OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

scientific research and advances

Public meeting set Thursday on Marine Studies Building at Hatfield Center

NEWPORT, Ore. – Oregon State University will host an informational public meeting this Thursday, June 15, to update local residents on plans for a new Marine Studies Building at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport.

The meeting will run from 5 to 6:30 p.m. in Hatfield’s Visitor Center. A 45-minute presentation and question-and-answer session will be followed by a reception and displays. The Hatfield Center is located at 2030 S.E. Marine Science Drive in Newport, just southeast of the Highway 101 bridge.

The presentation will also be streamed live over Adobe Connect at http://oregonstate.adobeconnect.com/hmsc-fw407/

Oregon State University has launched a Marine Studies Initiative – a new research and teaching model to help sustain healthy oceans and ensure wellness, environmental health and economic prosperity for coastal communities.

“A component of the Marine Studies Initiative includes the construction of a research and teaching facility – the Marine Studies Building on the HMSC campus – and student housing at another location in Newport,” said Steve Clark, vice president for university relations and marketing.

“This public meeting in Newport is an opportunity to hear how the university will ensure that the design, engineering and construction of the Marine Studies Building and student housing meet or exceed the earthquake and tsunami performance and safety commitments that OSU President Ed Ray has made.”

Presentations will be made by­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Bob Cowen, director of OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center, and Tom Robbins, project manager and architect with Yost Grube Hall Architecture.

Story By: 
Source: 

Steve Clark, 541-737-3808, steve.clark@oregonstate.edu; Bob Cowen, 541-867-0211, Robert.Cowen@oregonstate.edu

OSU researcher part of $14 million NSF program for improved genomic tools

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Coral researcher Virginia Weis of Oregon State University is one of eight researchers selected for a new $14 million National Science Foundation program aimed at helping scientists better understand the relationship between gene function and the physical and functional characteristics of organisms.

Weis, head of the Department of Integrative Biology in OSU’s College of Science, will use her $1.875 million EDGE program award to further study the microscale cellular, molecular and genetic mechanisms that underpin the symbiosis between corals and algae.

EDGE stands for Enabling Discovery through Genomic Tools. The NSF’s Biological Sciences Directorate administers the program, which funds projects that seek to develop new tools and teach researchers how to use them.

“It’s a tremendous honor to be selected for this important new program,” Weis said.

Corals are made up of interconnected animal hosts called polyps that house microscopic algae inside their cells, Weis said. The coral-algal symbiosis, or partnership, is the foundation of the entire coral reef ecosystem; the polyps receive food from the algae, and the polyps in turn provide nutrients and protection to the algae.

“Coral reefs are profoundly important, diverse ecosystems that are threatened worldwide by environmental variation and stress,” Weis said. “While a great deal of attention has been focused on the environmental threats to corals, there remains only a partial understanding of the regulation of the symbiosis, and more knowledge will provide a stronger foundation for studies of coral health and coral stress, such as coral bleaching, in which the host polyps lose their symbiotic algae.”

Weis’ project will bring together coral biologists, cell biologists and geneticists from Stanford University, the Carnegie Institution and Florida International University to study a small sea anemone that serves as a proxy for corals. Corals do not survive well in a laboratory setting, are slow growing and are difficult to collect.

The fast-growing, weedy sea anemone Aiptasia will allow researchers to make quick progress on the study of coral symbiosis.

“This award is focused on technique development and swift dissemination of results through online communication platforms to both the scientific community and the public,” Weis said. “A variety of genetic techniques will be developed, including gene editing in both partners, to be able to test hypotheses about the involvement of specific genes in coral health and stress. This award will contribute to the training of scientists and expose school-aged children and others in the general public to coral reef and symbiosis science.”

Oregon Health & Science University, the University of Texas, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Michigan State University, Penn State, Virginia Tech and Boyce Thompson Institute are the home institutions of the other EDGE award recipients.

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 
Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Virginia Weis

Virginia Weis

Northwest researchers map out regional approach to studying food, energy, water nexus

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Natural resource researchers at Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho are gearing up for a late-summer summit aimed at addressing food, energy and water challenges as interconnected, regional issues.

The August meeting in Hermiston, Ore. – centrally located to many National Science Foundation-funded research projects – represents the second step of a collaboration that began with an April workshop in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho.

Research offices at the three universities hosted the gathering, where scientists explored ways to partner with each other and with industry to address issues that affect regional economies as well as environmental and human health.

Stephanie Hampton from WSU and Andrew Kliskey from Idaho led the planning of the workshop, at which six teams combined to start five U.S. Department of Agriculture and NSF grant proposals on issues ranging from water conservation to energy infrastructure.

“We’re really building a critical mass of researchers and research experience in the region,” said Chad Higgins, an agricultural engineering professor leading OSU’s role in the partnership. “The workshop was awesome. It exceeded all expectations with mind-blowing scientific discussions, new collaborations formed and new proposals floated. And now we have to keep it going because that was just the opening salvo, not the crescendo.”

Topics for future exploration might be broad – such as, will the region have enough food in 2050? – or narrow, like tracing the impact of a single technology. For example, a more efficient system for irrigation could lead to less energy used for pumping and also result in more food being produced.

“The food, energy, water nexus is so huge that it’s scary, but it’s also exciting,” Higgins said. “There are so many opportunities to look at things either in detail or to try to be broad and think about how the region will be influenced. We can bring each person’s expertise together to predict pain points, like are we going to be scarce in any one resource in the future, and where?”

Janet Nelson, vice president for research and economic development at the University of Idaho, said the tri-state collaboration “will poise us to build relationships among researchers from all three universities with many areas of expertise in order to work toward solutions that improve communities, economies and lives.”

“The University of Idaho is committed to examining issues that are critical not only to the people of Idaho, but also to the entire Northwest region, with rippling effects around the world,” she said.

Those issues include how to best update aging hydropower plants and food production infrastructure.

Cynthia Sagers, vice president for research at Oregon State, notes that when it comes to food, energy and water challenges, a solution in one location can lead to problems hundreds of miles away.

“That’s why this demands regional cooperation,” she said. “I am proud that our three land grant institutions are working together on these issues for a healthy Pacific Northwest." 

Christopher Keane, vice president of research at WSU, echoed the sentiment and said he “looks forward to seeing the results of continued collaboration.”

“Working across disciplines and institutions to ensure a sustainable supply of food, energy and water for future generations is a top research priority for WSU,” he said.

In addition to the August event, the planning team is applying for external funding to support ongoing meetings to help sustain momentum. 

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Sunflowers

Sunflower crop

International science team: Marine reserves can help mitigate climate change

CORVALLIS, Ore. – An international team of scientists has concluded that “highly protected” marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change and suggests that these areas be expanded and better managed throughout the world.

Globally, coastal nations have committed to protecting 10 percent of their waters by 2020, but thus far only 3.5 percent of the ocean has been set aside for protection – and less than half of that (1.6 percent) is strongly protected from exploitation. Some scientists have argued that as much as 30 percent of the ocean should be set aside as reserves to safeguard marine ecosystems in the long-term. 

Results of the study, which evaluated 145 peer-reviewed studies on the impact of marine reserves, is being published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Marine reserves cannot halt or completely offset the growing impacts of climate change,” said Oregon State University’s Jane Lubchenco, former National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Administrator and co-author on the study. “But they can make marine ecosystems more resilient to changes and, in some cases, help slow down the rate of climate change. 

“Protecting a portion of our oceans and coastal wetlands will help sequester carbon, limit the consequences of poor management, protect habitats and biodiversity that are key to healthy oceans of the future, and buffer coastal populations from extreme events,” Lubchenco said. “Marine reserves are climate reserves.”

The scientists say marine reserves can help protect ecosystems – and people – from five impacts of climate change that already are taking place: ocean acidification, rising sea levels, an increase in the severity of storms, shifts in the distribution of species, and decreased ocean productivity and availability of oxygen.

Lead author Callum Roberts, from the University of York, said that many studies already have shown that marine reserves can protect wildlife and support productive fisheries. The goal of this peer-reviewed literature-study was to see whether the benefits of marine reserves could ameliorate or slow the impacts of climate change. 

“It was soon quite clear that they can offer the ocean ecosystem and people critical resilience benefits to rapid climate change,” Roberts said.

The benefits are greatest, the authors say, in large, long-established and well-managed reserves that have full protection from fishing and mineral extraction, and isolation from other damaging human activities. 

The study notes that ocean surface waters have become on average 26 percent more acidic since pre-industrial times, and by the year 2100 under a “business-as-usual” scenario they will be 150 percent more acidic. The authors say coastal wetlands – including mangroves, seagrasses and salt marshes – have demonstrated a capacity for reducing local carbon dioxide concentrations because many contain plants with high rates of photosynthesis.

“Unfortunately,” Lubchenco said, “these ecosystems are some of the most threatened coastal areas and have experienced substantial reductions in the past several decades. Wetland protection should be seen as a key element in achieving greater resilience for coast communities.” 

Coastal wetlands, along with coral and oyster reefs, kelp forests and mud flats, can help ameliorate impacts of rising sea levels and storm surge. The average global sea level has risen about seven inches since 1900, and is expected to increase nearly three feet by the year 2100, threatening many low-lying cities and nations. The dense vegetation in coastal wetlands can also provide protection against severe storms, which are increasing in intensity in many parts of the world.

Climate change already is having a major impact on the abundance and distribution of marine species. Phytoplankton communities are changing in response to warming, acidification and stratifying oceans, and upper trophic level species are being affected, threatening global food security. Climate change interacts with and exacerbates other stressors like overfishing and pollution, the researchers say.

Reducing some stressors can increase the resilience of species and ecosystems to impacts of other stressors. 

“We have seen how marine reserves can be a haven for some species that are under duress from over-fishing or habitat loss, and as a ‘stepping-stone’ for other species that are recolonizing or moving into new areas,” Lubchenco said. “Reserves also promote genetic diversity and provide protection for older fish and other marine organisms. In short, reserves are one of the most powerful tools in our adaptation toolbox. Reserves enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems, and thus our resilience.”

Lubchenco, who recently completed a two-year term as the first U.S. Science Envoy for the Ocean, has been involved in research at Oregon State on the interactions between people and marine ecosystems. She has led pioneering studies on coastal hypoxia (so-called “dead zones”) and innovative ways to achieve sustainable fishing and other uses of the ocean. 

The authors point out that effectiveness of marine reserves is often challenged by lack of staff, equipment and funding; inconsistent management; lack of communication with industry and local communities; and concerns about displacing fishing activities. But, they point out, these challenges can be resolved. Their findings that reserves enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems suggests that reserves may offer the best hope to adapt to a changing climate.

“Marine reserves will not halt, change or stop many of the threats associated with climate change affecting communities within their boundaries,” they write. “We contend, however, that existing and emerging evidence suggests that (marine reserves) can serve as a powerful tool to help ameliorate some problems resulting from climate change, slow the development of others, and improve the outlook for continued ecosystem functioning and delivery of ecosystem services.”

Lubchenco is a distinguished professor in the College of Science at Oregon State and marine studies adviser to OSU President Ed Ray.

Story By: 
Source: 

Jane Lubchenco, 541-737-5337, lubchenco@oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Photo at left: Marine life around Palau. Photo by Richard Brooks

Patients nearing end of life receptive to having cholesterol medicine ‘deprescribed’

PORTLAND, Ore. – New research suggests patients nearing the end of their lives because of a “life-limiting illness” such as cancer or heart disease may not feel medically abandoned if their doctor wants to take them off the statins that control their cholesterol.

The findings are important because little is known about the best way to manage chronic medications for patients with a life-limiting condition, including data regarding patient attitudes toward “deprescribing.”

Deprescribing medications has the potential to improve outcomes in some cases, but patient concerns over being taken off statin drugs have not been reported.

Statins are a class of drugs that work by blocking the liver enzyme responsible for cholesterol production, thus reducing the buildup of plaque on artery walls that can lead to a stroke or heart attack. The drugs are highly effective but not without side effects for some patients, the most common being muscle pain that ranges from mild to severe.

Jon Furuno, an associate professor in of the Oregon State University/Oregon Health & Science University College of Pharmacy, joined collaborators from around the United States in a study that included nearly 300 patients whose average age was 72 and whose life expectancy was one to 12 months. The patients were participants in a clinical trial to determine the safety and benefit of discontinuing statin therapy.

Fifty-eight percent were cancer patients, 8 percent had cardiovascular disease, and 30 percent had some other life-limiting diagnosis. The patients gave responses to a nine-item questionnaire designed to quantify potential benefits and concerns associated with discontinuing statins.

“We know these patients are on a lot of medications,” Furuno said. “There’s a lot of concern that patients will feel like doctors are giving up on them if they start to discontinue some of their medications, that there’s something comforting about continuing to take their medications, and this gives us some indication of what patients feel about the risks and benefits of deprescribing.”

Less than 5 percent of study participants expressed concern that deprescribing statins indicated being abandoned by their doctor, and many could see benefits of going off their statin, including spending less on medications (63 percent); the potential for being able to stop taking other meds also (34 percent); and having a better overall quality of life (25 percent).

Cardiovascular patients were particularly likely to envision quality-of-life benefits arising from statin discontinuation.

“Hopefully this will help inform prescribers who might be tentative to address this topic with their patients,” Furuno said. “As a patient’s prognosis changes and we think they have a relatively short lifespan left, it really requires risk/benefit re-examination of everything we’re doing for them, medications and everything else. There may still be benefits, but have the benefits changed or has the risk/benefit ratio changed?

“A lot of our work is trying to better inform the evidence base for medication use at the end of life, and patient perceptions are really important in trying to honor what the patient wants and what the family wants.”

Furuno notes that the primary limitation of this study is that all of the questionnaire respondents had also agreed to participate in a trial that involved possibly being chosen at random to go off statins – thus, they were all at least somewhat open to the idea of deprescribing.

“So this group is likely not completely representative of all people, because they might be foreseeing some benefits to stopping that other people hadn’t considered,” he said. “But while we don’t want to overlook that limitation, given the lack of information about patient perceptions regarding deprescribing, these data are important and useful as a stepping stone.”

The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group, funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research, supported this study. Collaborators included researchers from the University of Massachusetts, the University of Colorado, Case Western Reserve University, Duke University, the University of Maryland, the University of California-San Francisco, Mayo Clinic, and Flatiron Health, a health care technology company.

Findings were recently published in the Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 

Acidified ocean water widespread along North American West Coast

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A three-year survey of the California Current System along the West Coast of the United States found persistent, highly acidified water throughout this ecologically critical nearshore habitat, with “hotspots” of pH measurements as low as any oceanic surface waters in the world.

The researchers say that conditions will continue to worsen because the atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily to blame for this increase in acidification has been rising substantially in recent years.

One piece of good news came out of the study, which was published this week in Nature Scientific Reports. There are “refuges” of more moderate pH environments that could become havens for some marine organisms to escape more highly acidified waters, and which could be used as a resource for ecosystem management.

“The threat of ocean acidification is global and though it sometimes seems far away, it is happening here right now on the West Coast of the United States and those waters are already hitting our beaches,” said Francis Chan, a marine ecologist at Oregon State University and lead author on the study.

“The West Coast is very vulnerable. Ten years ago, we were focusing on the tropics with their coral reefs as the place most likely affected by ocean acidification. But the California Current System is getting hit with acidification earlier and more drastically than other locations around the world.”

A team of researchers developed a network of sensors to measure ocean acidification over a three-year period along more than 600 miles of the West Coast. The team observed near-shore pH levels that fell well below the global mean pH of 8.1 for the surface ocean, and reached as low as 7.4 at the most acidified sites, which is among the lowest recorded values ever observed in surface waters.

The lower the pH level, the higher the acidity. Previous studies have documented a global decrease of 0.11 pH units in surface ocean waters since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Like the Richter scale, the pH scale in logarithmic, so that a 0.11 pH unit decrease represents an increase in acidity of approximately 30 percent.

Highly acidified ocean water is potentially dangerous because many organisms are very sensitive to changes in pH. Chan said negative impacts already are occurring in the California Current System, where planktonic pteropods – or small swimming snails – were documented with severe shell dissolution.

“This is about more than the loss of small snails,” said Richard Feely, senior scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. “These pteropods are an important food source for herring, salmon and black cod, among other fish. They also may be the proverbial ‘canary in the coal mine’ signifying potential risk for other species, including Dungeness crabs, oysters, mussels, and many organisms that live in tidepools or other near-shore habitats.”

Previous studies at OSU have chronicled the impact of acidified water on the Northwest oyster industry.

Chan said the team’s observations, which included a broad-scale ocean acidification survey via ship by NOAA, did not vary significantly over the three years – even with different conditions, including a moderate El Niño event.

“The highly acidified water was remarkably persistent over the three years,” Chan said. “Hotspots stayed as hotspots, and refuges stayed as refuges. This highly acidified water is not in the middle of the Pacific Ocean; it is right off our shore. Fortunately, there are swaths of water that are more moderate in acidity and those should be our focus for developing adaptation strategies.”

The researchers say there needs to be a focus on lowering stressors to the environment, such as maintaining healthy kelp beds and sea grasses, which many believe can partially mitigate the effects of increasing acidity.

Further, the moderately acidified refuge areas can be strategically used and managed, Chan pointed out.

“We probably have a hundred or more areas along the West Coast that are protected in one way or another, and we need to examine them more closely,” he said. “If we know how many of them are in highly acidified areas and how many are in refuge sites, we can use that information to better manage the risks that ocean acidification poses.”

Managing for resilience is a key, the researchers conclude.

“Even though we are seeing compromised chemistry in our ocean waters, we still have a comparably vibrant ecosystem,” Chan said. “Our first goal should be to not make things worse. No new stresses. Then we need to safeguard and promote resilience. How do we do that? One way is to manage for diversity, from ensuring multiple-age populations to maintaining deep gene pools.

“The greater the diversity, the better chance of improving the adaptability of our marine species.”

Chan, a faculty member in the College of Science at Oregon State University, was a member of the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Panel appointed by the governments of California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

Story By: 
Source: 

Francis Chan, 541-737-9131, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

ocean acidification 2

Acidification is threatening tidepool organisms

ocean sensors 2

A sensor at the Oregon coast.

Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Sediment that eroded from the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau over millions of years was transported thousands of kilometers by rivers and in the Indian Ocean – and became sufficiently thick over time to generate temperatures warm enough to strengthen the sediment and increase the severity of the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake.

The magnitude 9.2 earthquake on Dec. 26, 2004, generated a massive tsunami that devastated coastal regions of the Indian Ocean. The earthquake and tsunami together killed more than 250,000 people making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in history.

An international team of scientists that outlined the process of sediment warming says the same mechanism could be in place in the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the Pacific Northwest coast of North America, as well as off Iran, Pakistan and in the Caribbean.

Results of the research, which was conducted as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program, are being published this week in the journal Science.

“The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was triggered by an unusually strong earthquake with an extensive rupture area,” said expedition co-leader Lisa McNeill, an Oregon State University graduate now at the University of Southampton. “We wanted to find out what caused such a large earthquake and tsunami, and what it might mean for other regions with similar geological properties.”

The research team sampled for the first time sediment and rocks from the tectonic plate that feeds the Sumatra subduction zone. From the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, the team drilled down 1.5 kilometers below the seabed, measured different properties of the sediments, and ran simulations to calculate how the sediment and rock behaves as it piles up and travels eastward 250 kilometers toward the subduction zone.

“We discovered that in some areas where the sediments are especially thick, dehydration of the sediments occurred before they were subducted,” noted Marta Torres, an Oregon State University geochemist and co-author on the study. “Previous earthquake models assumed that dehydration occurred after the material was subducted, but we had suspected that it might be happening earlier in some margins.

“The earlier dehydration creates stronger, more rigid material prior to subduction, resulting in a very large fault area that is prone to rupture and can lead to a bigger and more dangerous earthquake.”

Torres explained that when the scientists examined the sediments, they found water between the sediment grains that was less salty than seawater only within a zone where the plate boundary fault develops, some 1.2 to 1.4 kilometers below the seafloor.

“This along with some other chemical changes are clear signals that it was an increase in temperature from the thick accumulation of sediment that was dehydrating the minerals,” Torres said.

Lead author Andre Hüpers of the University of Bremen in Germany said that the discovery will generate new interest in other subduction zone sites that also have thick, hot sediment and rock, especially those areas where the hazard potential is unknown.

The Cascadia Subduction Zone is one of the most widely studied sites in the world and experts say it may have experienced as many as two dozen major earthquakes over the past 10,000 years.

The sediment at the Cascadia deformation front is between 2.5 and 4.0 kilometers thick, which is somewhat less than the 4-5 kilometer thickness of the Sumatra region. However, because the subducting plate at Cascadia is younger when the plate arrives at the subduction zone, the estimated temperatures at the fault surface are about the same in both regions.

Torres is a professor in Oregon State University’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

Story By: 
Source: 

Marta Torres, 541-737-2902, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Sediment cores

Sediment cores

New modified toy car designs offer children with disabilities more options

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers at Oregon State University have developed two new modified toy car designs for children with disabilities in an effort to encourage them to further explore, play, and engage in physical and social activities.

The new cars were developed under the umbrella of the “Go Baby Go” program at OSU, which provides modified, ride-on toy cars to young children with disabilities so they can move around independently. Independent movement has been linked to a wide range of developmental benefits in young children. 

The sit-to-stand car is a modified version of the original Go Baby Go car, but encourages the child to stand up in order to activate the switch that makes the car move. The goal is to encourage the physical skills of pulling up to stand, bear weight and balance, while also fostering more interaction with peers.

The “Throw Baby Throw” car is a modified toy car that uses a toy pitching machine to throw foam balls. The goal is to provide a way for children who have upper extremity limits to participate in throwing, a fundamental motor skill, while also facilitating socialization. 

“Both of these devices are designed to encourage movement and social interaction, which are critical developmental skills for all young children,” said Sam Logan, an assistant professor of kinesiology in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at OSU and leader of the university’s Go Baby Go program.

“Movement and socialization are very often combined early and continually as children develop.” 

The two new car designs were featured in a technical report published recently in the journal Frontiers in Robotics and AI. A study of a child using the sit-to-stand car also was recently published in the journal Pediatric Physical Therapy; researchers found the child was more engaged with peers when using the sit-to-stand car.

Modified toy cars are an inexpensive way to help toddlers with mobility issues get around, experts say. Power wheelchairs can be costly and typically aren’t available for children until they are older, and may not always be an option for children who are expected to eventually be able to walk. Toy cars and their modifications start at about $200, while motorized wheelchairs can run thousands of dollars. 

The sit-to-stand car was designed for children who may or are expected to walk eventually but their walking is delayed. In the study of the sit-to-stand car in use, researchers found that a child with disabilities spent about 10 percent more time engaging with his peers on the playground or in the gym at school when he used the sit-to-stand car, compared to using his forearm crutches.

“That’s exactly what you want to see,” Logan said. “This car gets you up and gets you moving. It’s also a way to introduce some fun around the practice of these skills that will help a child stand and walk on their own.” 

In developing the new car, researchers found the process takes just a few different steps than the original car. The “go” switch is located under the car’s seat, rather than on the steering wheel or elsewhere. Training others to modify cars for sit-to-stand would be fairly simple and could be done in a few hours in a workshop, Logan said.

The Throw Baby Throw car uses the same “go” technology as the original car, with the added element of the pitching machine, which is also activated by a switch that a child could press. 

“With the switch, kids with upper-extremity limits can throw the same as other kids,” Logan said. “The design is really about facilitating this interaction with other kids. You also need someone to catch, retrieve or dodge the balls being thrown.”

The engineering behind the throwing car is more complex and needs more refinement before the design could be shared more widely across the Go Baby Go network, Logan said. The throwing car also has not been studied in action. There is one car in use by clinicians in Portland now but the design is still considered a prototype, he said. 

The overarching goal of the new car designs is to find more ways to encourage children with disabilities to move, play and engage with their peers from a young age, Logan said.

“We encourage families, clinicians and teachers to embrace a ‘right device, right time, right place’ approach that takes into account each child’s specific needs and abilities,” he said. “Whatever typically-developing kids do should be the gold standard for all children, including those with disabilities.”

Co-authors of the technical report include Kathleen Bogart, William D. Smart, Brianna Goodwin, Samantha M. Ross, Michele Ann Catena, Austin A. Whitesell and Zachary J. Sefton of OSU; Heather Feldner of the University of Washington and Cole Galloway of the University of Delaware. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

Co-authors of the study of the sit-to-stand car include Megan MacDonald and Haylee Winden of OSU; Feldner of UW; Galloway, Michele Lobo and Tracy Stoner of University of Delaware; and Melynda Schreiber of the University of Utah. The research was supported by the Unidel Foundation.

Story By: 
Source: 

Sam Logan, 541-737-3437, sam.logan@oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Child in a Go Baby Go car

GoBabyGo at Oregon State

Throw Baby Throw car

Throw baby throw

Researcher Sam Logan

Sam Logan

New study documents aftermath of a supereruption, and expands size of Toba magma system

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The rare but spectacular eruptions of supervolcanoes can cause massive destruction and affect climate patterns on a global scale for decades – and a new study has found that these sites also may experience ongoing, albeit smaller eruptions for tens of thousands of years after.

In fact, Oregon State University researchers were able to link recent eruptions at Mt. Sinabung in northern Sumatra to the last eruption on Earth of a supervolcano 74,000 years ago at the Toba Caldera some 25 miles away.

The findings are being reported this week in the journal Nature Communications.

“The recovery from a supervolcanic eruption is a long process, as the volcano and the magmatic system try to re-establish equilibrium – like a body of water that has been disrupted by a rock being dropped into it,” said Adonara Mucek, an Oregon State doctoral candidate and lead author on the study.

“At Toba, it appears that the eruptions continued for at least 15,000 to 20,000 years after the supereruption and the structural adjustment continued at least until a few centuries ago – and probably is continuing today. It is the magmatic equivalent to aftershocks following an earthquake.”

This is the first time that scientists have been able to pinpoint what happens following the eruption of a supervolcano. To qualify as a supervolcano, the eruption must reach at least magnitude 8 on the Volcano Explosivity Index, which means the measured deposits for that eruption are greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers, or 240 cubic miles.

When Toba erupted, it emitted a volume of magma 28,000 times greater than that of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state. It was so massive, it is thought to have created a volcanic winter on Earth lasting years, and possibly triggering a bottleneck in human evolution.

Other well-known supervolcano sites include Yellowstone Park in the United States, Taupo Caldera in New Zealand, and Campi Flegrei in Italy.

“Supervolcanoes have lifetimes of millions of years during which there can be several supereruptions,” said Shanaka “Shan” de Silva, an Oregon State University volcanologist and co-author on the study. “Between those eruptions, they don’t die. Scientists have long suspected that eruptions continue after the initial eruption, but this is the first time we’ve been able to put accurate ages with those eruptions.”

Previous argon dating studies had provided rough ages of eruptions at Toba, but those eruption dates had too much range of error, the researchers say. In their study, the OSU researchers and their colleagues from Australia, Germany, the United States and Indonesia were able to decipher the most recent volcanic history of Toba by measuring the amount of helium remaining in zircon crystals in erupted pumice and lava.

The helium remaining in the crystals is a remnant of the decaying process of uranium, which has a well-understood radioactive decay path and half-life.

“Toba is at least 1.3 million years old, its supereruption took place about 74,000 years ago, and it had at least six definitive eruptions after that – and probably several more,” Mucek said. “The last eruption we have detected occurred about 56,000 years ago, but there are other eruptions that remain to be studied.”

The researchers also managed to estimate the history of structural adjustment at Toba using carbon-14 dating of lake sediment that has been uplifted up to 600 meters above the lake in which they formed. These data show that structural adjustment continued from at least 30,000 years ago until 2,000 years ago – and may be continuing today.

The study also found that the magma in Toba’s system has an identical chemical fingerprint and zircon crystallization history to Mt. Sinabung, which is currently erupting and is distinct from other volcanoes in Sumatra. This suggests that the Toba system may be larger and more widespread than previously thought, de Silva noted.

“Our data suggest that the recent and ongoing eruptions of Mt. Sinabung are part of the Toba system’s recovery process from the supereruption,” he said.

The discovery of the connection does not suggest that the Toba Caldera is in danger of erupting on a catastrophic scale any time soon, the researchers emphasized. “This is probably ‘business as usual’ for a recovering supervolcano,” de Silva said. It does emphasize the importance of having more sophisticated and frequent monitoring of the site to measure the uplift of the ground and image the magma system, the researchers note.

“The hazards from a supervolcano don’t stop after the initial eruption,” de Silva said. “They change to more local and regional hazards from eruptions, earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis that may continue regularly for several tens of thousands of years.

“Toba remains alive and active today.”

As large as the Toba eruption was, the reservoir of magma below the caldera is much, much greater, the researchers say. Studies at other calderas around Earth, such as Yellowstone, have estimated that there is between 10 and 50 times as much magma than is erupted during a supereruption.

Mucek and de Silva are affiliated with OSU’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation. A video of them explaining their research is available at: http://bit.ly/2raULAx

Story By: 
Source: 

Adonara “Ado” Mucek, 541-908-1437, muceka@geo.oregonstate.edu;

Shanaka “Shan” de Silva, 541-737-1212, desilvas@geo.oregonstate.edu;

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

laketoba

Southward view of the northern third of the Lake Toba depression produced by the supereruption 74,000 years ago.

“Narco-deforestation” study links loss of Central American tropical forests to cocaine

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Central American tropical forests are beginning to disappear at an alarming rate, threatening the livelihood of indigenous peoples there and endangering some of the most biologically diverse ecosystems in North America.

The culprit? Cocaine.

The problem is not the cultivation of the coca plant – which is processed into cocaine – that is causing this “narco-deforestation.” It results from people throughout the spectrum of the drug trade purchasing enormous amounts of land to launder their illegal profits, researchers say.

Results of the study, which was funded by the Open Society Foundations and supported by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, have just been published in the journal Environmental Research Letters.

“Starting in the early 2000s, the United States-led drug enforcement in the Caribbean and Mexico pushed drug traffickers into places that were harder to patrol, like the large, forested areas of central America,” said David Wrathall, an Oregon State University geographer and co-author on the study. “A flood of illegal drug money entered these places and these drug traffickers needed a way that they could spend it.

“It turns out that one of the best ways to launder illegal drug money is to fence off huge parcels of forest, cut down the trees, and build yourself a cattle ranch. It is a major, unrecognized driver of tropical deforestation in Central America.”

Using data from the Global Forest Change program estimating deforestation, the research team identified irregular or abnormal deforestation from 2001-2014 that did not fit previously identified spatial or temporal patterns caused by more typical forms of land settlement or frontier colonization. The team then estimated the degree to which narcotics trafficking contributes to forest loss, using a set of 15 metrics developed from the data to determine the rate, timing and extent of deforestation.

Strongly outlying or anomalous patches and deforestation rates were then compared to data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy – considered the best source for estimating cocaine flow through the Central American corridor, Wrathall pointed out.

“The comparisons helped confirm relationships between deforestation and activities including cattle ranching, illegal logging, and land speculation, which traffickers use to launder drug trafficking profits in remote forest areas of Central America,” Wrathall said.

They estimate that cocaine trafficking may account for up to 30 percent of the total forest loss in Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua over the past decade. A total of 30 to 60 percent of the forest losses occurred within nationally and internationally designated protected areas, threatening conservation efforts to maintain forest carbon sinks, ecological services, and rural and indigenous livelihoods.

“Imagine the cloud of carbon dioxide from all of that burning forest,” Wrathall said. “The most explosive change in land use happened in areas where land ownership isn’t clear – in forested, remote areas of Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua, where the question of who owns the land is murky.”

“In Panama, the financial system is built to launder cocaine money so they don’t need to cut down trees to build ranches for money laundering. In Honduras, land is the bank.”

Farming and cattle ranching aren’t the only money laundering methods threatening tropical forests, the researchers say. Mining, tourism ventures and industrial agriculture are other ways drug money is funneled into legitimate businesses.

Wrathall said the impact affects both people and ecosystems.

“The indigenous people who have lived sustainably in these environments are being displaced as the stewards of the land,” he said. “These are very important ecological areas with tremendous biodiversity that may be lost.”

The authors says the solutions include de-escalating and demilitarizing the war on drugs; strengthening the position of indigenous peoples and traditional forest communities to be stewards of the remaining forest lands; and developing regional awareness of the issue.

“We are cruising through the last of our wild spaces in Central America,” Wrathall said. “Obviously, ending the illegal drug trade would be the best solution, but that isn’t going to happen. In fact, when drug enforcement efforts are successful, they often push the activity into remote areas that haven’t had issues before, such as remote biodiversity hotspots.”

Wrathall is an assistant professor in Oregon State University’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. He specializes in the impact of climate change on the distribution of the human population and other factors that affect human migration.

“The surge of violence in Central America that has accompanied drug trafficking is recognized as a major driver of migration in the region.”

Story By: 
Source: 

David Wrathall, 541-737-8051, david.wrathall@coas.oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

DSCN0297
Central American forests are giving way to pasture land for cattle ranches.