OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

marine science and the coast

OSU scientists simulate wave conditions to determine value of wetland vegetation

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Coastal wetland vegetation may reduce shoreline erosion and sediment deposition by dampening the energy and power of incoming waves and storm surge, according to new research under way at Oregon State University.

The work is unprecedented and information created from it will allow for an increased understanding of ecological services associated with wetland habitat.

In the United States today 60 percent of the population lives within 50 miles of coastline and growth in these areas is expected to continue. That will put pressure on maintaining wetlands at the water-land interface – a landscape, which if healthy, has the capability of mitigating impacts of both natural and man-made disaster on the greater environment and human communities.

“Being able to quantify additional ecological services for wetlands whose value for fish and wildlife habitat is already well-documented provides further incentive to maintain and manage coastal wetlands,” said Dennis Albert, an Oregon State University professor in the College of Agricultural Sciences. “Land use planning and coastal resource management benefit directly from a better understanding of the role wetlands and plant communities play in protecting our homes, communities and aquatic habitat.”

Together with Dan Cox, an OSU professor in the College of Engineering, Albert is leading a National Science Foundation-funded project to conduct ecological modeling of emergent vegetation for sustaining wetlands in high wave energy coastal environments. The project focuses on improving scientific understanding of wave attenuation and sediment deposition in the near-shore, wetland environment.

The OSU researchers are also studying plant survival under different wave patterns and strengths, and the ability of the plants to recover after storm damage.  

Taking place in the large wave flume at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at OSU, the study is the first of its kind to document the response of wetland plant beds taken from coastal environments to simulated waves.

The flume is 104 meters long, 3.6 meters wide and 4.6 meters deep. In use since 1972, it is the largest facility in North America used for coastal research. Beginning in the spring of 2009, Albert collected and cultivated Schoenoplectus pungens, commonly called threesquare bulrush, in 12 eight-foot-long planters. The planters were combined into three 32-foot long parallel beds of vegetation that were placed in the flume in early July 2010.

Students and researchers from OSU, Louisiana State University, Harvey Mudd College, Kyoto University (Japan), and Seoul National University are measuring the effects of the plants on waves of varying height and velocity. Early results show that the height of the wave, which is also a measurement of the energy contained within the wave, is reduced by more than two-thirds as it passes through the vegetation.

Future experiments will measure the amount of incoming sediment trapped by the vegetation and the ability of the plants to survive waves of differing characteristics.

“The lack of control in the field making it exceedingly difficult to quantify what’s occurring,” said Cox, a professor in the OSU’s School of Civil and Construction Engineering. “By using the large wave flume, we can introduce live plants into a controlled environment at prototype-scale where we can document their response, and then test their reactions to different variables and conditions.”

Coastal environments are increasingly prone to modification, both by humans and by nature, the researchers note.  An example of the ability of wetlands to buffer storm damage was observed during hurricanes Katrina and Rita when earthen levees that were fronted by wetlands experienced less damage during the storms and therefore required less post-storm repair.

The development of strategies to protect wetlands and other ecologically important systems has been recognized for more than a decade. However, the difficulty of conducting research in the coastal wetland environment had created numerous challenges for scientists and policy makers. As a result, the services provided by coastal wetlands, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control, sediment and nutrient accumulation, and habitat functions that support commercial and sport fish, shellfish, and water fowl, as well as overall biological diversity, have not been regularly incorporated into economic and development models.

“We’ve understood many of the values of coastal wetlands for some time, but this is one of our first opportunities to accurately measure the amount of wave energy reduction and sediment accumulation that occurs because of the plants,” said Albert, whose research has focused on coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes for more than 20 years.

“Energy reduction and sediment collection benefit both the organisms within the wetlands, and the human community who live at the margins of the wetlands and depend partially on fish and other organisms of the marsh for their livelihood.”

Source: 

Dennis Albert, 541-737-7557

Rapidly growing murre colony draws interest of scientists – and predators

NEWPORT, Ore. – A rapidly growing colony of common murres at Yaquina Head near Newport has drawn the attention of predators – both expected and unexpected – as well as of scientists, who say the bird is an “indicator species” that can provide vital information about climate change.

An estimated 50,000 murres use the conveniently located rocks just offshore from the Yaquina Lighthouse, where viewing platforms offer close-up views for tourists as well as researchers.

Rob Suryan, an Oregon State University seabird ecologist, is leading a multi-year study of the birds that is gathering information on their reproductive success, diet and foraging activities. Murres are deep-diving birds that descend up to 500 feet below the surface to target herring, smelt, anchovies, sand lances and juvenile rockfish – the same diet as many fish species including salmon, halibut and adult rockfish.

Their survival and reproductive success is closely tied to ocean conditions and when biological productivity is good – from plankton, to copepods, to small fish – life is usually good for the murres. But Suryan and his colleagues from OSU, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have found murre survival can be influenced by predators as well as by prey.

Throughout the breeding season, bald eagles would perch on two wind-battered fir trees on the edge of Yaquina Head and then swoop down to grab adult murres. As the other murres scattered, gulls would rush in and scoop up the murre eggs, Suryan said.

“Our field crew also recently observed an immature brown pelican land on Flattop Rock and run through the colony flapping its wings,” Suryan said. “As it zigzagged through the colony, it ate 10 common murre chicks and chased away many of the adults, allowing the gulls to come in and go through their egg-stealing routine.

“Who would have thought that a pelican, of all things, would devour 10 young murres in a matter of seconds?”

Scientists say studies like this are particularly important because murres are an indicator species that may be one of the first seabirds to demonstrate negative impacts of climate change. One of the first visible signs of poor ocean productivity, Suryan noted, is the presence of seabird carcasses on local beaches. And although the central Oregon coast is one of the most monitored ocean regions in the world, upper trophic-level species like seabirds are not often included in long-term monitoring programs.

The seabirds at Yaquina Head, however, are ideally located and the data that Suryan and his colleagues are gathering can easily be coupled with OSU-gathered data on oceanographic conditions, allowing integrated food web studies.

Though the murre population at Yaquina Head may be one of the largest on the West Coast, these colonies can disappear rapidly, said Suryan, who is an assistant professor of fisheries and wildlife at OSU, working out of the university’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport.

In the late 1980s, surveys by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service showed there were some 12,000 murres each in colonies at Yaquina Head and several miles north at Gull Rock near Otter Crest. Over the past couple of decades, the Gull Rock colony declined and was eventually abandoned, while the Yaquina Head colony has greatly expanded. Suryan speculates that predation by eagles and egg-robbing gulls may have forced the murres to move from Gull Rock to Yaquina Head.

“Seabirds are usually faithful to nesting sites,” he said, “but if they have consistent failure to produce young, they will move. But we don’t really know if their overall numbers are increasing or decreasing until we get more yearly data and monitor reproductive success.”

Suryan said murres spend most of the year at sea and return to land in early spring to establish a colony. The females typically lay a single egg some time in May or June, and by early August, both adults and young murres will leave the colony and return to sea. Scientists are trying to learn more about what kind of nesting success rate is necessary to maintain the murre population – while factoring in predation rates and availability of forage fishes.

“It’s incredibly complex,” Suryan said, “but these birds can help tell us how a variety of marine life may be responding to ocean conditions as they change.”

As part of the study, students from OSU and other universities – part of the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program – staff the platforms on Yaquina Head from which they monitor how many birds lay eggs, the rate of predation, and even what kind of fish the adults are feeding their young. That dietary information is then compared with stomach contents of commercially caught salmon, halibut and rockfish from Newport-based boats.

Amanda J. Gladics, a master’s student at OSU in the Marine Resource Management program, said preliminary data suggests an overlap in the diets of the birds and fish.

“We’re working directly with commercial and sport fishermen on the project, who share the stomachs of the fish they catch so we can analyze them,” said Gladics, who is from Beaverton, Ore. “We’ve found a lot of juvenile rockfish in the salmon and adult rockfish stomachs, and they’re being observed as an important part of the murres’ diet, too.

“We don’t have enough data to draw any conclusions yet,” she added, “but we would expect in years when particular prey species are abundant, the forage fish predators that we study would have more similar diets, and the opposite would be true in years of low food abundance.”

This is the fourth year of the OSU-led study, with funding from the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and additional support from the National Science Foundation through the REU program. It continues the work begun by Julia Parrish from the University of Washington who conducted studies of murres in the area from 1998 to 2002.

“Scientists studying ocean or atmospheric conditions can look at ice cores or sediment cores and reconstruct the past,” Suryan said. “With birds, we can’t do that, so it’s important to establish a longer time series of data that will begin to show us how these birds respond to their environment and to predation.”

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Rob Suryan, 541-867-0223

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Yaquina eagle with murre

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Yaquina Head

New study shows importance of February upwelling to fish, seabirds

NEWPORT, Ore. – Scientists have long known that wind-driven “upwelling” during the spring and summer along the Pacific Coast is critical for bringing deep, nutrient-rich water to the surface and fertilizing plankton blooms that form the base of the marine food web.

But a new study suggests that mini-pulses of upwelling that occur in February may be just as important in creating ideal ocean conditions in the California Current system for species from rockfish to seabirds.

“These small pulses of upwelling may kick-start the production cycle and extend the growing season,” said Bryan Black, an Oregon State University researcher based at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, Ore. “We’ve found amazing synchrony in the growth rates of fish and reproductive success of seabirds – and both of these top-level predators corroborate the importance of February upwelling.”

Black’s latest study, comparing rockfish growth with seabird reproductive success, was published this month in NRC Research Press.

Black is a dendrochronologist, who applies tree-ring dating techniques to the study of marine organisms. Many long-lived fish accumulate analogous annual growth rings in their otoliths – or ear bones – allowing scientists to estimate their age. Many clams and other bivalves also lay down rings on their shells.

In addition to estimating age, scientists also can compare the size of the rings and tell something about the environmental conditions that year. Generally, large growth rings – whether on a clam, in a tree, or on a fish otolith – means that conditions were good.

“You can’t look at the rings on a single clam or tree and draw any significant conclusions,” Black said. “But when you examine dozens of individuals, and compare them with other species, the results are amazing.”

In his latest study, Black teamed with seabird ecologist Bill Sydeman at the Farallon Institute for Advanced Ecosystem Research, and NOAA researchers Steven Bograd, Isaac Schroeder and Peter Lawson to compare growth-ring chronologies of splitnose rockfish (Sebastes diploproa) and yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) with egg-laying dates and fledgling success of two species of seabirds – common murres and Cassin’s auklets.

Focusing on the years from 1972 through 1994, they found that when sufficient February upwelling occurs, growth rings were much more likely to be wide in the fish, and reproductive success high for the seabirds.

The team also found that over the past 60 years, wintertime upwelling was distinct from spring/summer upwelling.

“Statistically, they’re completely unrelated,” Black said. “And that’s important because some biological processes, like rockfish growth and seabird reproductive success, are ‘tuned’ to winter climate and will show different patterns from biological processes ‘tuned’ to summer climate.

“In short,” Black added, “seasonality is critical to understanding climate response.”

The next step in the team’s research is to collaborate with terrestrial ecologists to show similar climate responses on land.

“Already we see that high-elevation tree-ring chronologies in the Cascades relate surprisingly well to rockfish growth and seabird reproductive success,” Black said. “All of that is due to their sensitivity to climate in the winter – a time of the year when the ocean and atmosphere are particularly well-coupled.”

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Bryan Black, 541-867-0283

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rockfish otolith
Cross-section of rockfish otolith.

February upwelling

Harmful algal blooms on rise globally, but Oregon monitoring at risk

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Scientists are moving closer to being able to predict when blooms of phytoplankton will turn toxic and prompt closures of shellfish harvesting along the coast to protect the public from domoic acid and other health threats.

But the funding that has supported a unique collaborative research and monitoring effort among several agencies will soon run out, leaving future monitoring of “harmful algal blooms” in Oregon in jeopardy.

“We’re moving closer toward having a predictive model, but we won’t get there until we have more people on the ground – counting phytoplankton, doing the toxin analysis, and monitoring the clams and mussels themselves,” said Angelicque “Angel” White, a biological oceanographer at Oregon State University and a principal investigator in a five-year study of harmful algal blooms.

“The goal is to be able to identify potential risks earlier – before they actually show up in the shellfish,” she added.

Razor clam harvesting was closed last week in Oregon from Bandon to Tillamook because of high levels of domoic acid – which White and her colleagues anticipated based on cell counts of harmful algal blooms.

At least parts of the Oregon coast are closed to shellfish harvesting almost every year, White said, and incidents of harmful algal blooms are on the rise globally. “In addition to being a health concern, it’s an economic factor as well,” White said. “These closures can cost coastal communities millions of dollars of lost income.”

A closure of razor clam harvests in 2003 of beaches in Clatsop County alone cost local communities an estimated $4.8 million in lost revenue.

Phytoplankton blooms are a normal ocean process, critical to maintaining the productive marine food web off the Pacific Northwest coast. Spring and summer winds bring up cold, deep water that is nutrient-rich to the ocean surface in a process called “upwelling.” When that water is exposed to sunlight, it creates blooms of phytoplankton. These tiny plants are a source of food for zooplankton and other marine creatures, which in turn are feasted upon by larger animals.

But certain species of phytoplankton have the ability to produce toxins that can be harmful to humans. One called Pseudo-nitzschia produces domoic acid, which bio-accumulates in the tissues of razor clams and mussels and can cause illness, and even death in humans. Another species, Alexandrium, produces saxitoxin, which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning if ingested.

The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Oregon Department of Agriculture test clams, mussels and other shellfish for domoic acid accumulation. Scientists from OSU and the University of Oregon work with ODFW on monitoring the phytoplankton blooms and checking for toxicity. And the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration lab at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center contributes offshore phytoplankton sampling. Their work is funded through NOAA’s national “Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Bloom,” or MERHAB program.

“We’ve made it work,” said Bill Peterson, a biologist with the NOAA lab in Newport. “The five years of NOAA (MERHAB) funding allowed us to ramp up the monitoring of shellfish and plankton to a workable level, but Oregon still lags behind California and Washington when it comes to monitoring harmful algal blooms. They’re a lot farther ahead on figuring these things out.”

The collaborators’ NOAA funding, a total of $2.3 million in grants, will run out in another 18 months and anticipated state funding for the successful pilot program remains uncertain.

In their remaining time, the scientists will try to learn more about what causes certain phytoplankton blooms to become toxic, how long it takes for that toxicity to build up in the shellfish and what role ocean conditions like temperature, salinity and acidification may play.

“Phytoplankton toxicity is highly variable,” said Matthew Hunter, the ODFW shellfish and estuary project leader. “It can accumulate in razor clams in as little as a week’s time, or it can take several weeks – and we don’t yet know why there’s a difference. At the same time, the toxic phytoplankton may comprise only about 5 percent of the overall plankton biomass at any one time.

“There’s a lot still to discover,” he added, “but hopefully we can learn enough to create some kind of forecasting model that will change our sampling time frame and provide more warning when domoic acid, for example, may be becoming a problem.”

Marc Suddleson, who manages NOAA’s MERHAB program, said the investment in this academic/state/federal collaboration is designed to act as seed funding until local support can continue the effort.

“Hopefully, Oregon will adopt this proven pilot monitoring program and benefit from the early warning of toxic algal events it provides, helping to reduce their threat to public health and to safeguard valuable state recreational shellfisheries,” Suddleson said. “This program can help Oregon and NOAA advance mutual interests in improving harmful algal bloom monitoring and prediction for the entire Pacific coast.”

White agrees that Oregon needs to create and fund a formal monitoring effort that looks at toxin levels in both phytoplankton and shellfish. A network of volunteers could be utilized to gather water samples, she pointed out, but “our collaboration has demonstrated that a trained technician to identify toxicity is vital.”

“Oregon is bringing up the rear along the West Coast when it comes to addressing harmful algal blooms,” White said. “Considering the human health and economic issues associated with domoic acid and paralytic shellfish poisoning, and the fact that these toxic blooms are on the rise, I’m not sure that’s a place we want to be.”

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Angel White, 541-737-6397

OSU scientist receives prestigious NSF career award

CORVALLIS, Ore. – An Oregon State University atmospheric scientist has received a prestigious National Science Foundation “Career Award” designed to support emerging influential scholars and educators who will become 21st century leaders.

Christoph Thomas, an assistant professor in OSU’s College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, was selected for the honor, which is the National Science Foundation’s most prestigious award for new faculty members.

During the next five years, Thomas will receive approximately $736,000 from the NSF to support his research on the relationship between plant canopies – such as forests and crops – and the lower atmosphere. The air exchange between these environments plays an important role in the transport of heat, moisture, momentum and trace gases, he says, but the “generally weak canopy flows are poorly understood.

“They have a significant impact on weather, air and water quality, and how we measure the growth rates of forests and crops.”

Thomas plans to monitor the exchange by creating “a disco in the forest.”

During the next several months, the OSU scientist and his “Biomicrometeorology Group” will install a network of sensors at the Botany and Plant Pathology Lab east of Corvallis that will measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, humidity and barometric pressure at multiple locations simultaneously. Then they will release machine-generated fog, illuminated with lasers, to directly visualize how air moves through the plant canopy.

The “disco” sounds will come from acoustic remote sensing that will be used to determine wind direction and speed in the air layer above the canopy – up to several hundred meters above ground.

“Combining all of these different sensing techniques is unique and will provide direct measurements of the spatial structure of the flow that hasn’t been observed before,” noted Thomas, who also has an adjunct appointment in OSU’s Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. “We’ll also install instrumentation at other sites, both less and more complex, to see how transport takes place in different canopy environments.”

Thomas will work with graduate students, an Oregon K-12 high school teacher, and several colleagues on the studies. The project will include a teaching component, site visits by science classes, and a new graduate-level field course for students in atmospheric sciences, forestry, engineering and agricultural sciences.

Among the goals of the project:

  • Creating better models of air transport that will lead to better large-scale weather and climate models;
  • Reducing uncertainty in projections of carbon and energy budgets;
  • Improving the ability to predict water availability in forests.

Thomas joined the OSU faculty in fall of 2008, after spending two years as a post-doctoral researcher in the university’s Department of Forest Science. Much of his work was with OSU professors Bev Law and Larry Mahrt, who direct the AmeriFlux project monitoring network in North and South America.

A native of Germany, Thomas received his master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Bayreuth in Germany.

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Chris Thomas, 541-737-7690

Abrupt shift to summer masks record-setting dampness of early June

CORVALLIS, Ore. – For the second consecutive year, the weather in Oregon has made an abrupt shift to summer-like conditions, turning off the rainfall spigot almost overnight and putting the record-setting sogginess of early June firmly in the rearview mirror.

Or at least, we can hope.

“What happens in spring doesn’t necessarily correlate to what will happen in the summer, so it’s difficult to say whether we’re in for a long dry spell, or whether the rains will return,” said Philip Mote, director of the Oregon Climate Service office at Oregon State University. “But it has been interesting to watch how abruptly we’ve gone from spring-like to summer-like weather the past couple of years.”

Mote says weather-watchers shouldn’t look for deep meaning in such conditions. Rainy springs and abrupt shifts to summer are certainly not unprecedented, he pointed out.

“One unusual thing about this year is how quickly we’ve transitioned out of the El Niño event,” Mote said. “It gave us pretty dry conditions in January and February, and then we slammed into this pattern of wet weather. Right now, according to NOAA, we are on a La Nina watch. It would be somewhat unusual to go from El Niño conditions to a La Niña event so quickly.”

If La Niña does indeed settle in, it may not affect summer weather, Mote said, but likely would make for a cooler and wetter winter.

All of the El Niño/La Niña observation doesn’t change the fact that 2010 was one of the wettest late springs on record – and, in fact, it WAS the wettest spring on record at the Portland Airport. Portland set an all-time record for rainfall in the month, with 4.27 inches, topping the previous record of 4.06 inches set in 1984, according to Tyree Wilde, a meteorologist with NOAA’s National Weather Service in Portland.

The May-June combined rainfall record also fell this year, as Portland logged 8.95 inches, breaking the old mark of 7.47 inches, also set in 1984.

“All records for the Portland Airport go back to 1940,” Wilde said, “so these are historic records with 70 years of data.”

Not only was this spring wet, it wasn’t particularly warm – even by Oregon standards. The thermometer at the Portland Airport didn’t reach 80 degrees for the first time in 2010 until June 12 – the latest such reading ever. The previous record of June 9 was set in 1991.

Portland wasn’t alone in its cool, wet weather, according to Kathie Dello, a research assistant with the Oregon Climate Service office, which is in OSU’s College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Corvallis, Eugene, Salem and Pendleton all reached their monthly average for rainfall by June 4, and though these cities didn’t set records for the month, they were among the highest rainfall totals recorded.

“It was the third wettest June for Pendleton, seventh for Eugene and eighth for Corvallis,” Dello said. “But several places set records for one-day rainfall in June – on either June 2 or June 3 – which shows how wet it was during the early part of the month.”

Among the one-day records:

  • Corvallis had .75 inches of rain on June 2, breaking the previous record that day of .44 inches, set in 2006;
  • Pendleton had .84 inches on June 2, breaking the record of .65 inches (1971);
  • Eugene had .78 inches on June 2, breaking the record of .48 inches (1958); Eugene also set a record for June 3 with .63 inches, topping the old mark of .45 inches set in 1977;
  • Salem had 1.03 inches on June 2, breaking the record of .44 inches (1988); it also set a record for June 3 with .55 inches, surpassing that day’s previous record of .52 inches set in 2008;
  • Hood River had .67 inches on June 2, breaking the record of .35 inches (2006);
  • McMinnville had .57 inches on June 2, breaking the record of .47 inches (1988);
  • Burns logged .50 inches on June 2, breaking its old record of .32 that day (1947).

There was an upside to the wet, cool spring, according to Mote, who is a professor in OSU’s College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences.

“In February, we had some perilously low snowpack levels and it didn’t appear that we had time to recover,” Mote said. “It was of particular concern because we were in an El Niño year, so late snow didn’t seem likely. Low snowpack levels late in winter can create very low flows in many streams and rivers during the summer.

“But much like in 2005, we got some late, heavy snowfall and the situation improved dramatically.”

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Philip Mote, 541-737-5694

Study finds homebound Adélie penguins adaptable to change

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Adélie penguins live a long time, have a high survival rate, and as adults breed in the same location where they were raised as young, but when a change in their environment becomes severe enough, they aren’t afraid to get out of Dodge and raise their own offspring elsewhere.

In a new study published in Proceedings of the National Academy, scientists document how the grounding of two enormous icebergs caused sufficient disruption to the lives of penguin colonies living on islands in the Ross Sea to force them to move to different locations to breed.

While this doesn’t sound like a startling response, such behavioral adaptation among Adélie penguins, which are notoriously philopatric – or bound to their own birthplace when it comes to breeding – had only rarely been documented. It provides evidence about how these birds coped with past environmental change – and may cope with changes in the future.

“The study shows that the Adélie penguins have the capacity to radically alter their patterns – and that is welcome news,” said Katie Dugger, an Oregon State University wildlife biologist and lead author on the study. “Obviously, they dealt with the advance of ice sheets in the past and thus have the ability to adjust to climate change in the future. Now we have some idea about how they do this.”

Dugger and her colleagues had been studying Adélie penguins in the southwestern Ross Sea for several years as part of a long-term research project funded by the National Science Foundation when two large icebergs sheared off the Ross Ice Shelf in March of 2000 and lodged against Ross Island. In addition to forming a physical barrier, it also kept sea ice from breaking up in the southwest Ross Sea during some years.

This effectively cut off the population of penguins living at one of four study colonies (Cape Royds) from having easy access to the open ocean.

“Some of these birds had to walk up to 70 kilometers in some years just to get to the open water,” Dugger pointed out. “Under normal conditions, Adélie penguins return to the nest every two to four days to feed their young. The addition of a long walk increased the time it took adults to get food, which didn’t bode well for the survivability of the nests.”

Though moving to a new colony for breeding has rarely been documented among Adélie penguins, scientists have suspected such behavior takes place because genetic tests on individuals from different colonies show more homogeneity than if distinct colonies had no intermixing.

Still, such behavior is rare and perhaps episodic, and the scientists plan to evaluate the breeding success of the penguins that have relocated, said Dugger, an assistant professor in OSU’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. They also have many birds banded as chicks and are in the process of trying to understand how the iceberg affected movements of birds before their first breeding season, which happens between  three and seven years of age.

“There are definite long-term benefits to staying in one place,” Dugger said. “You learn the food resources, you know the nesting resources, you interact with the same neighbors – even in sub-colonies within the larger colony. To abandon all that requires a significant stressor, such as a change to the environment. But if the change is big enough, the penguins will move.”

Other authors on the study include David Ainley, H.T. Harvey and Associates of Los Gatos, Calif; Phil Lyver and Kerry Barton, Landcare Research of New Zealand; and Grant Ballard, of PRBO Conservation Science in Petaluma, Calif., and the University of Auckland in New Zealand.

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Katie Dugger, 541-737-2473

Researchers seek squid-sighting reports

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Scientists tracking the northward migration of Humboldt squid into Oregon's offshore waters are enlisting commercial fishermen to help them keep count of these tentacled predators – and what they're eating.

Led by marine fisheries ecologist Selina Heppell, a professor in Oregon State University's Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and graduate student Sarikka Attoe, the team is attempting to learn more about the squid, whose historic range has followed the Humboldt current in the eastern Pacific waters from the southernmost tip of South America to California.

Since 2002, the squid – Dosidicus gigas, also known as the jumbo squid – have been found in increasing numbers in the waters off Oregon, Washington and as far north as Alaska. Normally deep-diving, the animals are turning up in shallower coastal waters, sometimes in very large numbers. Aggressive feeders, they are known for swarming feeding frenzies when they come upon prey (usually small fish, crustaceans and other squid).

With funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) through Oregon Sea Grant, Heppell is attempting to map the distribution of catches of jumbo squid off the Oregon coast, identify correlations between squid catch and oceanographic variables, and determine what the squid are eating as they pass through Oregon's offshore waters – particularly whether they're dining on such commercially fished species as hake and salmon.

To aid in that effort, the researchers are asking fishermen to report sightings of the squid, including information about where they were seen (using GPS coordinates), approximate numbers of squid, and whether fishing was going on when the squid were seen.

Graduate research assistant Attoe has visited ports up and down the coast to explain the project to fishing groups and distribute waterproof posters and fliers promoting what she's dubbed “SQuID CSI,” an online reporting form at the Heppell Lab’s Web site,  http://oregonstate.edu/heppell/reportsquid.html .

Fishermen are also encouraged to collect samples of the squid for dissection by scientists to analyze what the animals are eating.

“Understanding the spread of jumbo squid and their potential role in the ecosystem is a top priority for scientists, managers, and fishermen on our coast,” said Heppell. “By working collaboratively with the fishing community, we're hoping to both broaden our ability to gather data, and increase public awareness about changes affecting ocean ecosystems.”

For more information about the project, contact SQuIDCSI@gmail.com.

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Selina Heppell, 541-737-9039

OSU scientist part of team assessing fish health after Gulf spill

CORVALLIS, Ore. –  An Oregon State University researcher who leads the Oregon Sea Grant program will take part on a rapid response team studying how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is affecting fish and other marine life in the Gulf of Mexico.

The National Science Foundation announced Friday that the team, including OSU’s Stephen Brandt, will receive $200,000 to support a week-long research cruise this September to collect data about the conditions of fish in the northern Gulf. The new information will be compared with baseline data the team has recorded in multiple cruises of the same region dating back to 2003.

Funds come from the NSF's RAPID program, which supports quick-response research into the effects of natural and man-made disasters and other urgent situations.

Brandt, the director of the Oregon Sea Grant program at OSU, is an oceanographer and freshwater scientist with a long history of studying fish ecology around the world, including the Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay and the Adriatic Sea. Before coming to OSU in 2009, he was director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in Michigan.

He is part of a research team that has conducted seven research cruises in the northern Gulf of Mexico since 2003, collecting detailed data about temperature, salinity, oxygen, phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish, and analyzing the effects of human activity on marine fish ecology.

The result is what Brandt calls “an extremely valuable data set” to compare the possible effects of the BP oil spill on the pelagic ecosystem of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The team also plans to make its historical data available to other Gulf researchers via the NSF's Biological and Chemical Oceanography Database.

“We're proposing to conduct the new cruise in September because that's the same time of year when we conducted our previous studies,” Brandt said. “That will allow us to compare the new data with comparable periods from past years, which should give us a good picture of how the spill is affecting the marine environment.”

The NSF grant will support a seven-day research cruise in early September to conduct high-resolution mapping of hydrography, oxygen, plankton and fish in the northern Gulf, both in the area west of the Mississippi Delta where they can compare results to data gathered in their earlier studies, and also in the region east of the Mississippi, where more oil from the spill is believed to be moving.

Brandt, along with Cynthia Sellinger of OSU's College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, and Sarah Kolesar of Oregon Sea Grant, will be responsible for analyzing fish data collected during the cruise. His co-investigators are zooplankton specialists Michael Roman and James J. Pierson of the University of Maryland's Horn Point Laboratory, and plankton ecologist David G. Kimmel of Eastern Carolina University. The team also hopes to employ a number of student research assistants through the NSF's Experience for Undergraduates program.

The cruise would employ the research vessel Pelican, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, as well as a towed unit known as a Scanfish, equipped with sensors that can measure oxygen, chlorophyll, oil and plankton in the water. The researchers also plan to conduct fish and plankton trawls to count marine organisms and sample the fishes' stomach contents, and will coordinate with researchers on other vessels to produce a comprehensive picture of the state of marine life in the north gulf and how it has been affected by the oil spill and recovery efforts.

Media Contact: 
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Stephen D. Brandt, 541-737-3396

Invasive “tunicate” appears in Oregon’s coastal waters

CORVALLIS, Ore. – An aggressive, invasive aquatic organism that is on the state’s most dangerous species list has been discovered in both Winchester Bay and Coos Bay, and scientists say this “colonial tunicate” – Didemnum vexillum – has serious economic and environmental implications.

Its propensity to foul surfaces of boats, fishing nets, water intakes, docks and buoys could make it costly to control, and its ability to smother shellfish beds and sensitive marine environments threatens other marine life.

“This is not a welcome addition to our bays and now the clock is ticking,” said Sam Chan, an invasive species specialist from Oregon State University and chair of the Oregon Invasive Species Council. “The fouling potential from tunicate invasions can be severe, given its ability to reproduce asexually by budding, or breaking off as fragments, and through sexual reproduction where tadpoles emerge, swim and attach themselves to surfaces to form new colonies.

Didemnum vexillum was found in Puget Sound several years ago and the expense for treating this invasive species can be quite high,” added Chan, who is affiliated with the OSU-based Oregon Sea Grant Extension program. “So it is important to determine how widespread the invasion may be.”

A team of scientific divers, coordinated by the Oregon Coast Aquarium, will begin looking in Newport’s Yaquina Bay – and perhaps other locations – for colonies of Didemnum vexillum.

The Didemnum invertebrates were first discovered in Winchester Bay, and later in Coos Bay. They are native to Japan and can live from the estuary to the continental shelf. In calm water, colonies may grow in long, beard-like expanses on substrates such as docks, mooring lines, boat hulls and aquaculture infrastructure.

In faster currents, Didemnum forms low, undulating mats overgrowing seabeds of pebbles, boulders and jetty rock. The organisms will grow over, and choke clams, oysters, mussels, anemones and other marine creatures by covering their feeding siphons, and can serve as a barrier between bottom-feeding fish and their prey.

What most concerns scientists, Chan said, is that the tunicates’ reproduction cycle begins during the next two months, increasing the chances that colonies will spread. Didemnum is on the list of “100 Worst Invasive Species to Keep out of Oregon.”

Between 2007 and 2009, the Washington State Department of Fish and Game spent $850,000 managing the tunicate invasion in Puget Sound, Chan pointed out.

The Winchester Bay tunicate patch was discovered earlier this year by Lorne Curran and Fritz Batson, while Curran was surveying marine life for the organization, REEF. They spotted the organisms in an area called “the triangle” – an enclosed portion of the lower bay shaped like a wedge of pie. Curran photographed the tunicates, and contacted Chan, who then shared the images with tunicate expert Gretchen Lambert, and others, who confirmed the identification.

On April 26, Curran and several divers from the Oregon Coast Aquarium surveyed nearby Salmon Harbor Marina in Winchester Bay to see if the invasion had spread across the bay – and to their relief, it had not. But that relief was short-lived when they returned to the triangle and found that the tunicate colonies appeared to be thriving.

“It appears that the infestation is growing rapidly,” Curran said. “Where in February I saw mostly one-foot-square colonies, this time I encountered more colonies that were two-foot to three-foot square.” The tunicates were found on both jetty rocks and on some of the mooring lines and “stringers” of an oyster-growing facility in the triangle.

As Chan was working with scientists, community officials and divers on the Winchester Bay discovery, he received word that a second invasion had been discovered by University of Oregon scientist Richard Emlet in the Charleston Boat Basin in Coos Bay. Emlet notified Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife shellfish biologist Scott Groth, who contacted Chan.

“Based on the size and morphology of both Didemnum vexillum populations, we think they probably became established at roughly the same time – about two years ago,” Chan said. “The origin is still unclear and we have to be careful not to point fingers.”

Chan said tunicate infestation can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including boats and aquaculture.

The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is in the final stage of a risk assessment. When completed, recommendations will be made and an action plan developed.

“We’re reviewing the literature for successful eradication projects on rocky outcrops or jetties, but we’re not finding a lot,” said Rick Boatner, ODFW’s aquatic invasive species coordinator. “This is new ground for Oregon, and we’ll have to be creative with our solutions.”

Chan and ODFW officials say the best approach may be to establish a pilot “adaptive learning” control and monitoring project within the triangle in early summer before water temperatures warm enough to trigger the tunicates’ reproductive cycle. Support for such a project may come through an “Invasive Species Control” fund established by the Oregon Legislature and signed by Gov. Ted Kulongoski in 2009. The Oregon Invasive Species Council must declare an emergency to activate this account, Chan said.

Possible methods of eradication include “smothering” the colonies, physically removing them and vacuuming all traces, or applying a vinegar and/or bleach solution. The Oregon Invasive Species Council will hold workshops in affected coastal communities later this spring to inform the public about tunicates before the pilot control project begins.

Vallorie Hodges, dive safety officer for the Oregon Coast Aquarium, said the Winchester Bay tunicates resembled certain species of soft corals.

“The colonies I observed were all of that cream color and had a sort of undulating soft, lobed or folded appearance in some areas,” she said, “while more of a flat mat in others. I saw them not only on the mooring lines (of the oyster facility) but also on the stringers themselves – and on the shellfish.”

Despite their invasive nature and ability to “foul” marine structures, tunicates also are being studied as a natural product for unique compounds that may have biomedical applications.

Media Contact: 
Source: 

Sam Chan, 503-679-4949

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