Metrici and Rhythmici:

                    A Chronological List


           Ancient and Medieval Theories of Meter,

                 with secondary apparatus

                       T.V.F. Brogan


This list is very rough: I built it over a number of years in order to 

make sense out of the whole history of Western metrical theory. Every 

area specialist will feel her area has been slighted, and standard 

(cryptic) bibliographical references outside your area may not be 

obvious. Ask. I need a numbering system, still, to track the very 

conspicuous lines of descent. English I didn't much fill in on account 

of my book. The vertical bar formatters are leftovers from NPEPP 

coding; deal with them. There's some misc. stuff not worked in at the 


This text is released into the public domain. I make only two 

stipulations. (1) You must acknowledge it if you use any significant 

portion in print. (2) If you are grateful for what data is here, help 

fill in some of the holes with Addenda and Corrigenda. Upload a note 

to Steven or me, and he'll correct the actual page. You must specify 

(a) the particular item you're commenting on, (b) the specific 

addition or correction made, (c) your name and email address, and (d) 

the date submitted. We will list all changes as footnotes in a running 

list at the end. 



"Quando vero iniquitates gerimus, musicam non habemus."

           ("When we sin, we do not make music.")

                               -- Cassiodorus, Institutiones 2.5.2


Last revised            December 24, 1991 

Reformatted 		May 3, 1998.





                 GRAMMAR     RHETORIC        MUSIC 

                     |                         |

                     |          |              |

                 Metrici        |           Rhythmici 

                     |        Horace     (temporalists)

                   Heph.    Quintilian       Aristox.

                     |          |              |

                Med. Lat.       |      Augustine (conflation) 

                grammars   Ars poetica         |

                     |     Second. Rhet.  Vers mesures (=Q) 

                     |       Pleiade           |

                     |       18th c.         Steele

           19th C. Philology    |            Lanier

           20th C. Linguistics  |           Acoustics

                     |          |          Heusler, Pope, 


All advances in textual exegesis, philology, linguistics, poetics, 

Verswissenschaft, and literary theory notwithstanding, there have been 

only two schools of thought about the nature of poetic meter. The 

terms of the disagreement have not substantively changed from 

Antiquity up to the present day, nor has there been any effective 



Rhetoric vis-à-vis Sprechvers, Music vis-à-vis Sangvers. 

Humanism and the recovery of the text of Aristotle all contributed to 

Rhythmici, because quantities were Time. 

Longs and shorts: accent was felt but no terminology to talk about it. 

In general the revival of Classical Philology helped the Timers most. 

Secondary discussions of Metrici vs. Rhythmici:

J. Hadley, "On Ancient Greek Rhythm and Metre," Essays Philol. and 

Crit. (1873); 

H. D. F. Kitto, "R., Metre, and Black Magic," ClassR 56 (1942); 

E. Graf, Rhythmus und Metrum: Zur Synonymik (1891); 

O. Schroeder, "Rhythmus," Hermes 53 (1918); 

R. Waltz, "Rhythmus et numerus," Revue des etudes latines 26 (1948);


W. Brambach; 

And all the rest in my bibl. of rhythm in PEPP 






                           Classical Greek


1.   Damon, teacher of Pericles

     He analyzed iambics and trochaics and seems to have 

     distinguished three types of dactylic verse; he studied

     rhythmical ethos

     Aristophanes, Clouds, 649 ff

     Plato, Republic 400b

     See W. J. Koster in ClassQ 28 (1934): 148 ff

     See C. Del Grande, "Damone metrico," Giornale ital. de. filol. 1           

     (1948): 3-16.

2.   Gorgias, Defense of Helen, says 


3.   Aristotle, Rhetoric, Book III

                Poetics 1459b, 1460a, ?

     Heraclides Ponticus [the Elder],

     Philosopher; derived the meters from a proto-meter of six      


     See Koster, p. 5

4.   Philoxenus of Alexandria, 1st c. B.C.

     A metrical treatise now lost

     See F. Leo; see M. Schmidt, Philologus 4 ( ) 627 ff

5.   Heliodorus, fl. 1st c. A.D.

     Metrical scholia to Aristophanes 

     See Gleditsch 1901 

     See Hense, Heliodoreische Untersuchungen, Leipzig 1870.

     C. Conradt, "Beitr. zur Semeiotik des Heliodorus," N Jahrb f      

     Philol 151 (1895): 273-77

     in J. W. White, The Verse of Greek Comedy (1912), 384 ff.

     W. J. W. Koster, Scholia in Aristophanis Plutum et Nubes (1927)

6.   Hephaestion, Enchiridion peri metron, 

     End of 1st c., first-half 2nd c. A.D., 

     Originally in 84 Books but reduced by successive abridgements to      

     11, then 3, then 1 (the extant form); tells us little about how      

     the ancients thought about metric, though in fact a great deal 

     of our categories, concepts, and terms of analysis are derived 

     from the ancients.  All metrical analysis depends on dividing 

     into feet, atomic elements, instead of deriving from the older 

     basic meters by periods (bigger pieces).  Looking for basic 

     elements put together in regular patterns is a natural, obvious, 

     and basic method in science.

     Ed. 1526.  

     Ed. Th. Gaisford, London 1810; 

     (Gaisford's collection of Latin metrists, 1837.)

     Tr. T. F. Barham, 1843.

     2d ed. of Gaisford, 1856. 2 vols.

     A. Rossbach, De Hephaestionis Alex. libris . . ., 1857, 1858.

     Ed. Westphal, Scriptores metrici graeci, 2 v. (1866), v. 1

     Ed. M. Consbruch, Leipzig 1906  -- the best modern text 

     Tr. J. M. van Ophuijsen 1990. 


Scholia  [maybe should be cited as Medieval, below]:

To Hephaestion (above)

To Pindar: 

     Boeckh's ed. of Pindar ? , 1811.  criticized as mechanical by                

     Boeckh in Kleinere Schriften 5.265 ff. 

     Irigoin, ed., Les Scholi metr de Pindar . . ., 1958. 

to Aristophanes: 

     W. J. W. Koster, Scholia in Aristophanis Plutum et Nubes, vetera      

     Thomas Magistri, Demetrius Triclinii nec non anonyma recentiora      

      partem inedita (1927) 


Ed. Westphal, Scriptores metrici graeci, 2 v. (1866), v. 2 


                Medieval and Byzantine Greek metrists


They all follow Hephaestion and his scholia slavishly; the Byzantine 

     stuff is bloody fascinating. 

Check:   W. J. W. Koster, Tractatus graeci de re metrica inediti.           

     Paris, 1922.

1.  Tricha, 11th c. grammarian, an epitome of Hephaestion

     Epimerismoi tuo ennea metron,

     called De novem metris libelli, in Westphal Scriptores v. 1

2.  The scholia to H. given in Westphal, Scriptores

3.  A versified version of Hephaestion by Jacob Tzetze (1100--ca. 1183) 

    Tzetze wrote a Peri metron, 

    ed. Cramer,  Anecdota graeca Oxoniensia, v. 3 (1836), 302-33. 


4.  Chrestomathiae grammaticae fragmenta in Westphal.

     Proclus?  Choeroboscus?

5.  Georgios Choeroboscus, 6th-10th c., a treatise and a commentary 

     on H ed. Th. Gaisford, Dictata in canones, 1842.  3 vols.

     In G. Studemund, Anecdota varia graeca, I. Berlin, 1886, 31-96

     Discussed Krumbacher, 583 ff, 593-604. 


Wholly derivative treatises and scholia (Scholia B):

x.   Pseudo-Hephaestion, De metris

     ed. H. zur Jacobsmühlen

x.   Pseudo-Herodian

x.   Pseudo-Moschopulos

     Opuscula grammatica Ed. F. N. Titze, Prague 1822.  

x.   Isaac Monacho, 14th c.

x.   Helias Charax

x.   The prosody in the Harley codex

x.   Grammaticus Ambrosian

x.   Pseudo-Dracon, i.e. a treatise, peri metron poihtikon, 

     attributed to Dracon of Stratonicea but forged by Jacob 

     Diassorinos of Rhodes, a Greek, ca. 1550.  Ed. G. Hermann 1812, 

     but ed. Koster, Tractatus, 

x.   the so-called Anecdota Chisiana, i.e. 

     Anecdota Chisiana de re metrica ed.et commentario instruxit, ed. 

     Guillaume Mangelsdorf (1876); 


x.   Manuel Moschopulos, "peri metron" 

     Metrical scholia to this poet by Tzetze 

x.   Thomas Magister

     Metrical scholia to this poet by Tzetze ? 

     Metrical scholia on Aristophanes by him 

     ed. W. J. W. Koster, Scholia in Aristophanis Plutum et Nubes,      

     vetera Thomas Magistri, Demetrius Triclinii nec non anonyma      

     recentiora partem inedita (1927)

x.   Demetrius Triclinius, first part of the 14th c.

     ed. Koster in Scholia in Aristophanis, 1927.

     Metrical scholia to this poet by Tzetze ? 

     Metrical scholia on Aristophanes by him 

     See Raphael Sealey, "A Note on the Metrical Scholia to the      

     Agamemnon." CQ n.s. 5 (1955): 119-22. 

x.   Maximos Planudes, Peri grammaticos dialogos (ca. 1270-1305. 

     Ed. L. Bachmann, Anecdota graeca (1828), 3-101. 

     Tr. and discussion of a passage in M. J. Jeffreys' article on      

     Byz. political verse in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 28 (1974) 144-46

x.   Eustathios, 


A. Boeckh, Encyc. und Meth. d. phil. Wiss., 552n, 813 ff, 844 ff.

Westphal, "Die Tradition der alten Metriker."  Philologus 20 (1863).

     Discusses metron then surveys all the metra severally

Westphal and Gleditsch, Allgemeine Theorie der griechischen Metrik,      

     1887, chs. 3-4, esp. 

Gleditsch, "Rhythmische und metrische Theorie der Alten." Metrik der      

     Griechen und Ro"mer, 3rd ed. 1901.

K. Krumbacher, "Metrik und Music," Gesch. Byz. Lit., 2d ed., 1897,      


F. Susemihl, "Rhythmik und Metrik," Gesch. der griech. Lit. in      

     der Alexanderzeit, v. 2 (1892), 218-37.

F. Leo, "Die beiden metrischen Systeme des Alterthums," Hermes 24 


     On older and younger theories in Latin grammarians

Gleditsch in Jahresberichte 1900, p. 3

Meyer, 3.130-40, 140-45--collects comments by ancient grammarians on 


Wilamowitz, "Die metrischen Theorien der Hellenen," Griechische      

     Verskunst, 1921, ch. 3; 

     ch. 4 is "Skizze einer Gesch. der griechischen Verskunst."  

W. J. W. Koster, Traite, 4-9 gives a good sketch.


             Classical Latin and Medieval Ars metrica


                        i: Rhetoricians


Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Literary Composition, 1st C. B.C.

     tr. W. Rhys Roberts, 1910.

     This is mainly on word order 

     Then see S. F. Bonner, The Literary Theories of D. of H., 1939.

     The Critical Essays, ed. Stephen Usher, Loeb Library, 2 vols.      

     (1974, 1985).

     He came up to Rome ca. 30 B.C.; see CHCL 1.643 ff. 


Horace, Ars poetica, 81-82

Cicero, De oratore 3.48, 3.176-77?; Orator 58

Quintilian, i.e. Aristides Quintilianus [ca. 90 A.D.] Institutio      

     oratoria. 1.10.22-33; 9.4 entire. 

     The seminal ancient text, to my mind. All the hardest questions. 

-----. Aristidis Quintiliani de musica libri tres. ed. R. P.      

     Winnington-Ingram, 1963

D. A. Russell and M. Winterbottom, eds., Ancient Literary Criticism:      

     The Principal Texts in New Translations (1972)--Dionysus,      

Diomedes, Demetrius, Longinus

Hardison, passim ? 

                         ii:  Grammarians

Varro  (M. Terentius Varro, d. 29 B.C.)

     ed. R. G. Kent, Loeb Classical Library

No complete Latin grammars survive from the 1st and 2nd cs. A.D. From      

     the 3rd c., Sacerdos is our oldest extant grammar and contains a      

     section on metric. After the 4th c., there is only imitation,      

     wholesale borrowing, or plagiarism. 

KEIL collects the extant treatises from the 3rd to the 6th century,      

     though for Charisius the standard ed. is now that by Karl 

     Barwick, 1925. 

The school of later grammarians and metrists who tried to derive all      

     the meters from the hexameter and trimeter. 

Virgil the Grammarian

     P. Lejay, "Le grammmarien Virgile et les rythmes latines." Revue 

     de philologie 19 (1895): 45-64. 

See E. Voigt, "Ein unbekannte Lehrbuch der Metrik aus dem XI      

     Jahrhundert."  Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft fur dt. Erzeihungs-      

     und Schulgesch.  Ed. K. Kehrbach. Vol. 4., 1894. pp. 149-58.

Juba, last part of 2nd c. A.D.

     A metrical handbook now lost but based on Heliodorus and used by      

     later Lat. metrists, esp. Marius Victorinus and Servius.

     See Keil 3.420.

     See Hense, De Iuba artigrapho, Leipzig 1875. Ritschl's Acta IV

Scriptores latini rei metricae, ed. Th. Gaisford, 1837.

     One text in it is Boniface 

Keil published several things before GL

  :   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::

   : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :

    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :

           ::::::: Keil, Grammatici latini :::::::

vol I: 

     Charisius, Arte grammaticae libri V,  pp. 1-296

          ed. Barwick, Leipzig 1925.

     Diomedes, Artis grammaticae libri III (late 4th c.), pp. 299-529

          De versuum generibus in Book III 

          Gerhard Schultz, "Uber das Capitel De Versuum generibus bei           

     Diomedes," Hermes 22 (1887); 

          A. Buchholtz, "Uber die Abhandlung de poematibus des           

     Diomedes," N Jahrb f Philol 155 (1897): 127-44.

          G. Schultz, Quibus auctoribus Aeolius Festus Aphthonius de           

          re metrica usus sit.  p. 27

vol. II:

     Priscian, Institutionum grammaticarum libri XVIII, 

          Part I (to ch. 12)

vol. III: 

     Priscian, chs. 13-18

     Priscian, De metris fabularum Terentii [The Meters of the Plays      

     of Terence] (6th c.), pp. 418-29 

     anonymous?, Partitiones duodecim versuum aeneidos principalium,           

     pp. 459-515

     anonymous?, De accentibus [prose rhythm], pp. 519-28

vol. IV:

     Probus, De arte grammatica libri       

     Donatus, Ars maior, Ars minor, pp.   -455

          Ars maior, Book I, iv, de pedibus

          best ed. now Donat et l'enseignement grammaticale au Moyen           

     Age, ed. Louis Holtz, Paris 1981 -- check title

     Servius, De centum metris, pp. 456-67

     Servius, De metris Horatii (4th c.), pp. 468-72  

vol. V:

     Consentius, Ars grammatica

vol VI: Scriptores artis metricae

     Marius Victorinus, Ars grammatica libri IIII (350 A.D.), 

          pp. 1-184

     [Aphthonius taken over wholesale by Victorinus, pp. 31-173}

     Maximus Victorius, De arte grammatica 

          Ars palaemonis ??  

                    De metris et de hexametro versu, 

          pp. 206-15

     Maximus Victorinus ?? 

          De ratione metrorum, pp. 216-28

          ?? De finalibus metrorum, pp. 229-42

     Caesius Bassus (attrib.), Fragmentum de metris (before 90 A.D.),           

     pp. 245-72

          See s.v. "Bassus" in OCD: says the attribution is 


          See F. Leo, "Die beiden metrischen Systeme des Alterthums,"           

     Hermes 24 (1889); on older and younger theories in Latin           


     misc. excerpts from grammars on metrics: Donatus fragment, 

          pp. 273-77

     Atilii Fortuntiani ars (ca. 350 A.D.), pp. 278-304

     Caesius Bassus (attrib) De metris Horatii, pp. 305-12

                             Breviatio pedum

                             De compositionibus

          M. Consbruch's art. on C.B. in Pauly-Wissowa, 1313-15.

          C. Ziwsa, "Des C. B. Bruchstuck 'De metris,'" Serta           

          Harteliana, Vienna 1896, 250-56.

     Terentianus Maurus, De litteris de sillabis de metris libri tres      

     (end of 3rd c.), pp. 313-413

          He is the first to show metrics by making examples not 

     explanation, ( cf. John Hollander latterly)

     Marius Plotius Sacerdos, 3rd c., Ars grammatica libri tres, 

          pp. 415-546

     Rufinus of Antioch, 

          Commentarii de metris comicorum et de numeris oratorum

          (5th c.), pp. 554-78

     Mallus Theodorus, Liber de metris, 4th c.?, pp. 579-601

     Fragments and excerpts on metrics:

          1. Fragment formerly attrib. Censorinus on music and meters 

          2. Five fragments De versibus, de finalibus, syllabis, de              

                          structuris, de metris

          3. Fragments De iambico metro, De rhythmo

          4. six fragments: last one De epodo octosyllabo

          5. Julius Severus, De pedibus expositio, De caesuris 

          6. fragment De pedibus 

The fragment on p. 645 lines 25-35 has been identified by Vivien Law 

     as by Boniface

Bibliographic addenda for all these and others given in Mayor, Clue, 

     and in Hardison, ch. 

vol. VII:

     Audax, pp. 331-41.

    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :    :

   : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :  : :

  :   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::   ::

Bacchius, sects. 98-101,  mentioned by Maas (p. 6) as in van Jan p. 


All the De metris Horatii O.B. talks about

Scholia to Horace

W. Christ, "Die Traktate uber die Metra und Gedichtarten des Horaz."

     SB Bayerischen Akad, 1893, 80-82  only three p?


     Bonifatius (Vynfreth) Ars Grammatica, accedit ars metrica, ed. 

     George J. Gebauer and Bengt Lo"fstedt. CCSL, 133 B. 1980. 

6th and 7th centuries:


     Cassiodori Senatoris Institutiones, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, 1963, p.      

     144 or 2.5.5

     A book now on him--see card     

the insular latin grammarians:

Aldhelm, Epistola ad Acircium, contains a short treatise wherein      

     Aldhelm boasts he was the first Englishman to study meters

     Aldhelm: The Poetic Works, ed. Lapidge and Rosen. 

     Aldhelm: The Prose Works, ed. 

     M. Lapidge, article on OE infl.

     Vivien Law, "The Study of Grammar in Ninth C. Northumbria." 

     Anglo-Saxon England

     Bibl. in Mayor, Clue, 211; bibl for Bede 213

Bede, De arte metrica, in Migne, in Keil VII, 217-60, 

     ed. C. W. Jones and C. Kendall, CCSL, (     ) tr. in the 

     diss. of Ruby Davis, Cornell 1925 ?

     Several articles on Bede

     Murphy, 77-80

     R. B. Palmer, "Bede as Textbook Writer," Speculum 34 1959.

     Bede is the first to call the new poetry 'rhythmical'; 

     good synopsis and discussion in J. W. H. Atkins, Eng. Lit. Crit.:

     The Medieval Phase, 1943, 42-46. 

     B. Gldysz, "Elements classiques et post-classiques de l'oeuvre 

     de Bede De arte metrica" Eos 34 (1933); 

Iacobus Nicholai de Dacia. Liber de distinccione metrorum. 

     ed. Aage Kabell, 1967.  

     A Danish clerk at Cambridge; this is perhaps the earliest known 

     literary production from the University.  

     32 Metra foll. by a long planctus in hexameters, the varieties 

     ranging from rhymed to rhymeless to pattern poems.  

Niccolo Perotti, De generibus metrorum, 1453  

                 De Horatii et Boethii metris, 1470

     1429-1480; Italian 15th-c. Humanist,

     the first one the most important prosody of the century?

     See R. P. Oliver, N. P.'s Version of the Enchiridion of 

     Epictetus (1954), 147-48.

Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi et carminum,  1486. 

     The first Med. Lat. metrical manual written in Germany;

     he says in the preface that he learned from Rudolf Agricola, who      

     had studied in Italy, his sources were Perotti and three anon.

     treatises, the Anecdota Chisiana, 

     See J. Leonhardt, "N.P. und die 'Ars versificandi' von Conrad      

     Celtis," Humanistica Lovaniensia 30 (1981): 13-18

Aldus Manutius, De metris Horatianis, mentioned by O.B.; publication           

     dates given in Boeckh


                 Neo-Latin: Renaissance and After


Johannes Despauterius, whose vast Commentarii grammatici (1510-20)      

     includes "an extensive Ars versificatoria." 

     Find this guy; is he in Ijsewijn above? Mentioned glancingly by      

     Hardison, 4, 102, as being mentioned by Palsgrave 

Tixier, called Textor.


     See T. W. Baldwin 

Julius Caesar Scaliger, Poetices libri septem, 1561, Book II, "Hyle"      

     [Matter?], which is 3 chapters of general commentary foll. by 54 

     chapters explaining Classical meters. 

     C. M. Dunn, "Scaliger and Metrical Theory," ____ (19  ): 

     La Statue et l'empreinte: La Poe'tique de Scaliger, ed. C.       

     Balavoine and Pierre Laurens. Paris, 1986. 

     There is a forthcoming Fr. tr. by P. Laurens

The metrists listed in J. Ijsewijn, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies      

     (1977), "Prosody and Metrics."

Henricus Smetius, 1599, 1615, the former still in use in the 19th c. 

Dionysius Ronsfertus, 1614 

Juan Caramuel Lobkowitz, 1653, 1663, 1665, 1668. Polish?   




     The whole quantitative movement was induced and fueled by 

     Humanism, in a deliberate rejection of the rhymes and rhythms of 

     medievalism and a return to the pure and august models of 

     Classical antiquity.  In the vernaculars, equivalents had to be 

     found, no one understood clearly the concept of stress, much 

     less had any terminology with which to discuss it, and the 

     schools of course taught longs and shorts.  

Vers mesure's a l'antique

Jean de la Taille, La maniere de faire des vers en francois, comme en           

     grec et en latin, 1573, critical edition ed. Pierre Han, 1970

Jean-Antoine de Bai"f, Etrenes de poezie fransoeze an vers mesure's,      



     The 19th c. vogue for hexameters



     Surprisingly large literature, esp. Ben Park, Omond, Attridge:      

list in Verseform 


                            Modern Classicists 


Bentley on Terence, Schediasmus 1726 

Richard Porson


Henry Gally, A Dissertation against Pronouncing the Greek Language      

     according to Accents. 1754.

Also Gally's Cl. prosody 

(John) Foster on Accent 1762, 1763, 1820 

       Gaisford 1837 


J. Nasmith, ed. Itineraria Symonis Simionis, et Willelmi de        

     Worcestre. Quibus accedit Tractatus de metro 1778. 

       A ms. on varieties of leonine rhyme; discussed by Croke 

Samuel Horsley 17 read by Coleridge 

(J Warner) 1797  M229

G. Hermann, De metris poetarum Graecorum et Romanorum, 1796.

            Handbuch der Metrik,                       1799.

            Elementa doctrinae metricae,               1816.  

     He follows Hephaestion; Boeckh follows Aristoxenus

     Hermann is the founder of the study of modern metrics (Koster)

A. Boeckh, Ueber die Versmasse des Pindaros 1809. 

           De metris Pindari libri III. 1811. and his ed., v. 1 

E. Munk, Die Metrik der Griechen und Ro"mer. 1834. 

Quicherat on Lat already in 12th ed by 1848 

L. Müuller, De Re Metrica Poetarum . . . Latinorum 1861; rev. 1894. 

all of 19th c. German Classical Philology

W. Meyer aus Speyer, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur mittellateinischen      

     Rhythmik 3 v. 1905-36. 


W. Christ 

all the derivationsmetric stuff--Usener ? 

O. Schroeder, Horazens Versmasse. 1911. 

     Nomenclator metricus. 1929. 

     Grundriss 1930. 

     Whom Maas follows 


P. Maas, Greek Metre, in Gercke-Norden, 1923, 2nd ed. tr. 1961, 1966 


W. J. W. Koster 1936; 4th ed. 1966 

B. Snell, Griechische Metrik 1955; 3rd ed. 1962; 

A. M. Dale

M. L. West, Greek Metre, 1982.

C. M. J. Sicking, Griechische Verslehre 1993 in Handbuch der Altertuns-

     wissenschaft Abt. 2, teil 4.



H. T. Peck, History of Classical Philology 1911. 

J. E. Sandys History of Classical Scholarship 3rd ed., 3 v. 1921. 

Wilamowitz, Hist. of Cl. Philol. 

Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Blood for the Ghosts 

K. Plenio, "W. Meyer aus Speyer," NJbb 39 (1917): 269-77. 


*						                   *

*                            VERNACULARS                           *

*						                   *





Thurneysen's list, 1912 78-89.   L256, L258 




Dante, De vulgari eloquentia, ca. 1303 

Guido Stelle; text and discussion by C. Dionisetti, "Ragioni metriche      

     del Quattrocento," Giornale storico della letteratura 124 

     (1947): 1-34;

F. da Barberino, Documenti d'Amore. 1306-13. 

Antonio da Tempo, Summa artis rithmici vulgaris dictaminis. 1332. 

     as Delle rime volgari ed. G. Grion 1869

     ed. Richard Andrews, 19  .  

F. Baratella, tr. and adaptation of da Tempo, Compendio dell'arte      

     ritmica (1447), Grion's ed. 210 ff.; 

G. da Sommacampagna, Trattato de li rithimi volgari 1384. 

Trissino, Poetica, 1529, pub. 1563 

J. Mazzoni         1587 

Muratori 6 vols.   1738-1742.          

Mazzoleni          1750 


Giovenale Sacchi   1770  (used by Scoppa in FR)

Giovanni Mari, Riassunto e dizionarietto di ritmica italiana.     

     Turin, 1901. 159 pp.


The articles by Dionisotti and by Pernicone; BLOCK QUOTE from 

     Giamatti from Wimsatt




The Catalan troubadour Raimon Vidal de Bresalu, Las Razos de trobar      

     [The Rules], ca. 1200; short and very dull; 

     The first extant vernacular effort to codify rules of Prov.; but      

     its subjects are morphology and grammatical faults; Raimon is      

     expounding the glories of Prov. to the Catalonians; he was a      


     M. Shapiro, DVE:DBE (1990) gives tr. (113-26) and commentary;      

     she argues these grammarians influenced Dante 

     all of them treat first grammar then metrics, esp. rhyme 

     Patterson 1.34. 

Uc Faidit, Donatz provensals [The Provencal Donatus], ca. 1240 ; 

     this gives Lat. and Prov. grammar in facing columns 

     also disc. In Shapiro.

A recasting of Uc by Joifre' de Foix`a, Regles de trobar, and      

     another presumably also by him, De la doctrina de compondre      

     dictatz [On the Art of COmposing Poems], ca. 1290, tr. Shapiro      


     It cites very briefly the subject matter and stanza form for 

     each genre, and why it is called what it is called. 

Raimon de Cornet de Saint Antonin, Doctrinal de trobar, ca. 1324,      

     in verse. 

Las Leys d'amors, ed. Guilhem Molinier, 1356 

     as Las flors del gay saber estier dichas las leys d'amors, 

     ed. A. F. Gatien-Arnoult, 4 v. (1841-49); 

     Two prose versions and one verse 

     Secondary: "Provencal Versification" North British Review 53      


     Other refs in Patterson 34n19, 37n20. 


                            Northern French


                      SECOND RHETORIC of the 15th C. 

Second Rhetorics, i.e. prosody manuals, 15th century; Patterson dates      

     them from 1370 or 1392 (Deschamps) to 1539 (Gracien du Pont); 

     "second" rhet. was concerned with verse, while "first" was      

     concerned with prose.

E. Deschamps, L'Art de dictier, 1392  14th century; 

     really the first Northern French? 

     Machaut (1290-1377) the last to unite music and poetry 

     Patterson 1.84 ff. 

E. Langlois, Recueil d'arts de seconde rhétorique (1902);

     long Introduction and seven texts (with commentary): 

   --Jacques Le Grand, an essay "De rithmes et comment se dovient      

     faire" in his philosophy manual entitled L'Archiloge Sophie,      

     1405, which is a tr. from the Latin version, Archi....

          cf. Patterson, I, 115-19, 

   --Anonymous, Les règles de la seconde rhétorique, 1411-52;      

     Patterson 1.119 ff. 

   --Baudet Herenc, Le Doctrinal de la seconde rhétorique, 1432;      

     Patterson 1.121-24 

   --Anonymous, Le Traité de l'art de rhétorique, 1450?; Patterson      

     1.124-26; Receuil and in its Intro; and in L's De artibus thesis 

   --Jean Molinet, L'Art de rhétorique vulgaire, 1492

   --Anonymous, Traité de rhétorique

   --Anonymous, L'Art et science de rhétorique vulgaire et      

     maternelle, an expansion of Molinet, 1524

     --See commentary by Lote, 3.239-50; Patterson, 1.

     --See Langlois's earlier thesis leading to the Recueil

     *** ***   Second Rhetorics by Grands Rhetoriqueurs *** *** 

Jean Molinet, L'Art de rhétorique vulgaire, 1493 

     Patterson 1.142-50

Anonymous, L'Art de rhétorique pour rimer en plusieurs sortes de      

     rimes, 1495-1500, in verse, the first so since Machaut

     Patterson 1.151

"L'Infortune," Regnaud Le Queux or Henry de Croy, Instructif de la      

     seconde rétorique, 1501, also in verse, in the anthology Le      

     Jardine de plaisance et fleur de rétorique 

     Patterson, 1.152-61; Lote, III, 250, text ed. E. Droz and A.      

     Piaget, 1910

Pierre de Fabri, Le grand et vray art de pleine rhétorique, Book 2:      

     L'art de rithmer

     Patterson 1.161-72

     six editions between 1521-1544

     Patterson, I, 165


                             Pleiade Defenses 


Thomas Sebillet, Art poe'tique francois, 1548, ed. F. Gaiffe, 1910

Joachim Du Bellay, Deffense et illustration de la langue francois,           

     1549, ed. Louis Terreaux, 1972

Jacques Peletier, Art poe'tique, 1555, ed. Andre Boulanger, 1930

Ronsard, Abbergé de l'art poétique francois, 1565, 1567, text in      

     vol. 2 of the Oeuvres completes, ed. Gustave Cohen, 1950


W. F. Patterson, Three Centuries of French Poetic Theory (1328-1630),      

     2 v., 1935;

Silver on Ronsard; Patterson (1.xii etc.) lists several standard      

     histories; Bray; the article 


                         LATER FRENCH PROSODIES 


Malherbe, 1605 ? 

Claude Le Jeune 1606 

Nicholas Rapin 1602, 1610 

Port Royal Grammar and C. Lancelot, Quatre Traitex, 1650, 1660 

   used by Bysshe; see now Dwight Culler; see Taylor; 

G. Colletet     1656 

Du Teil         1659 

P. Richelet,    1671 

M. Morgues,     1685 

A. La Croix     1694 

Abbe d'Olivet   1717, 1736 used by Scoppa 

Du Cerceau      1742

Claude Joannet  1752 

J. F. Marmontel 1763 

M. de Piis      1785 

Nodier's dict. on onomatopoeias 1808 

Antonio Scoppa    1811-1814 apparently pretty influential 

     See Z    he used It. Sacchi 1770 and Fr. d'Olivet above 

19th-C. ROMANCE PHILOLGY in Germany: 

F. Diez ; G. Paris; 

Quicherat MANY eds. 

T. de Banville, Petit Traité de poésie française. 1872. 

A. Tobler, Vom französischen Versbau alter und neuer Zeit. 1880;      

     5th ed. 1910. 2nd ed. tr. into French as Le Vers français      

     ancien et moderne 1885

Grammont is the standard authority of the early 20th c.





Thieme for bibl. and history 



Y. Le Hir, Esthétique et structure du vers français, d'après      

     les theoriciens du XVIe siècle à nos jours. 1956. 

Mazaleyrat's bibl book 




The Church Fathers on the form of Heb. verse made it Q

Tremellius ? 

Franciscus Gomarus, Davidis lyra 1637. I have a xerox of this. 

Isaac Vossius, 1673 


I. Baroway L1599 et seq. 




Otfrid, Evangeleinbuch, ca. 863-71. very early

Joachim Burmeister, Musica poetica. 1606. 

     Applies traditional rhetorical terminology to compositional      


Emmeram Eisenbeck, Die Hundert und vierdte Psalm Davidis inn Teutsche      

     Hexameter oder Heroicum carmen versetzt. 1617. M-Q? 

M. Opitz, Buch von der deutschen Poeterey 1624 esp. ch. 7 

     Opitz set forth the Rules for Classicism in Germany just as      

     Malherbe did in France and in England; 

     -----See tertiary books listed by Kanzog in Reallex II p. 690,      

     esp. Wagenknecht 1971, Drux 1976 

Weckherlin goes where? 

Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen, Kurtze Anleitung Zur Deutschen Poesi        

     oder Reim-Kunst mit ihren unterschiedenen Arten und Mustern        

     Reimweise verfertiget und vorgestellet. 1640. 

Ph. von Zesen  1640 

Johann Peter Titz, Zwey Bücher Von der Kunst Hochdeutsche Verse und      

     Lieder zu machen. 1641. 

J. G. Schottel 1644 

G. P. Harsdörffer 1648-53 

Johann Henrich Hadewig, Wolgegründete teutsche Versekunst oder        

     Eine nützliche und ausfürliche Anleitung wi in unser        

     teutschen Muttersprache ein teutsches Getichte zirlich und ohne        

     Fehler könne gescrieben und verfertigt werden. 1660.

G. Neumark 1667 

S. von Birken, Teutsche Rede-bind und Dicht-Kunst oder Kurze 

     Anweisung zur Teutschen Poesy. 1679. 

T. Kornfeld    1685

M. D. Omeis,   1704 

Christian Friedrich Hunold, Die allerneueste art, zur reinen und        

     galanten poesie zu gelangen. Allen edlen und dieser        

     wissenschaft geneigten gemühtern, zum vollkommenen        

     unterricht, mit überaus deutlichen regeln, und angenehmen        

     exempeln ans licht gestellt, von Menantes. 1707.

Johann Hubner, Neu-vermehrtes poetisches Hand-Buch; das ist, eine      

     kurtzgefaste Anleitung zur Deutschen Poesie, nebst einem      

     vollständigen Reim-Register, den Anfängern zum besten      

     zusammengetragen. 1712. 

J. C. Gottsched, Versuch einer critischen Dichtkunst 1730, 1737, 

     1742, 1751, Vorübüngen der lateinischen und deutschen 

     Dichtkunst. 1756.

Sulzer, "Rhythmus," Allgemeinen Theorie der schönen Kunste. 1773. 

   a rhythmikoi

K. Ph. Moritz, Versuch einer deutschen Prosodie. 1786. 

Klopstock, "Von der Nachahmung der griechischen Silbenmasse im      

     Deutschen," Preface to his Messias. 1755. 

     "Abhandlung vom Silbenmasse" 1764 

     "Vom dt. Hexameter" 1768, 1779 

     Grammatischen Gesprächen. 1793. think Coleridge knew this 

     Sämtl. sprachwiss. und äesthet. Schriften, ed. A. L. Back 

     and A. R. C. Spindler, 1830, v. 1 

     Kanzog in Reallex II 690

Schiller. See Kanzog, p. 688, 690

Aug. Wilhelm Schlegel, "Briefe über Poesie, Silbenmasse und 

     Sprache." 1795. in Schiller's Horen. 

Goethe's stuff, all the Weimar Klassik 

J. A. Eberhard, "Takt." Charaktere der vornehmsten Dichter aller      

     Nationen (Nachtrag zu Sulzers allgemeiner Theorie der shönen      

     KÜnst). 5 vols. 1792-1806. Vol. 1, pp. 45-48.

     read by Coleridge at Göttingen in 1799.

J. H. Voss, Zeitmessung der deutschen Sprache. 1802. 

     A Rhythmici 

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, eds. Die beiden ältesten deutschen 

     Gedichte . . . Das Lied von Hildebrand und Hadubrand und das 

     Weissenbrunner Gebet zum erstenmal in ihrem Metrum. 1812.

Jakob Grimm, "Zur altdeutschen Metrik." Altdeutsche Wälder 1      

     (1813): ca. 190 ff. 

Friedrich August Gotthold, Deutsche Verskunst und einige Mängel      

     derselben. 1813.

[Johann] August Apel, Metrik. 2 vols. 1814-16; 2nd ed. 1834.

     A Rhythmici 

F. H. Bothe, Grundzüge der Metrik. 1816.

K. B. Garve, Der deutsche Versbau. 1827. 

Karl Lachmann 

     became Professor at Berlin in 1827 

     Germanic Philology begins with Lachmann 

     Über die Leiche der dt. Dichter des 12. und 13. Jhs. 1829. 

     Über das Hildebrandslied. 1833. 

     Über Singen und Sagen. 1833, 1835. 

     Über althochdeutsche Betonung und Verskunst. 1831, 1834. 

     All in Kleinen Schriften. 1876. 

     The rules for the Vierhebungstheorie first in 1844 

     This was lies 19th-c. Ger Philology

     -----See Hendricus Sparnaay, Karl Lachmann als Germanist. 1948.      

     pp. 131-442. 


Hölderlin, "Über die verschiedenen Arten zo dichten." "Wechsel 

     der Töne" [an article or merely a schema?] and "Über den 

     Unterschied der Dichtarten." 18.  Werke, ed. Fr. Beissner, 

     1961. 4.228-32, 238-40, 266-72. 

     Kanzog gives tertiary books in Reallex II p. 690 


Arno Holz, Die Kunst, ihr Wesen und ihre Gesetze. 1891. 

     Revolution der Lyrik. 1899. 

Bertolt Brecht on free rhythms 

Caspar Poggel, Grundzüge einer Theorie des Reimes und der      

     Gleichklänge mit besonderer Rüchsicht auf Goethe. 1834. 

J. Minckwitz, Lehrbuch der deutschen Verskunst oder Prosodie und      

     Metrik. 1843. 

Wilhelm Karl Grimm, "Zur Geschichte des Reims" [1852]; rpt in his      

     Kleinere Schriften. 1887. Vol. 4, pp. 125-341. 

Fr. Zarncke, Professor at Leipzig 1858; Sievers was one of his 


E. Brücke Die physiologischen Grundlagen der mhd. Verskunst. 1871. 

     So begins all the physiological/Schallanalyse/experimental      


Eduard Sievers, 

     Professor at Leipzig 1892 

     He did work on OHG, OE, ON, Hebrew, Schallanalyse, 

     -----See G. Ungeheuer, "Die Schallanalyse von Sievers." ZfMda      

     31 (1964): 97-124.

Jakob Minor, Nhd Metrik. 1893, 2nd ed. 1922. 

     Professor at Vienna 1884. 

Fr. Saran, Dt. Verslehre. 1907. 

     Professor at Erlangen 1913 ; controversy with Heusler 

H. Paul 

Paul Habermann 

Andreas Heusler

     Professor at Berlin 1913, Basel 1920. 

     Über germ. Versbau. 1894. 

     Deutsche und antiker Vers. 1917. 

     Deutsche Versgeschichte. 1925-29. 

     -----See reviews and later appraisals listed by Kanzog in 

     Reallex II, "Vers,..." article, p. 685. 

Ulrich Pretzel, "Deutsche Verskunst" in Deutsche Philologie im      

     Aufriss, ed. W. Stammler, 2nd ed. 1962, 3.2327-2466. 

Paul and Glier, 8th ed. 1970

W. Jost 1976 

D. Breuer 1981 

C. Wagenknecht 1981 

POLISH Polish: 1781, 1818, 1821 



C. Beyer, "Deutsche Prosodik," Deutsche Poetik 3rd ed. I think      

    (1911). pp. 216-60. 

R. Schmidt, Deutsche Ars Poetica: Zur Konstituierung einer           

     deutschen Poetik aus humanistischem Geist im 17. Jahrhundert.           

     Meisenheim am Glan: A. Hain, 1980. 544 pp. 

     All of Part 1, pp. 54-166: [The Development of Prosody and           

     Metrics in German Poetics in the First Half of the 17th C.]. 

Karl Borinski. Deutsche Poetik. Stuttgart, 1895; 4th rev. ed. 1916.

       Part III, "Metrik."

H. Paul in Paul's Grundriss. 

Habermann's "Metrik" article in Reallex 1st ed. 

Kanzog in Reallex II "Vers, ..." article 




Andreas Arvidi  1651  the first Swedish Ars poetica 

11 17th-c. prosodies, ed. Arnholtz, Dal, and Kabell, 3 v. 1953-60. 

See now SCAND 




In ME there is literally nothing 







17th-c. grammars such as Gill 





Romantics all follow Steele; 

Rise of OE/ME Philology in Germany: R. Sievers; 

and in England: EETS, Skeat, 

amateurs: Omond, Saintsbury, 




Julian of Toledo, a 7th-century Spanish bishop. 

Ars Iuliani Toletani Episcopi: Una gramática latina de la España      

     visigoda. ed. M. A. H. Yenes, 1973.

       his grammar has three metrical sections in Y's ed.: 

       136-52 (is Max. Victorinus' De Finalibus),

       153-62 ("De Pedibus"),

       222-40 ("Conlatio de Generibus Metrorum").

       Aldhelm used it (Law).

Antonio de Nebrija, Grammatica castellana 

Juan del Encina, "Arte de poesia castellana" 


18th c.

Fr. Diez

19th c.


See now Clarke, bibliographies and study 




Begins only in the 18th c.: the collection by 

Rus. Formalism flowering in the 1910s and 1920s; suppressed by Stalin 




The medieval writer discussed in Elwell-Sutton and in PEPP "Ar. Po." 

Samuel Clarke 1661 


                       INDO-EUROPEAN and SANSKRIT


Not discovered until the late 18th c. 

J. D. Rhys 1592  L249 

Manwaring 1737 M130 ?? 

Oriental Jones 

C. P. Brown 1827 cited in the old ed. of PEPP: I finally tracked this 


Meillet 1923 

     Discussed by Peabody in The Winged Word 


Jakobson on Slavic 

Watkins on Celtic 

Pighi ? M161 


     Discussed in W. S. Allen 

Astadhyayi of Panini, tr. S. M. Katre.  Texas, 198 . 


* 					                           *

*                             RHYTHMICI                            *

*					                           *


Timers are of two stripes: musical or nonmusicalbutstilltemporal. 

The rise of Cl. Philology in the 18th c. only confounded the issues;      

acoustic phonetics in the 19th. 

But there are internal contradictions. 


                      Classical Greek and Latin


Die Fragmente und der Lehrsätze der griechische Rhythmiker, ed. R.           

Westphal (1861);

Aristoxenus of Tarentum, fl. 3d c. B.C.: pupil of Aristotle but      

     passed over for head of the Lyceum. 


     Aristoxenos von Tarent.  Melik und Rhythmik des classischen           

     Hellentums, ed. R. Westphal and F. Saran, 2 v. (1883-93); 

     Aristoxeni Rhythmica (1959), ed. and tr. G. B. Pighi-- 4      

     fragments, I think.

     See C. von Jan's art. in Pauly-Wissowa, 1057-63

     See Gleditsch in Jahresberichte, 1900, p. 3

     Die Schule des Aristoteles, vol. 2, Aristoxenus, ed. and comm. 

     F. Wehrli. 2nd ed. 1967. 

     Aristoxenus: , ed. Lionel Pearson. 1990. 


     The Harmonics of Aristoxenus. Ed., tr., and intro. Henry S.      

Macran. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1902. 303 pp. 93-p. Intro. 

     Text Bks. I, II, III; Tr. Bks. I, II, III. 

     Aristoxeni elementa harmonica. ed. R. da Rios. 1954. 


Rossbach, Griechische Rhythm.... 1854.  

R. Westphal, Griechische Rhythmik. 1885.  

Westphal's 2 v. ed. of Aristoxenus, v. 2, 134 ff.

W. S. Allen, Accent and Rhythm, p. 96 ff.

C. F. Abdy Williams, The Aristoxenian Theory of Musical Rhythms 1911. 

Pseudo-Plutarch, De musica 

     ed. H. zur Jacobsmülen, 1886.

     ed. F. Lasserre 1954.

     G. Studemund, "Pseudo-Plutarchus de metro heroico," Philologus 46 

     Plutarque, "De la musique". ed. and tr. F. Lasserre. 1954. 

Augustine, De musica (389 A.D.)

     Augustinus: De musica libri sex. ed. G. Ginaert and F. J.      

Thonnard. 1947. 

     A late conflation of the two traditions. 

     W. F. J. Knight, St Augustine's "De Musica": A Synopsis (1949),      

     with review by Blackmur 


See also: 

Greek Musical Writings. vol. 1, The Musician and His Art. ed. A.      

     Barker. 1984. 

M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music.  1992.


                  Modern Rhythmici (Temporalists) 



Boeckh, De metris Pindari, 18.

     Surely he must have read or known Steele. 

Westphal, all of his work.

     Who interpreted Aristoxenus, then used him as the basis for his      

     own theory of the rhythm not only of ancient Greek but also of      

     modern music, which he assimilated or conflated with those of      

     ancient Greek by analogy.  



Del Grande


J. Steele 1770?; 1775 

G. F. Nott

Voss and Apel in Germany 

E. Guest

S. Lanier

T S Omond

A. Heusler 1925-29? 


*			                    	                  *

*                      RHETORIC: MEDIEVAL LATIN                   *

*							          *



      Ars poetria: Medieval Latin ars rhythmica: 12th-13th Cs. 


Treatises on how to write late Medieval Latin rhythmical verse: these are      

     the Artes poetriae, and mix rhetoric and prosody; some discuss      

     prosody considerably, others not at all. 

"During a period of about 75 years beginning in 1175, European 

     grammar masters composed six Lat. treatises giving direction to 

     writers of verse and prose. The term Arts of Poetry is often 

     applied collectively to these works, esp. since the appearance 

     of Faral's Les arts poétiques in 1924. Faral noted the 

     influence of Circeronian rhet. in several of them, notably the 

     Poetria nova of Geoffrey of Vinsauf. Later scholars like Manly 

     and Atkins simply called these authors 'rhetoricians'. . . It 

     might be noted also that a number of vernacular arts of poetry 

     appeared in the 14th and 15th cs., works like the Provençal 

     Las Leys d'Amors or the Castilian El arte de trobar. (These are 

     to be described by Douglas Kelly in a forthcoming volume of the 

     Typology of Sources series). Murphy, bibl., 104-5.

Rhetores latini minores, ed. C. Halm (1863, rpt. 1964)

      I didn't find much.

Matthew of Vendome, Ars versificatoria, before 1175 

     The Art of Making Verse; tr. A. E. Galyon  1980, tr. R. Parr, 

     next to nothing on prosody except swipes at leonine.

Geoffrey of Vinsauf, Poetria nova, ca. 1202, 

     The New Poetics. Tr. J. B. Kopp in Three Medieval Rhetorical      

     Arts, ed. J. J. Murphy (1971); tr. N. F. Nims, Toronto (1967). 

Documentum de arte dictandi et versificandi

Eberhard the German of Béthune, Laborintus ca. 1213, in unrhymed      

     l.v.; text and commentary in Faral; Patterson 1.17.

John of Garland, Parisiana poetria de arte prosaica, metrica, et           

     rithmica, ch. 7, Ed. and tr. Traugott Lawler, Yale 1974.


Patterson 1.18-19

     M283 Mari, Giovanni, ed. "Poetria magistri Johannis anglici de      

     arte prosayca, metrica et rithmica." Romanische Forschungen 13      

     (1902): 883-965.

E. Faral, Les arts poétiques du XIIe et du XIIIe siècles, 1924.

     biographies, works and attributions, synopses, analyses, 

     Matthieu de Vendome, Ars versificatoria, text

     Geoffroi de Vinsauf, Poetria nova, text

     ibid., Documentum de modo et arte dictandi et versificandi  text

     Gervais de Merkley, Ars versificaria, ca. 1213

     Everhard the German, Laborintus text

     John of Garland, Parisinia poetria

     three minor works     


Eight treatises coll. by G. Mari, I trattati medievale di ritmica      

     latina (1899): 

     7 of the 8 are from the latter 13th c. and the eighth from ca.      

     1400; Dreves (Analecta hymnica, v. 5, Vorwort, p. 12) says      

     there are many more still in ms. [Honour, 1.104.i-vi]. 

     1. Il dettame ritmico, pp. 11-16

     2. Rifacimento di Maestro Sion, pp. 17-22

     3. Redazioni dell'Arsenale, pp. 23-27

     4. Regole intorno ai ritmi, pp. 28-34

     5. L'"Arte" di Giovanni di Garlandia, pp. 35-80

          --This is John's ars rithmica, corresponding to Lawler, 

          at the end of which he lists 44 types of stanza forms.

     6. Il Libro IV del "Laborintus", pp. 81-90

          Eberhard of Bethume

          Eberhard lists 28 types of stanzaforms

     7. Breve "Arte" de Monaco, pp. 91-94

     8. Trattato di Nicolò; Tibino, pp. 95-115

         Sect. 3 (pp. 112-14) tr. J. M. Berdan, Early Tudor Poetry,      

         136-38; this is the Tractatus de rithmis vel rithmorum magistri      

         Tybini, 14th c. 

     Mari analyzes the terminology used in these treatises in his      

     article "Ritmo latino e terminologia rithmica medievale," 



Alexander de Ville Dei, Doctrinal 

     ed. Reichling, 1893.

     extracts in Thurot.

     "Alexander de Villa Dei, a friar monk of Dole in France, in 1209 

     wrote a metrical grammar called Doctrinale puerorum, the rules 

     of which were taken from Priscian. First printed Venice, 1437. 


Paul von Camaldoli, or Paul the Deacon      

Warnefrid of Monte Cassino ?  

     Introductiones de notitia versificandi.  

     extracts by Thurot; Manitius 3.183

An anonymous rhetorical miscellany from Toulouse, mid 15th c.,      

     containing seven parts, the seventh, an ars praedicandi,      

     containing a "De Rithimorum Formacione" which gives examples and      

     commentary text in Latin but terms in Spanish--the first 

     treatise on Sp. versification, albeit indirectly.  C. Faulhaber, 

     "Medieval Sp. Metrical Terminology and MS 9589 of the Biblioteca 

     Nacional, Madrid," RPh 33 (1979);

An anonymous De cognitione metri ed. by H. Hoffmann, Altdeutsche           

     Blätter (1836) and (another ms.) by F. Zarncke, "Zwei           

     mittelalterliche Abhandlungen über den Bau rhythmischer 

     Verse," Berichte über die Verhandlungen der königlich-

     sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 

     philologisch-historische Klasse, 23 (1871), 34 ff; cf Meyer 1.80 

     ff; in Mari ?

A "Consideration rithmorum" in Alberic of Monte Cassino's Breviarium           

     de dictamine; appended to 

     O. J. Blum, "Alberic of Monte Cassino and the Hymns and Rhythms              

     Attributed to Saint Peter Damian," Traditio, 12 (1956): 87-148; 

     a 9th c. treatise on music: see Lote, 1.48;

An anonymous "Hic notatur multe differentie et species versuum"           

     printed by Huemer in Wiener Studien 4 (1882)--on varieties of           

     rhymed hexameters;

A scrap of an Ars rithmicandi ed. by Wright and Haliwell, Reliquae      

     Antiquae, 1841, I,30-32  and rpt. by Thurot, 453 ff ? and by      


Peter Helias, extracted Thurot, mentioned Raby, sect. in Manitius.

Another little one  

     ed. Ch. Fierville, Une grammaire latine inedite du XIII 

     siècle, 1886

     Check cf. Thurot 453-57



Commentary on medieval rhythmical vs. metrical verse:

Transition from Med. Lat. to Vernaculars:

L. A. Muratori, Dissertatio de rhythmica veterum poesi (1740), rpt.      

     Migne, PL, 151.755 ff; 

G. Paris, Lettre à M. León Gauthier sur la versification latine      

     rythmique (1866); 

M. Kawczynski, Essai comparatif, 1889.

U. Ronca, Metrica e ritmica latina nel medio evo, parte prima: Primi      

     monumenti ed origine della poesia ritmica latina (1890); 

C. M. Lewis, The Foreign Sources of Modern English Versification, 


J. J. Schlicher, The Origin of Rhythmical Verse in Late Latin (1900).

G. Mari, "Ritmo latino e terminologia ritmica medievale," Studi di      

     filologia romanza 8 (1901): 35-88.  M282 Meyer, coll. essays 

     1905, 1936 Check 3.140 ff

H. O. Taylor, The Mediaeval Mind 3d ed. (1919), chs. 32-33; 

E. H. Sturtevant, "Commodian and Medieval Rhythmic Verse," Language 2      


E. S. Sheldon, "Some Remarks on the Origin of Romance Versification,"      

     Kittredge Anniversary Papers

H. Vroom, Le psaume abécédaire de saint Augustin et la poésie      

     latine rhythmique (1933); 

M. G. Nicolau, "Les deux sources de la versif. latine accentuelle,"      

     ALMA 9 (1934); 

T. B. Rudmose-Brown, "Some Med. Latin Metres: Their Ancestry and      

     Progeny." Hermathena 53 (1939)

Raby on Commodian's rhythmical verse in Christian 11 ff; long bibl.      


W. Beare  Latin Verse and European Song 1957

M. Burger, Recherches sur la structure et l'origines des vers romans      


D. Norberg, La Poésie latine rythmique du haut moyen âge 1954,      

     Introd. à l'étude de la versification latine médiévale      


Curtius, pp. 

R. L. Crocker, "Musica Rhythmica and Musica Metrica in Antique and           

     Medieval Theory," Jour. Music Theory 2 (1958);

Paul von Winterfeld, "Zur Gesch. der rhythmischen Dichtung," 

     Strecker-Palmer: K. Strecker, Intro. to Med. Lat. Tr. and supp. R.      

     B. Palmer. 2nd. ed. 1963.

J. J. Murphy, "Ars poetriae: Preceptive Grammar, or the Rhetoric of      

     Verse-Writing," Rhetoric in the Middle Ages (1974)--not very 


O. B. Hardison, Prosody and Purpose in the English Renaissance. 1989. 


*       				                          *

*                           COMPARATIVE                          *

*					                          *


Juan Caramuel Lobkowitz, Bishop of Toledo???




E. Du Meril





La Driere, "The Comparative Method in the Study of Prosody."




Gasparov, M. L. Ocherk istorii evropeiskogo stikha 1989 

     A History of European Versification, Tr. Tarlinskaja

     and Smith 1996.

Manwaring, Edward. Stichology: or, a Recovery of the Latin,          

     Greek, and Hebrew Numbers. Exemplified in the Reduction of all          

     Horace's Metres, and the Greek and Hebrew Poetry. London: the          

     Author, 1737; 2nd ed. 1738.

Pighi, G. B. Studi di ritmica e metrica. Turin, 1970. 

Ars poetica


The very idea of an ars poetica derives from Aristotle, and 

after him Horace: Plato's (derogatory) view of poetry is that it 

is wholly inspired, a gift of the Muses, so no art is necessary: 

the poet is a mere mouthpiece. Aristotle and even more so Horace 

would never had bothered writing accounts of the art of poetry 

if they believed that teaching on this matter was impossible. 

Aristotle was lost to the Middle Ages, during which time it is 

Horace who exerts the primary influence. In the late Renaissance, 

however, with the recovery and translation of texts of Aristotle, comes 

what Herrick rightly calls the fusion of the Horatian and 

Aristotelian poetics: the Renaissance believes both in craft and in 

inspiration. And the momentous transition from Medieval Latin to the 

vernaculars creates a felt demand for accounts of how to write 

poetry now in each mother tongue. 

M. F. Nims, Margaret F. "Ars poetica." In A Dictionary of the Middle 

     Ages. Ed. Joseph R. Strayer. 13 vols. (New York, 1982- ). Vol. 

     I (1982), 553-555.

Nims, Margaret F. "Translatio: 'Difficult Statement' in Medieval 

     Poetic Theory." University of Toronto Quarterly 43 (1974): 215-


P. Leyser, Historia poetarum et poematum medii aevi (1721), 

     Collection of texts now largely superseded by Faral 1924.

W. B. Sedgwick, "Style and Vocabulary of the Lat. Arts of Poetry of 

     the 12th and 13th Cs.," Speculum 3 (1928)--incl. Index to Faral. 

W. F. Boggess, "Aristotle's Poetics in the 14th C.," SP 67 (1970).

Lawler, Traugott F. "John of Garland and Horace: A Medieval Schoolman 

     faces the Ars poetica. Classical Folia 22 (1968): 3-13.

Dahan, Gilbert. "Notes et textes sur la poátique au moyen age." 

     AHDLM 47 (1980): 171-239.

Haidu, P. "Repetition: Mod. Reflections on Medieval Aesthetics." MLN 

     92 (1977): 875-87.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. De inventione, De optimo genere oratorum, 

     Topica. Tr. Harry M. Hubbell. Harvard University Press, 1949. 

     Cicero's De inventione was known during the Middle Ages as his 

     "Old Rhet." or "First Rhet." while the pseudo-Ciceronian 

     Rhetorica ad Herennium was called his "New Rhet." or "Second 


Arbusow, Leonid. Colores rhetorici: Eine Auswahl rhetorischer Figuren 

     und Gemeinplätze als Hilfsmittel für akademische übungen 

     an mittelalterlichen Texten. Göttingen, 1948. 

     Attempts to provide a systematic analysis of Lat. colores but 

     his book is poorly organized. See the review by Luitpold Wallach 

     in Speculum 24 (1949): 416-18. Cf. Lausberg.

From old PEPP entry "Epic":

In the It. Renaissance, Vida celebrates Virgil rapturously in 

     his Ars poetica (1527). Though the subject of this work is 

     heroic verse (carmen heroicum, it is not really theoretical; 

     Vida's practical advice to poets largely derives from Horace and 

     Quintilian. Theoretical discussion of the e. did not begin until 

     the rediscovery of Aristotle's Poetics. There was no wide 

     knowledge of the work until the Gr. text was printed (1508) and 

     translations into Lat. (1498, 1536) and It. (1549) had appeared. 

     Trissino's Poetica (1528-63), citing important passages from 

     Aristotle as criteria, began a discussion of the achievement of 

     It. literature to date. His Italia liberata (1547) is modeled on 

     Homer and written in It. in blank verse (versi sciolti).

ADD NOW on the Gradus tradition 

Ren. Latin phrasebooks: 

Flores poetarum 

Tixier, a.k.a. Ravisius Textor, Epithetorum epitome. London, 1595. 

-----. Epitheta. Geneva 1612. Mentioned by Shakespeare, I think. 

Sylva synonymorum 

Smetius, Prosodia 

Joannes Buchler, Thesaurus phrasium poeticarum. Amsterdam, 1671. 

Prosodies (see Dwight Culler's article, 859): 

Georgius Fabricius, De re poetica libri IIII. Antwerp, 1595. 

Georgius Sabinus, "De carminibus ad veterum imitationem artificiose      

     componendis praecepta perutilia" in Textor 1595 

"De prosodia" in Textor, Book 4. 1612. 

Jacobus Pontanus, Reformata poeseos institutio in Buchler 

     An abridgement of the above, "De poesi breviculum" in Novus      


Addenda and Corrigenda