Latin name: Chamaesyce maculata; also called Euphorbia maculata, Euphorbia supina, and Euphorbia prostrata.

The species listed above are very similar, and there is a great deal of confusion when trying to identify which species is which.

Family:  Euphorbiaceae

Common name:  prostrate spurge

Life cycle: summer annual;  In Oregon, it seems this weed is most problematic during only the hottest summers, or in enclosed structures where heat builds up even during our typically cool summers.  In other parts of the country, like the Southeastern U.S. where summers are always very warm, prostrate spurge is one of the most difficult to control weeds in container production.
Habit: prostrate
Foliage: Foliage is small, succulent, and often with small red spots.
Flower:  Flowers are small, pink, and grow from leaf axils.  Flower parts are difficult to discern without magnification.
Cotyledon or seedling:  Prostrate spurge is a dicot.  It is also a prolific seed producer, so often hundreds of seed will germinate at the same time in a container (makes hand-weeding difficult).

Roots:  Spurge develop a deep taproot, though it's been my experience that this weed is fairly easy to handweed compared to other weeds (as long as there are only a few, and not hundreds in a single container).  
Control: View 2003 herbicide trial results for this and other common container weeds.
Notes:  Prostrate spurge is in the same family as the common Christmas Poinsettia, and similar to poinsettia it has a milky sap that exudes when stems are broken.  This makes it easy to differentiate spurge from similar looking weeds like purslane and prostrate knotweed.

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