

  • Malus ‘Snowdrift’       [Snowdrift Crabapple]     Common Name List
          (flowering, in landscape)  (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering)
          (flower buds and flowers)  (flowers)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Malus transitoria      [Transitoria Crabapple]      Common Name List
          (info)

       A popular cultivar of Malus transitoria:
    Manglietia       Magnoliaceae
    Manglietia       
    Some 25 species of evergreen shrubs and trees, similar to Magnolia, however, leaf petiole bases appear swollen, flowers 9-lobed in 2 whorls, as many as 6 ovules per carpel. Native rnage from Malesia to southern China, eastern Himalaya.
    Manglietia: .
  • Manglietia insignis   [Red Lotus Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (stems and buds, fall)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Maytenus       Celastraceae
    Mayten       may-TEN-uss
    A genus of some 250 species of shrubs and small trees.  Leaves alternate, evergreen, with short petioles.  Flowers green-white to red.  Fruit a capsule.  Native to tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Maytenus boaria   [Mayten]  Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leafy shoots)  (shoot and leaves)  (leaves)  (leaves and flowers)  (flowers)
          (flowers)  (developing fruit and leaves)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Melaleuca       Mytaceae
    Bottlebrush, Honey Myrtle       me-luh-LOO-ka
    Some 150 species of evergreen trees or shrubs, bark often in thin, coaky layers.  Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite, simple, from lanceolate to nearly cylindrical, with 1-3 veins, oil glands beneath in many species.  Flowers in cylindrical spikes to ovate heads, petals outspread, 5sepals, many stamens.  Fruit is a capsule, densely clustered on the branches, surrounded by the woody flower tube.   Mostly in Australia and Tasmania, one species, M. leucadendron, distributed from Australia through the Pacific Islands to the East Indies and the Philippines.
    Melaleuca: from Greek, melas, black; leucos, white.  Some species have black trunks and white branches.
  • Melaleuca diosmifolia   [Dotted Melaleuca]   Common Name List
          (plant habit and branches)  (leafy shoot)  (fruit cluster)  (info)

  • Melaleuca nesophila   [Pink Melaleuca, Showy Honey-myrtle]   Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowers, leaves and fruit clusters)  (flower cluster)  (fruit clusters)  (info)

  • Menziesia       Ericaceae
    Menziesia       men-zee-SHE-a
    About 7 species of small deciduous shrubs, leaves alternate, simple, entire.  Flowers, 4-5 or so, in terminal clusters, corolla campanulate or urn-shaped, 4-5 rounded lobes; fruit 4-5 valved, leathery.
    Menziesia: after Archibald Menzies (1745-1842), Scottish physician and naturalist who collected in the Pacific Northwest.
  • Menziesia ciliicalyx var. multiflora   [Mock Azalea]   Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flower clusters)  (plant habit)  (leaves)  (info)

  • Menziesia ferruginea   [Rusty Menziesia, Fool's Huckleberry]    Native List   Common Name List
          (info)

  • Metasequoia       Taxodiaceae
    Dawn Redwood       met-a-se-KWOY-a
    Only 1 species (see below).
    Metasequoia: from the Greek meta, with, and Sequoia.

    The State Fossil of Oregon

        The Oregon legislature designated the Metasequoia as the official state fossil in 2005.  Metasequoia flourished in the Miocene epoch of 25 to 5 million years ago and left its record embedded in rocks across the Oregon landscape.  While long extinct in Oregon, paleontologists discovered living 100-foot Metasequoia glyptostroboides trees in a remote area of China in the 1940s.  Seeds were sent to Harvard University, and these were distributed to various institutions throughout the United States, including Oregon State University. For more information on the discovery of M. glyptostroboides, see the info section below.
  • Metasequoia glyptostroboides      [Dawn Redwood]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, winter, early spring and spring)  (seed and pollen cones, early spring)
          (pollen (male) cones)  (plant habit, summer)  (branches)  (branch with cone)
          (needles, comparison)  (cones and leaves, Sept.)  (plant habit, fall)  (branches, fall)
          (main branches, comparison)  (trunk, bark)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)


  •   Selections of Metasequoia glyptostroboides:
    Microbiota       Cupressaceae
    Russian Arborvitae       mi-kro-bi-O-ta
    A single species (see below).
    Microbiota: the Latin name.
  • Microbiota decussata      [Russian Arborvitae, Siberian Cypress]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer)  (branches, summer)  (branchlets, summer)  (plant habit, winter)
          (branchlets, winter)  (leaves, winter)  (plant habit, spring)  (info)

  • Microcachrys       Podocarpaceae
    Creeping Pine       my-kro-KAY-krys
    A single species (see below).
    Microcachrys: from the Greek mikros, small, and cachrus, catkin.
  • Microcachrys tetragona      [Creeping Pine, Creeping Strawberry Pine]       Common Name List
          (plant habit, fruiting)  (fruiting branch)  (branchlets and leaves)  (female cones)
          (developing and mature cones)  (info)

  • Mitchella       Rubiaceae
          mit-CHEL-a, my-CHEL-luh
    Two specis of evergreen, low growing plants with tailing stems, one is native to North America (M. repens) and the other (M. undulata) to Japan.  Leaves opposite, round-ovate, glossy.   Flowers in pairs, white, fragrant.  Fruit a berry-like drupe, scarlet or rarely white.
    Mitchella: for Dr. John Mitchell (1676-1768), correspondent of Linnaeus and botanist in Virginia..
  • Mitchella repens      [Partridgeberry, Twinberry]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (fruit and leaves)  (info)

  • Morus       Moraceae
    Mulberry       MO-rus
    Approximatel 12 species of deciduous,short-lived, fast growing trees and shrubs, often producing a milky sap (latex) when cut.  Leaves alternate, simple, unlobed to 2-5 lobed, short petiole, turning yellow in fall.  Flowers in unisexual clusters (catkins), male flowers deeply 4-parted, female flowers with a 4-part floral envelope (perianth), ovaries attached without a supporting stalk (sessile).  Fruit somewhat resembling that of a raspberry, green then orange or white and red and purple.  Native to North America and southen Europe to Japan and the lowland tropics of central Africa.
    Morus: Latin name for the balck mulberry Morus nigra.
  • Morus alba      [White or Common Mulberry]     Common Name List
          (flower clusters (catkins), May)  (plant habit, summer)  (leafy shoots)
          (leaves)  (leaves and margin)  (fruit, early summer)  (plant habit, winter)
          (trunk)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)

      A contorted version of Morus alba:
    Myrica       Myricaceae
    Wax Myrtle       mi-RI-ka
    About 35 species of evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees, often aromatic.  Leaves simple, alternate, short petioled, usually oblanceolate.  Flowers unisexual, inconspicuous, without sepals or petals, in dense catkins.  Fruit is an ovoid or spherical drupe, gray-green to purple, sometimes covered with resinous or waxy bloom.
    Several of the Myrica have been placed in the genus, Morella [Wilbur, R.l. SIDA 16(1): 93-107(1994)].
    Myrica: Greek name for Tamarix.
  • Myrica californica   [Pacific Waxmyrtle]     (syn. Morella californica)   Native List  Common Name List
          (in a landscape)  (plant habit)  (shoots)  (leaves)  (leaf underside with glands)
          (leaves and stem, comparison)  (leaves and flowers, spring)  (flower catkins and leaves)
          (female, male and bisexual flowers)  (flower spikes, mostly female)  (developing fruit and leaves)
          (leaves and fruit)  (shoot, leaves and fruit)   (info)

  • Myrica gale    [Sweetgale, Bog Myrtle]  Native List   Common Name List
          (in bog habitat)  (plant habit)  (shoots, leaves)  (leaves)  (catkin)  (info)
  • Myrica pensylvanica   (syn. Morella pensylvanica)    [Northern Bayberry, Candleberry]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, hedge, early spring)  (twig with buds, early spring)  (plant habit, spring)
          (flower buds and flowers)  (plant habit, summer)  (leaves)  (plant habit, hedge)  (leafy shoot)
          (leaves, comparison)  (info)

  • Myrica rubra      [Chinese, Japanese or Red Bayberry]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, row of trees)  (leaves and male catkins)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Myrtus       Myrtaceae
    Myrtle       MUR-tus
    Two species of evergreen shrubs  Leaves opposite, entire, with aromatic oil glands.   White or pink flowers, 4 petals, numerous stamens.  Fruit is a berry with persistent calyx lobes.  Native to the Mediterranian and North Africa.
    Myrtus: the Greek and Latin name for the plants.
  • Myrtus communis      [Common Myrtle]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoot)  (leafy shoot)  (leafy shoot, underside)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Nandina       Berberidaceae
    Heavenly Bamboo       nan-DE-na
    A single species (monotypic genus) of an evergreen shrub (see below).
  • Nandina domestica      [Heavenly Bamboo]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaf)  (flower cluster)  (plant habit, fruiting)  (in a landscape, fruiting)
          (leaves and fruit)  (fruit)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaf, fall)  (info)
           Some compact and dwarf forms
               
    compact form, fall
               dwarf form, winter
               leaves, dwarf form
               fine-leafed dwarf form, ‘Filamentosa’
    Neviusia       Rosaceae
    Snowwreath       nev-i-U-si-a
    Long thought to contain a single species (Neviusia alabamensis), a monotypic genus, but a second species was discovered in California in 1992.  Deciduous shrubs with simple, alternate leaves, and with 5 green, outspread sepals, and 50-100 stamens.
    Neviusia: after Reverend D. R. Nevius (1827-1913), of Alabama, who collected N. alabamensis.
  • Neviusia cliftonii      [Shasta Snowwreath]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leaves)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Nothofagus       Fagaceae
    Southern Beech       no-thoh-FAH-gus
    About 40 species in this genus, including evergreen and deciduous shrubs and trees.  Bark is generally smooth, purplish-brown and with distinct lenticels, becoming scaly or furrowed on older trees.  Leaves alternate, margin entire, wavy, or toothed, 4-22 pairs of veins, number of veins and teeth used in identification.  Male and female flowers.  Native to southern South America, New Zealand, eastern Australia, and New Guinea.
    Nothofagus: from the Greek nothos, false, and Fagus.  The genus is closely related to Fagus (Beech), differing in a many seeded involucre and lack of a true terminal bud.
  • Nothofagus antarctica      [Southern Beech, False Beech]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, young and older tree)  (shoot arrangement)  (foliage and leaves)  (leaves)
          (leaf surfaces and margin)  (plant habit and leaves, fall)  (plant habit and branches, winter)
          (winter twigs and buds)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Nothofagus dombeyi      [Evergreen Beech, Coigue]       Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (leafy shoots)  (leafy shoots, underside)  (leaves)  (leaf surfaces)  (trunk, bark)
          (info)
  • Nothofagus fusca      [New Zealand Red Beech]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaf)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Nothofagus obliqua      [Roblé Beech]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leaves)  (leaves, underside)  (trunk, bark)  (info)
    Nyssa       Nyssaceae
    Tupelo       NIS-a
    Five species of deciduous trees.  Leaves alternate, simple, entire or toothed.  Flowers inconspicuous, green, 5 petals, 10 stamens.  Fruit is an oblong drupe.  Native to eastern North America (N. aquatica, N. biflora, N. ogeche, N. sylvatica) and eastern Asia (N. sinensis).
    Nyssa: for Nyssa, a water nymph, N. aquatica grows in swamps.
  • Nyssa sylvatica      [Sour Gum, Black Gum, Black Tupelo, Pepperidge]      Common Name List
          (emerging leaves and male flowers)  (young leaves and unopened male flowers)  (maturation of male flowers)
          (plant habit, young tree)  (plant habit, older trees)  (leaves)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves, comparison)
          (fruit development)  (leaves and fruit, summer)  (leaves, early fall)  (leaves and fruit, early fall)
          (fruit and leaves, early fall)  (plant habit and leaves, fall)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (leaves, fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (fruit, winter)  (plant habit, winter)  (trunk, bark)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)

  • Oemleria       Rosaceae
    Indian Plum, Oregon Plum, Oso Berry       ohm-LER-i-a
    A single species in this genus (see below).
    Oemleria: after Herr Oemler of Dresden who supplied American plants to the German botanist H.G.L. Reichenbach in the mid-1800s.
  • Oemleria cerasiformis    [Indian Plum]  Native List  Common Name List
          (in habitat, early spring flowering)  (in a landscape, flowering)  (flowering branches)
          (flower clusters and young leaves)  (flowers)  (leaf)  (fruit development)
          (plant habit, mid-summer)  (summer foliage)  (young stems)  (stem, bark)  (info)

  • Olea       Oleaceae
    Olive       O-lee-ah
    A genus of some 20 species of long-lived evergreen trees and shrubs.  Stems may be smooth, rough or spiny, and vary from golden-glabrous to silvery gray, initially very pliable, then firm and rigid, with advanced age they become gray-black and contorted.  Leaves are opposite, usually with an entire margin but occasionally toothed or lobed, often gray to dark green, paler below and often glandular and silvery.  The flowers are inconspicuous, white or off-white, and in terminal or axillary clusters (panicles).  Fruit is ovoid or globose with a single ellipsoid stone, to about 1.5 cm long.  Native to warm temperate and tropical regions of Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania.
  • Olea europaea   [Common Olive]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, young tree)  (plant habit, older tree)  (plant habit, sheared in a garden)  (leaves)
          (leaves, underside)  (young fruit)  (canopy with green fruit)  (green fruit)  (trunk, bark)  (info)

  • Olearia       Asteraceae
    Daisy Bush       o-lee-AH-ree-a
    A genus of some 130 species of evergreen shrubs, small trees and some herbaceous perennials.  Leaves are simple, usually alternate, sometimes in clusters, leathery.  Flowers are daisy-like, which can be white, cream, blue, lavender, purple, or pink, borne singly or in large clusters.  Native to Australia and New Zealand, found in a wide range of habitats, including coastal areas, river banks and mountains scrubs.
    Olearia: after Adam Ölschläger (Olerius), 1603-1671.
  • Olearia macrodonta   [Daisy Bush, New Zealand Holly]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (leaves and flowers)  (info)
    Oplopanax       Araliaceae
    Devil's Club       op-low-PAHN-ax
    Three species of deciduous, coarse suckering, shrubs with densely spiny shoots and leaves.  Leaves alternate, simple, palmately veined, bright green, long petiole.  Flowers in clusters (umbels), greenish-white, 5 petals, 5 stamens, 2 styles.  Fruit compressed drupe, round, red.
    Oplopanax: from the Greek hoplon, a weapon, and Panax, a reference to the spiny shoots.
  • Oplopanax horridus    [Devil's Club]  Native List   Common Name List
          (plant habit, in forest habitat)  (leaves)  (leaf)  (plant habit, flowering)  (flower cluster)
          (developing fruit)  (ripening fruit)  (stem, prickles)  (plant habit, fall)  (leaves, fall)  (info)
    Osmanthus       Oleraceae
    Osmanthus       oz-MAN-thus
    Some 30 species of evergreen shrubs or small trees.  Leaves opposite, simple, glabrous, leathery, glossy green above, small glandular depressions on the lower side, short petiole.  Flowers white or yellowish, usually fragrant, calyx 4-toothed, corolla bell-shaped or tubular, limb with 4-lobes, 2-stamens.  Fruit a single seeded hard shelled drupe.  Native to southern U.S. (O. americanus, Devil Wood), Middle East, China and Japan.
    Osmanthus fragrans, Fragrant Tea Olive, is one of the most popular gardens plants in China because of the fragrance of its tiny flowers.  It blooms from autumn to spring, and because it is in bloom in mid-autumn, at the time of the moon festival, it has long been associated with lunar legends.  To the Chinese the image visible in the full moon is an osmanthus bush (Valder, 1999).
    Osmanthus: from Greek osme, fragrance, and anthos, flowers.
  • Osmanthus × burkwoodii      [Burkwood Osmanthus]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (young plant, flowering)  (leaves and flowers)
          (flowers and leaves)  (flowering branch, comparison)  (leaves and flowers, comparison)  (info)

  • Osmanthus delavayi      [Delavay Osmanthus, Delavay Tea Olive]     Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (plant habit, flowering, small plants)  (flowering branches)
          (flowers and leaves)  (flowering branch, comparison)  (leaves and flowers, comparison)
          (info)

  • Osmanthus × fortunei      [Fortune’s Osmanthus]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (juvenile leaves)  (branch, adult leaves)  (leaves and flowers, fall)
          (flower cluster and leaves)  (flowers)  (info)

  • Osmanthus fragrans      [Fragrant Tea Olive, Sweet Osmanthus]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (foliage)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (new growth)  (trunk, bark)
          (info)

  • Osmanthus heterophyllus       [Holly Osmanthus, Holly Tea Olive]      Common Name List
          (plant habit)  (plant habit)  (leaves, adult)  (leaves, juvenile)  (leafy shoots)
          (plant habit, fall flowering)  (flowering branches and flowers)  (leaves and fruit)  (info)


  •   A few cultivars of Osmanthus heterophyllus:
    Ostrya       Betulaceae, Carpinaceae
          OS-tri-a
    About 9 species of deciduous trees.  Leaves simple, alternate, in two rows, parallel veins, margins serrate or dentate.  Male flower catkins are Carpinus- or Betula-like, but form in fall.  Female flowers in terminal short spikes or catkins, 3-12 pairs of flowers, each pair subtended by a bract and each flower in a sac-like husk, which inflates on fruiting giving the cluster a hop-like appearance.  Native to Europe, Asia, and North America.
    Ostrya: Greek for shell, a reference to the inflated husk of the fruit.
  • Ostrya virginiana      [American Hop-Hornbeam, Ironwood]      Common Name List
          (female and male flowers, spring)  (plant habit, young tree)  (leafy shoot)  (leaves)  (plant habit, fruiting)
          (leaves and fruit clusters)  (fruit cluster and leaf)  (shoot, leaf and fruit, comparion)  (leaf and fruit, comparion)
          (plant habit, foliage, and fruit)  (leaf and fruit)  (plant habit and leaves, fall)  (plant habit and fruit, early winter)
          (trunk, bark)  (winter twig, buds)  (info)

  • Oxalis       Oxalidaceae
    Oxalis, Sorrel       oks-AH-lis
    A large genus, over 800 species, of annuals, herbaceous perennials, and shrubs, often with tuberous or bulbous underground parts.  Leaves usually palmately compound, often 3 leaflets, frequently folding at night.  Flowers are white, pink, red, or yellow, petals are usually fused at the base, 10 stamens in two whorls, 5 styles, 5 fused carpels.  Widely distributed, but South Africa and South America are centers of diversity.
    Oxalis: from the Greek oxys, acid, a reference to the sour taste of the leaves.
  • Oxalis oregona      [Oregon Oxalis, Redwood Sorrel]  Native List    Common Name List
          (in the woods)  (in a landscape)  (leaves and flowers)  (flower)  (info)

  • Oxydendrum       Ericaceae   (Heath Family)
          ok-si-DEN-drum
    A single species in this genus (see below).
    Oxydendrum: from the Greek oxys, sharp, and dendron, tree, a reference to the tree's sour foliage.
  • Oxydendrum arboreum      [Sourwood, Lily of the Valley Tree]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, summer flowering)  (plant habit, summer and fall)  (leaves)  (leaves and flowers)
          (flowering shoot)  (flowers and fruit)  (leaf margin, comparison)  (plant habit, summer and fall)
          (leaves, fall)  (leaves and fruit, fall)  (leaves and fruit clusters, fall)  (fruit clusters and leaves, fall)
          (trunk, bark)  (winter twigs)  (winter twigs, buds)  (info)
    Copyright, Oregon State University, 1999-2014

    Some options:
    First letter of genus (or a Genus itself)
     Volume 1   A  Abelia  Abeliophyllum  Abies  Acca  Acer  Actinidia  Adansonia  Adenium
      Adenocarpus  Aesculus  Ailanthus  Akebia  Albizia  Alnus  Amelanchier  Amorpha
      Ampelopsis  Aralia  Araucaria  Arbutus  Arctostaphylos  Ardisis  Aronia
      Artemisia  Asimina  Athrotaxis  Atriplex  Aucuba  Azadirachta  Azara

      B  Baccharis  Bauhinia  Berberis  Betula  Brachyglottis   Buddleia  Bumelia  Buxus

      C  Callicarpa  Callitropsis  Calluna  Calocedrus  Calycanthus   Camellia  Campsis  Caragana
      Carissa  Carnegiea  Carpenteria  Carpinus  Carya  Caryopteris  Castanea  Catalpa
      Cathaya  Ceanothus  Cedrus  Celastrus  Celtis  Cephalanthus  Cephalotaxus  Ceratonia
      Cercidiphyllum  Cercidium  Cercis  Cercocarpus  Chaenomeles  Chamaebatiaria
      Chamaecyparis  Chilopsis  Chimonanthus  Chionanthus
      ×Chitalpa  Choisya  Chrysolepis  Chrysothamnus
      Cinnamomum  Cistus  Cladrastis  Clematis  Clerodendrum  Clethra
      Coleogyne  Cornus  Corylopsis  Corylus  Cotinus  Cotoneaster  Crataegus
      Cryptomeria  Cunninghamia  ×Cupressocyparis  Cupressus  Cydonia  Cytisus

      D  Daboecia  Daphne  Daphniphyllum  Dasiphora  Davidia
      Deutzia  Diospyros  Dirca  Disanthus  Drimys

      E  Edgeworthia  Elaeagnus  Encelia  Enkianthus  Ephedra  Erica  Eriobotrya
      Escallonia  Eucalyptus  Eucommia  Euonymus  Evodia  Exochorda
     Volume 2
    current
     
    F  Fagus  ×Fatshedera  Fatsia  Feijoa  Ficus  Firmiana  Fontanesia  Forsythia
      Fouquieria  Fothergilla  Fragaria  Franklinia  Fraxinus  Fremontodendron  Fuchsia

      G  Garrya  Gaultheria  Genista  Ginkgo  Gleditsia  Grevillea  Gymnocladus

      H  Hakea  Halesia  Hamamelis  Hebe  Hedera  Heptacodium
      Heteromeles  Hibiscus  Hippophae  Holodiscus  Hovenia  Hydrangea  Hypericum

      I  Iberis  Idesia  Ilex  Illicium  Itea

      J  Jasminum  Juglans  Juniperus

      K  Kalmia  Kalopanax  Kerria  Kniphofia  Koelreuteria  Kolkwitzia

      L  Laburnum  Lagerstroemia  Larix  Larrea  Laurus  Lavatera  Leucothoe  Leycesteria
      Ligustrum  Lindera  Liquidambar  Liriodendron  Lithocarpus  Lithodora
      Lonicera  Loropetalum  Luma

      M  Maackia  Maclura  Magnolia  Mahonia  Malus  Manglietia  Maytenus
      Melaleuca  Menziesia  Metasequoia  Microbiota  Microcachrys
      Mitchella  Morus  Myrica  Myrtus

      N  Nandina  Neviusia  Nothofagus  Nyssa

      O  Oemleria  Olea  Olearia  Oplopanaxa  Osmanthus  Ostrya  Oxalis  Oxydendrum
     Volume 3

    P  Pachysandra  Paeonia  Parakmeria  Parrotia  Parrotiopsis
      Parthenocissus  Passiflora  Paulownia  Paxistima  Phellodendron  Philadelphus
      Phillyrea  Photinia  Physocarpus  Picea  Pieris  Pinus  Pistacia
      Pittosporum  Platanus  Platycarya  Podocarpus  Polygonum  Polystichum
      Poncirus  Populus  Potentilla  Prumnopitys  Prunus  Pseudolarix  Pseudotsuga
      Ptelea  Pterocarya  Pterostyrax  Punica  Purshia  Pyracantha  Pyrus

      Q  Quercus  Quillaja

      R  Rhamnus  Rhaphiolepis  Rhododendron  Rhodotypos  Rhus  Ribes
      Robinia  Rosa  Rosmarinus  Rubus

      S  Salix  Sambucus  Santolina  Sapindus  Sarcococca  Sassafras   Sciadopitys
      Sequoia  Sequoiadendron  Shepherdia  Sideroxylon  Simmondsia  Skimmia  Sophora
      Sorbus  Spiraea  Stachyurus  Stewartia  Styrax  Symphoricarpos  Symplocos  Syringa

      T  Taiwania  Tamarix  Taxodium  Taxus  Ternstroemia  Tetradium  Thevetia
      Thuja  Thujopsis  Tibouchina  Tilia  Toona  Trachelospermum  Trachycarpus  Tsuga

      U  Ulex  Ulmus  Umbellularia

      V  Vaccinium  Vancouveria  Viburnum  Vinca  Vitex  Vitis

      W  Waldsteinia  Washingtonia  Weigela  Widdringtonia  Wisteria  Wollemia

      X  Xanthocyparis      Y  Yucca      Z  Zanthoxylum  Zelkova  Ziziphus
      Volume 4
  • Home Page
  • Google Search on the Home Page
  • Common Name List
  • Native Woody Plant List
  • USDA Hardiness Zones
  • Sunset's Climate Zones for Oregon, Washington and Idaho
  • Scientific Plant Names
  • Glossary of Some Technical Terms
  • Plant Identification: Examining Leaves
  • Trying to identify an unkown woody plant?  See the woody plant identification system
  • References

  •    Copyright ©, Oregon State University, 1999-2014
    For comments, suggestions, or corrections concerning this site please contact Patrick Breen, CPN (Certified Plant Nerd), Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University at Patrick.Breen@oregonstate.edu
    Last update of Volume 2: October 10, 2014