heath and nutrition

Boosting levels of known antioxidant may help resist age-related decline

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers at Oregon State University have found that a specific detoxification compound, glutathione, helps resist the toxic stresses of everyday life – but its levels decline with age and this sets the stage for a wide range of age-related health problems.

A new study, published in the journal Redox Biology, also highlighted a compound – N-acetyl-cysteine, or NAC – that is already used in high doses in medical detoxification emergencies. But the researchers said that at much lower levels NAC might help maintain glutathione levels and prevent the routine metabolic declines associated with aging.

In that context, the research not only offers some profound insights into why the health of animals declines with age, but specifically points to a compound that might help prevent some of the toxic processes involved.

Decline of these detoxification pathways, scientists say, are causally linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, some of the primary causes of death in the developed world.

“We’ve known for some time of the importance of glutathione as a strong antioxidant,” said Tory Hagen, lead author on the research and the Helen P. Rumbel Professor for Health Aging Research in the Linus Pauling Institute at OSU.

“What this study pointed out was the way that cells from younger animals are far more resistant to stress than those from older animals,” said Hagen, also a professor of biochemistry in the OSU College of Science. “In young animal cells, stress doesn’t cause such a rapid loss of glutathione. The cells from older animals, on the other hand, were quickly depleted of glutathione and died twice as fast when subjected to stress.

“But pretreatment with NAC increased glutathione levels in the older cells and largely helped offset that level of cell death.”

Glutathione, Hagen said, is such an important antioxidant that its existence appears to date back as far as oxygen-dependent, or aerobic life itself – about 1.5 billion years. It’s a principal compound to detoxify environmental stresses, air pollutants, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and many other toxic insults.

In this study, scientists tried to identify the resistance to toxins of young cells, compared to those of older cells. They used a toxic compound called menadione to stress the cells, and in the face of that stress the younger cells lost significantly less of their glutathione than older cells did. The glutathione levels of young rat cells never decreased to less than 35 percent of its initial level, whereas in older rat cells glutathione levels plummeted to 10 percent of their original level.

NAC, the researchers said, is known to boost the metabolic function of glutathione and increase its rate of synthesis. It’s already used in emergency medicine to help patients in a toxic crisis, such as ingestion of poisonous levels of heavy metals. It’s believed to be a very safe compound to use even at extremely high levels – and the scientists are hypothesizing that it might have significant value at much lower doses to maintain glutathione levels and improve health.

“I’m optimistic there could be a role for this compound in preventing the increased toxicity we face with aging, as our abilities to deal with toxins decline,” Hagen said. “We might be able to improve the metabolic resilience that we’re naturally losing with age.”

Also of interest, Hagen said, is the wide range of apparent detoxification potential offered by glutathione. Higher levels of it – boosted by NAC – might help reduce the toxicity of some prescription drugs, cancer chemotherapies, and treat other health issues.

“Using NAC as a prophylactic, instead of an intervention, may allow glutathione levels to be maintained for detoxification in older adults,” the researchers wrote in their conclusion.

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of Oregon.

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Tory Hagen, 541-737-5083


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Structure of glutathione

System changes improve prenatal care for Oregon Medicaid beneficiaries

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon’s 2012 shift to an incentivized, accountable-care system for Medicaid beneficiaries led to positive changes for expectant mothers and their babies, research at Oregon State University shows.

The research found Oregon’s implementation of “coordinated care organizations” resulted in more expectant moms starting prenatal care on time. It also showed a small narrowing of the gap in prenatal care quality between Medicaid beneficiaries and those with private insurance.

Late-starting or inadequate prenatal care is connected to a number of adverse outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death.

“Improving women’s access to adequate prenatal care — typically defined as initiating prenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy and adhering to recommended prenatal care visits — can facilitate the identification and subsequent management of high-risk pregnancies,” said Ifeoma Muoto, who was a doctoral student working with Associate Professor Jeff Luck in OSU’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences at the time of the study.

Muoto, now an administrative fellow at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, looked at more than a half-million pregnancies in a six-year period in Oregon and Washington, including 2013, the first year for Oregon’s 16 coordinated care organizations, or CCOs. Washington served as the control group.

The study’s objective was to assess the impact of the CCOs on the quality of prenatal care among Oregon Medicaid beneficiaries. The results were recently published in the journal Health Affairs.

The study also showed a narrowing, albeit a small one, of the gap in prenatal care quality between Medicaid beneficiaries and those with private insurance.

“Prenatal care was one of the performance measures for the new CCOs and you can’t disentangle the measures from the CCO startup, but it’s promising that just in the first year there were significant improvements,” Luck said.

Luck is a member of the Oregon Health Authority’s Metrics and Scoring Committee, which is charged with determining whether CCOs are “effectively and adequately improving care, making quality care accessible, eliminating health disparities, and controlling costs.”

The committee picked which types of care would be incentivized – meaning which types of care would serve as benchmarks that CCOs could meet to earn more funding. Other types of care that are incentivized include chronic diseases, substance abuse and mental health.

“We hypothesized that the CCOs would have the benefit for prenatal care that they did,” Luck said. “This is early evidence that some of the care delivery improvements we hoped for really are occurring.”

The federal Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s HealthyPeople 2020 initiative includes increasing the percentage of women who initiate prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy from 70.8 percent to 77.9 percent.

In Oregon, the rate of pregnant Medicaid beneficiaries starting care in the first trimester climbed from 73.1 percent in the pre-CCO period to 77.3 percent in the first year of the CCOs. In Washington, the rate for women on Medicaid rose from 71.7 to 73.6 percent, a smaller percentage increase than Oregon’s. Although women covered by private insurance in Oregon had higher levels of timely prenatal care initiation and prenatal care adequacy, the rates among that group were stable during the time period studied.

For prenatal care adequacy – initiating care in the first trimester and having at least nine doctor visits during a pregnancy – there was an increase from 65.9 to 70.5 percent for Medicaid-covered women in Oregon. That increase, though, was not statistically significant relative to the increase observed among Medicaid-covered women in Washington, where the improvement was 58.5 to 62.2 percent.

Luck noted the results indicated care adequacy was “going in the right direction but wasn’t yet statistically significant.”

“It’s possible when we have more years of data we’ll be able to make a more precise estimate,” he said. “We also have a parallel project funded by the Centers for Disease Control using a larger pool of data from Oregon – not only birth certificates but Medicaid claims data, claims data from the Oregon Health Plan, which is Oregon’s Medicaid program, and hospital discharge data.”

Luck noted the research is particularly important given the percentage of births to Medicaid beneficiaries. Medicaid births made up roughly 45 percent of total U.S. births even prior to an expansion of the Medicaid program that began in January 2014.

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Prenatal care

Expectant mother

Want to optimize those 10,000 (or fewer) steps? Walk faster, sit less

CORVALLIS, Ore. -- That popular daily target of 10,000 steps is a worthwhile goal, but a new study at Oregon State University suggests that if you find that unattainable, don’t despair - a smaller number, especially at moderate or greater intensity, can lead to health benefits too.

It’s especially helpful if 3,000 of the steps come at a brisk pace, and limiting sedentary time also plays a role in healthy readings for cholesterol and other risk factors.

The average American takes between 5,000 and 7,000 steps per day, researchers say.

“Some physical activity is better than none, and typically more is better than less,” said John Schuna Jr., assistant professor of kinesiology in OSU’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences.

“When it comes to steps, more is better than fewer, and steps at higher cadences for a significant amount of time are beneficial. A good target for healthy adults is 150 minutes per week spent at 100 or more steps per minute. And in terms of time spent sedentary, less is better – you want to spend as little time not moving as possible within reason.”

Schuna, lead author Catrine Tudor-Locke of the University of Massachusetts and six other researchers analyzed data from 3,388 participants age 20 and older in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Their findings were recently published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

The research builds on earlier studies, many of which relied on self-reported estimates of activity levels, which tend to run high, or accelerometer data using proprietary output measures (e.g., activity counts/minute), and also failed to take cadence – steps per minute – into account. A cadence of 100 steps per minute or greater is widely accepted as the threshold for moderate-intensity activity in adults.

In addition to minute-by-minute step data, the researchers looked at relationships between step-defined physical activity and various cardiometabolic risk factors for the survey participants – such as waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as body mass index.

Among male participants, only the highest quintile – the top one-fifth – had a median of more than 10,000 steps per day, checking in at 12,334. Among women, the top quintile’s median was 9,824.

Beyond just total step counts, the research looked at daily “peak 30-minute cadence” – the average number of steps in a participant’s most vigorous 30 minutes, which weren’t necessarily consecutive minutes. To measure sedentary time, researchers used the percentage of accelerometer time per day that showed no step-based movement.

Among all survey participants, only the top quintile had a median peak cadence – 96 steps per minute – that was in line with accepted physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes a day at 100 steps per minute.

Nevertheless, analysis across all quintiles showed a strong relationship between higher cadences – walking more briskly as opposed to less briskly – and favorable numbers in the cardiometabolic risk categories.

The same held true for number of steps, whether above or below the 10,000-step threshold. And higher percentages of sedentary time were linked to less-favorable values in several risk factors.

While FitBit, Garmin and other fitness trackers might be responsible for the current 10,000-step fixation, Schuna notes that the magic number’s roots trace to 1960s Japan. From a fitness craze inspired by the 1964 Tokyo Olympics sprang the first commercial pedometer, the manpo-kei. In Japanese, manpo-kei literally means “10,000 steps meter.”

“One of the questions has always been, what if one person with 10,000 steps per day accumulates nearly all of them in a two-hour time block, and another stretches them over 15 hours – does it matter in terms of health effects?” Schuna said.

“This is a big debate in the field, with a couple of intertwined questions. Current evidence does suggest that moderate to vigorous activity and sedentary time have a certain amount of independence from each other in terms of health effects. But if you’re getting two or three hours of moderate to vigorous activity every day, even if you’re relatively sedentary the rest of the time, it’s hard to imagine the sedentary time would completely ameliorate or wipe out the health benefits associated with that level of activity.”

A person who averages 10,000 or more steps/day typically accumulates at least 150 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous activity, Schuna said.

“Now there is an additional caveat regarding the manner in which physical activity is accumulated to meet current physical activity guidelines, which states that aerobic activity should be accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes in duration.,” he said. “If we take this into consideration, it becomes more difficult to determine whether or not someone is meeting the physical activity guidelines using step counts alone. That aside, averaging 10,000 or more steps/day puts you in the top 15 percent of adults in terms of step-defined physical activity.”   

Schuna envisions a future in which wearable fitness trackers will feature apps that make minute-by-minute data available to the user, as research-grade accelerometers now do to scientists.

“That’s along this paradigm of personalized medicine,” he said. “In the future, everyone will have his or her genome sequenced, and from that we’ll be looking for specific markers that predispose people to higher risks for certain conditions. The physical activity and sleep data we collect from wearable devices will be used to track compliance to individualized behavior prescriptions while attempting to optimize each individual’s health.”

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039


John Schuna, 541-737-1536

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Health Extension Run 2014
Walking steps

Lack of pharmacy access sends some patients back to the hospital

PORTLAND, Ore. – Hospital readmissions, a $17 billion annual problem, are higher in rural, remote or smaller communities that sometimes have significantly less access to pharmacies, according to a study published today that was one of the first to examine this issue.

Researchers at Oregon State University and Oregon Health & Science University found that the average number of readmissions from rural areas was 15.3 percent, compared to 14.7 percent for their urban counterparts where the days and hours a person could find an open pharmacy were much higher.

Unplanned hospital readmissions are such a serious national problem that recent changes in federal law are penalizing hospitals that have high readmission rates. It can be a problem with various groups: older adults; people who have several medical conditions; those taking multiple medications; and people who have difficulty adhering to their medication regimen.

The study was done in Oregon with census data of patients over 65, studying 507 pharmacies and 58 hospitals. It was supported by the OHSU Layton Alzheimer Disease Center, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health.

“It’s a huge burden both on a patient and our medical system when they have to be readmitted to a hospital,” said David Lee, an assistant professor in the OSU/OHSU College of Pharmacy, and senior author on a new study in the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

“The modern pharmaceutical profession is increasingly being recognized as an important partner in health care, and as its services continue to expand it will help even more. This research shows that pharmacy access can help people from going back to the hospital. For older populations who often find hospital experiences quite exhausting, that’s extremely important to their overall health.

“The sooner a person gets out and stays out of a hospital, the better off they usually will be.”

In some rural areas of Oregon, Lee noted, a person might have to drive 100 miles or more to find a pharmacy. In one of Oregon’s rural communities there is a single pharmacy that’s open 54 hours a week; by comparison, in some major urban areas a person might be able to find multiple pharmacies that collectively are open more than 3,800 hours a week.

These challenges of availability, distance and convenience to professional pharmaceutical products, service and counsel are a problem, researchers said. Another interesting corollary to the issue, they said, is identification of what have been called “pharmacy deserts” even within major urban areas, such as Chicago.

“Large, urban, predominantly white communities usually have a lot of pharmacies and access,” said Sarah Bissonnette, lead author on this study and an OSU postdoctoral fellow. “But in some lower socioeconomic areas even within cities, it’s much more difficult to find an open pharmacy.”

If more conventional pharmacies are not economically viable, the researchers said, a possible remedy to the problem is growth and improvement of what’s called “telepharmacy,” or mail-order services that are carefully backed up by personal advice, monitoring and counsel from professional pharmacists.

Improved hospital discharge medication counseling has been shown to increase adherence to use of new or changed medications, the study indicated. And some hospitals around the country have also taken it upon themselves to open community and 24-hour pharmacies in an attempt to reduce readmission rates.

Nonadherence to medication usage ranges from 25-50 percent in the United States, depending on the disease state, and is associated with increased illness and death, the study noted.  Causes can include adverse side effects, insurance coverage, costs, education levels, cognition and pharmacy access.

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David Lee, 503-494-2258

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Pharmacist consult
Pharmacist consult

Teens who smoke daily are more likely to report health complaints

CORVALLIS, Ore. – As fewer teens overall take up smoking, those who do smoke daily are reporting more health complaints than in years past, a new study indicates.

“Teens who smoke report significantly higher levels of health complaints than nonsmoking teens, and we found that this gap has widened over the years, even as the overall prevalence of teen smoking has dropped,” said Marc Braverman a professor, lead author and Extension specialist in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University, who worked with collaborators in Norway.

“Some adolescents smoke as an attempt to cope with their health problems, and that subgroup may represent a growing proportion of teen smokers, as fewer teenagers are taking up smoking for social reasons.”

The researchers believe it is the first time that this shifting relationship between daily smoking and health complaints in adolescence has been reported. The results were published recently in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research.

Smoking is on the decline among adults and adolescents in most places around the world, which is very welcome news, said Braverman, whose research expertise includes smoking prevention and tobacco control policy.

But as smoking rates decline, reducing them further becomes more challenging. Some tobacco researchers believe that the remaining smokers tend to be more “hard-core” smokers, who have been smoking for long periods and either do not wish to quit or believe they would not be successful if they tried, he said.

“Many public health officials are asking what kinds of new strategies might be needed to reduce smoking prevalence, to say, the low single digits, and what kinds of resources that might require,” Braverman said.  “Some smokers are more addicted to or dependent on cigarettes than others.”

Understanding the links between health and smoking among teens will help public health officials determine better smoking cessation strategies for that age group, particularly those who smoke on a daily basis, Braverman said.

For the study, researchers used data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study, an international collaborative project sponsored by the World Health Organization that began in the 1980s and currently includes 43 countries. Surveys of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds are conducted every four years in participating countries.

The researchers examined smoking behavior and health problems among 15-year-olds in Norway over five waves of the survey, from 1993-94 to 2009-10. They focused on Norway in part because that country experienced dramatic declines in smoking rates over that time period, which allows for investigation of how smoking populations have changed, Braverman said.

As part of the survey, the students were asked about their smoking behavior and how often they experienced subjective physical and psychological health complaints such as headache, stomachache, backache, dizziness, irritability, nervousness, feeling “low” and sleep difficulties.

In addition to the changes in health complaints over time, the researchers found important differences in health complaints related to gender. Girls, in general, reported more health complaints than boys, but the difference between the sexes was significantly larger among smoking teens than nonsmoking teens. In particular, girls who smoked daily reported higher levels of health complaints than any other subgroup, Braverman said.

The data collected did not allow for an explanation of the reason for the finding, but the study raises concerns that adolescent girls might be at especially high risk for health problems associated with smoking, he said.

If teens are smoking as a coping mechanism for physical or psychological problems, they may be at greater risk for dependence and addiction than their peers who are smoking because of peer or social influences, Braverman said.

“And for those teens who smoke to cope with health problems, getting them to stop will likely require different strategies and more intensive intervention efforts than those that are commonly used,” Braverman said. “A ‘stop smoking’ media campaign probably won’t be enough.”

Co-authors of the study include Robert Stawski of OSU; Oddrun Samdal of the University of Bergen;    and Leif Edvard Aarø  of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Braverman’s work on the study was funded in part by a grant from the OSU Division of International Programs.

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Marc Braverman, 541-737-1021


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Marc Braverman
Marc Braverman

Vitamin E protects critical nutrient, prevents neurologic damage and death in embryos

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers have discovered that a dietary deficiency of vitamin E in laboratory animals can cause significant neurological impairment in developing embryos, as well as physical abnormalities and embryonic death.

The study suggests that one mechanism leading to this damage may be loss of the role vitamin E plays in protecting levels of DHA, one of the most important of the omega-3 fatty acids that plays a crucial role in brain and cellular development.

The work, by scientists in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, was done with zebrafish, a vertebrate that has neurologic development very similar to humans. They also have dietary needs that are more similar to humans than some other animal models.

In these fish, vitamin E-deficient embryos did not respond correctly to visual cues, had severe physical abnormalities as early as two days after fertilization, and many died before the end of five days.

The findings were published in Redox Biology, in work supported by the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

They take on special significance, researchers say, because more than 90 percent of the adults in the United States who do not take supplements have diets deficient in vitamin E.

“DHA in a developing embryo is very important for cell signaling and membrane development,” said Melissa McDougall, an OSU graduate research assistant in the Linus Pauling Institute and the College of Public Health and Human Sciences, and lead author on this publication.

“Our research showed that adequate levels of vitamin E are important in preventing depletion of DHA in the embryo.

“Without enough DHA, there was also evidence for disruption of the structural integrity of cell membranes as a whole. It appears that vitamin E protects these critical lipids, such as DHA, from excessive depletion that can cause physical and behavioral damage.”

The study showed loss of locomotor activity in vitamin E-deficient embryos as a measure of impaired behavior. Vitamin E-deficient embryos were 82 percent less responsive to a light/dark stimulus.

Past research done elsewhere with rodents, McDougall said, has correlated low DHA levels with less memory and intelligence, and one study in Bangladesh with vitamin E-deficient pregnant women showed a higher level of miscarriage.

The recommended daily allowance of vitamin E for human adults is 15 milligrams a day, and the typical American diet rarely provides that. Vitamin E is most common in nuts, seeds, some leafy greens like spinach, and a few varieties of vegetable oils like sunflower and canola. Low-fat diets also present a special challenge in getting enough vitamin E.

Not all pre-natal vitamins even include vitamin E, McDougall said, although some of the better ones are now including not only vitamin E but also supplements of DHA, a nutrient most common in fatty fish. It’s worth noting, she said, that vitamin E cannot serve its role in protecting DHA if there is inadequate dietary DHA to begin with.

Most human brain development occurs during pregnancy, and some of the most important neurologic development happens during the first trimester.

The corresponding author on this publication was Maret Traber, the Helen P. Rumbel Professor for Micronutrient Research in the Linus Pauling Institute. Other collaborators were from the OSU College of Pharmacy, the Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory, the OSU Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, and the OSU Environmental Health Sciences Center.


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Maret Traber, 541-737-7977


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OSU researchers discover the unicorn – seaweed that tastes like bacon!

NEWPORT, Ore. – Oregon State University researchers have patented a new strain of a succulent red marine algae called dulse that grows extraordinarily quickly, is packed full of protein and has an unusual trait when it is cooked.

This seaweed tastes like bacon.

Dulse (Palmaria sp.) grows in the wild along the Pacific and Atlantic coastlines. It is harvested and usually sold for up to $90 a pound in dried form as a cooking ingredient or nutritional supplement. But researcher Chris Langdon and colleagues at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center have created and patented a new strain of dulse – one he has been growing for the past 15 years.

This strain, which looks like translucent red lettuce, is an excellent source of minerals, vitamins and antioxidants – and it contains up to 16 percent protein in dry weight, Langdon said.

“The original goal was to create a super-food for abalone, because high-quality abalone is treasured, especially in Asia,” Langdon pointed out. “We were able to grow dulse-fed abalone at rates that exceeded those previously reported in the literature. There always has been an interest in growing dulse for human consumption, but we originally focused on using dulse as a food for abalone.”

The technology of growing abalone and dulse has been successfully implemented on a commercial scale by the Big Island Abalone Corporation in Hawaii.

Langdon’s change in perspective about dulse was triggered by a visit by Chuck Toombs, a faculty member in OSU’s College of Business, who stopped by Langdon’s office because he was looking for potential projects for his business students. He saw the dulse growing in bubbling containers outside of Langdon’s office and the proverbial light went on.

“Dulse is a super-food, with twice the nutritional value of kale,” Toombs said. “And OSU had developed this variety that can be farmed, with the potential for a new industry for Oregon.”

Toombs began working with OSU’s Food Innovation Center in Portland, where a product development team created a smorgasbord of new foods with dulse as the main ingredient. Among the most promising were a dulse-based rice cracker and salad dressing.

The research team received a grant from the Oregon Department of Agriculture to explore dulse as a “specialty crop” – the first time a seaweed had made the list, according to Food Innovation Center director Michael Morrissey.

That allowed the team to bring Jason Ball onto the project. The research chef previously had worked with the University of Copenhagen’s Nordic Food Lab, helping chefs there better use local ingredients.

“The Food Innovation Center team was working on creating products from dulse, whereas Jason brings a ‘culinary research’ chef’s perspective,” said Gil Sylvia, director of the Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport. “The point that he and other chefs make is that fresh, high-quality seaweed is hard to get. ‘You bring us the seaweed,’ they say, ‘and we’ll do the creative stuff.’”

Several Portland-area chefs are now testing dulse as a fresh product and many believe it has significant potential in both its raw form and as a food ingredient.

Sylvia, who is a seafood economist, said that although dulse has great potential, no one has yet done a full analysis on whether a commercial operation would be economically feasible. “That fact that it grows rapidly, has high nutritional value, and can be used dried or fresh certainly makes it a strong candidate,” he said.

There are no commercial operations that grow dulse for human consumption in the United States, according to Langdon, who said it has been used as a food in northern Europe for centuries. The dulse sold in U.S. health food and nutrition stores is harvested, and is a different strain from the OSU-patented variety.

“In Europe, they add the powder to smoothies, or add flakes onto food,” Langdon said. “There hasn’t been a lot of interest in using it in a fresh form. But this stuff is pretty amazing. When you fry it, which I have done, it tastes like bacon, not seaweed. And it’s a pretty strong bacon flavor.”

The vegan market alone could comprise a niche.

Langdon, a professor in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at OSU and long-time leader of the Molluscan Broodstock Program, has two large tanks in which he can grow about 20-30 pounds of dulse a week. He has plans to up the production to 100 pounds a week. For now, they are using the dulse for research at the Food Innovation Center on dulse recipes and products.

However, Toombs’ MBA students are preparing a marketing plan for a new line of specialty foods and exploring the potential for a new aquaculture industry.

“The dulse grows using a water recirculation system,” Langdon said. “Theoretically, you could create an industry in eastern Oregon almost as easily as you could along the coast with a bit of supplementation. You just need a modest amount of seawater and some sunshine.”

The background of how Langdon and his colleagues developed dulse is outlined in the latest version of Oregon’s Agricultural Progress at : http://bit.ly/1fo9Doy

Story By: 

Chris Langdon, 541-867-0231, chris.langdon@oregonstate.edu;  Chuck Toombs, 541-737-4087, Charles.Toombs@oregonstate.edu;

Michael Morrisey, 503-872-6656, Michael.Morrissey@oregonstate.edu;  Gil Sylvia, 541-867-0284, gil.sylvia@oregonstate.edu

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Dulse in its seaweed form


Dulse prepared in a dish


Chris Langdon near a vat of growing dulse

Be Well Run, Walk N’ Roll celebrates fifth year

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Runners, race walkers and anyone looking for a brisk fall stroll are invited to participate in a 5-kilometer run/1-mile walk on Oct. 17 at Oregon State University. It is free and open to the public. 

The event, which is sponsored by Be Well, OSU Healthy Campus Initiatives and Recreational Sports, celebrates Beaver Nation’s commitment to health and well-being. The run/walk kicks off at 3:30 p.m.

This is the fifth year of the “Run, Walk, N’ Roll” event, which draws hundreds to the Memorial Union quad. While many participate in the 5K run, others take a more relaxed approach and walk, roll or stroll through a mile-long route.

This year, the event fair includes a ‘body shop’ starting at 3 p.m., giving participants a chance to test their flexibility, balance, heart rate, blood pressure and to try out biofeedback.

“Every year it’s fun to see so many OSU and Corvallis community folks coming out to enjoy this event,” said Lisa Hoogesteger, director of Healthy Campus Initiatives. “A lot of people bring their whole family and teams dress up in fun costumes. It’s a party atmosphere, and it really emphasizes that physical activity can be fun and social as well.” 

The long course takes runners out Campus Way past the covered bridge and almost to the fairgrounds and back, while the short course ends by the east greenhouses on Campus Way and circles back around.

Registration is free and those who pre-register are guaranteed to receive a T-shirt. Pre-registration is encouraged to avoid lines the day of the event.

To register, go to http://oregonstate.edu/recsports/bewell5k. Check in for the event and day-of registration will be available on site in the Memorial Union Quad starting at 3 p.m. on the day of the event.

For photos of last year’s event: https://www.flickr.com/photos/oregonstateuniversity/sets/72157636549485256/

Story By: 

Lisa Hoogesteger, 541-737-3343; lisa.hoogesteger@oregonstate.edu

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Last year's event

“Brain Breaks” increase activity, educational performance in elementary schools

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A recent Oregon survey about an exercise DVD that adds short breaks of physical activity into the daily routine of elementary school students found it had a high level of popularity with both students and teachers, and offered clear advantages for overly sedentary educational programs.

Called “Brain Breaks,” the DVD was developed and produced by the Healthy Youth Program of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, and is available nationally.

Brain Breaks leads children in 5-7 minute segments of physical activity, demonstrated by OSU students and elementary school children from Corvallis, Oregon. The short periods of exercise aim to improve the physical health, mental awareness and educational success of children.

“We’re increasingly recognizing the importance of physical activity for children even as the academic demands placed on them are cutting into the traditional programs of recess and physical education,” said Gerd Bobe, an assistant professor in the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences, an expert in public health nutrition and behavior, and principal investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute.

“Kids need to move, they can’t just sit all day long,” Bobe said. “Given the time constraints and multiple demands that schools are facing, we really believe the concept of short activity breaks, right in the classroom, is the way to go.”

Oregon law, for instance, mandates that by 2017 elementary schools will be required to have 30 minutes a day of physical education classes, in addition to recess periods. But a survey conducted by the Healthy Youth Program found that 92 percent of Oregon public elementary schools currently do not meet this standard. And sometimes, Bobe said, elimination of recess is used as a disciplinary tool, potentially taking activity away from those students who may need it the most.

Brain Breaks was created to bring more activity back into classrooms, especially when it may be most useful – in the afternoon after lunch, for instance, when attention spans and concentration tend to waver. Research has shown that physical activity can increase academic performance, student focus and classroom behavior, Bobe said.

The program offers a variety of segments, including six based on stretching and relaxation, five on endurance, and one on strength, with imaginative concepts such as “space adventures” and “crazy kangaroos.” No equipment is needed, other than a chair for the strength segment, and all activities can be done in a classroom setting. An abstract of the work has been published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

A recent survey of the Healthy Youth Program that was sent to participating Oregon school districts found that:

  • Almost all teachers said the program was appropriate for their classes and well-understood by the class;
  • More than 90 percent of teachers said the exercise segments had the right length, and that students were more focused after using the program;
  • All of the segments were popular with more than 80 percent of students, but the stretching and relaxation activities had the highest approval, at 95 percent, and were also most frequently used by teachers;
  • About three-fourths of the teachers were using the program two to three times per week, and more than 90 percent plan to continue its use.

“Longer periods of exercise have a place, but research shows that these short programs can be very valuable as well,” Bobe said. “They can increase oxygen consumption, range of motion, endurance, and get kids in the habit of being more active. A little bit of exercise can go a long way.”

A second edition of the DVD is being developed, Bobe said. More information on the DVD is available online at http://bit.ly/1o6rcHk, including a video trailer and how to buy a copy.

“This survey shows a program that’s working and is valuable,” Bobe said. “We hope it becomes popular across the nation.”

Story By: 

Gerd Bobe, 541-737-1898

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Exercise breaks

Concern grows over pet pills and products, as well as those of owners

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Scientists have long been aware of the potential environment impacts that stem from the use and disposal of the array of products people use to keep themselves healthy, clean and smelling nice.

Now a new concern is emerging – improper disposal of pet care products and pills.

Dog shampoos, heartworm medicine, flea and tick sprays, and a plethora of prescription and over-the-counter medicines increasingly are finding their way into landfills and waterways, where they can threaten the health of local watersheds. An estimated 68 percent of American households have at least one pet, illustrating the potential scope of the problem.

How bad is that problem? No one really knows, according to Sam Chan, a watershed health expert with the Oregon Sea Grant program at Oregon State University.

But Chan and his colleagues aim to find out. They are launching a national survey (online at: http://tinyurl.com/PetWellbeingandEnvironment)  of both pet owners and veterinary care professionals to determine how aware that educated pet owners are of the issue, what is being communicated, and how they dispose of  “pharmaceutical and personal care products” (PPCPs) for both themselves and their pets. Pet owners are encouraged to participate in the survey.

“You can count on one hand the number of studies that have been done on what people actively do with the disposal of these products,” Chan said. “PPCPs are used by almost everyone and most wastewater treatment plants are not able to completely deactivate many of the compounds they include.”

Increasingly, Chan said, a suite of PPCPs used by pets and people are being detected at low levels in surface water and groundwater. Examples include anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen, antidepressants, antibiotics, estrogens, the insect repellent DEET, and ultraviolet (UV) sunblock compounds.

Some of the impacts from exposure to these products are becoming apparent. Fish exposed to levels of antidepressants at concentrations lower than sewage effluence, for example, have been shown to become more active and bold – making them more susceptible to predation, noted Chan, an OSU Extension Sea Grant specialist.

“Triclosan is another concern; it is a common anti-microbial ingredient in soaps, toothpaste, cosmetics, clothing, cookware, furniture and toys to prevent or reduce bacterial contamination for humans and pets,” Chan said. “It is being linked to antibiotic resistance in riparian zones, as well as to alterations in mammal hormone regulation – endocrine disruptor – and impacts on immune systems.”

Another common endocrine disruptor, the researchers say, is coal tar, a common ingredient in dandruff shampoo for humans, and pet medicines for skin treatment.

Jennifer Lam conducted a preliminary survey of veterinary practitioners as part of her master’s thesis at Oregon State University and found awareness by veterinary professionals of the environmental issues caused by improper disposal of PPCPs was high. Yet many did not share that information with their clients.

In fact, veterinarians only discussed best practices for disposal with their clients 18 percent of the time, her survey found.

“The awareness is there, but so are barriers,” Lam said. “Communicating about these issues in addition to care instructions takes time. There may be a lack of educational resources – or a lack of awareness on their availability. And some may not think of it during the consultation process.”

The National Sea Grant program recently partnered with the American Veterinary Medicine Association to promote the reduction of improper PPCP disposal. The national survey is a first step in that process.

“Most people tend to throw extra pills or personal care products into the garbage and in fewer instances, flush them down the drain,” Chan said. “It seems like the right thing to do, but is not the most environmentally friendly method for disposing unused or expired PPCPs. Waste in landfills produce leachates and these contaminates may not be fully deactivated by current wastewater treatments. They can get into groundwater and streams, where they can cause a variety of environmental problems and create a health risk as well.”

When disposing of expired or unneeded medications, the researchers say, don’t flush them. Instead, take to them to a drug take-back event or depository. New rules to be implemented by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) later this fall will make drug take-back options more available.

Chan and Lam suggest that in areas where take-back options are not available, people should mix unused or unwanted drugs with coffee grounds or kitty litter – something that will be unpalatable to pets. Then put the mixture in a sealed container and deposit it in the trash.

Results from the national survey led by Oregon Sea Grant will provide much-needed information to guide education, watershed monitoring and improvements on ways to reduce PPCP contamination and their environmental impacts.

The survey will continue until Nov. 1.

Story By: 

Sam Chan, 503-679-4828, sam.chan@oregonstate.edu;

Jennifer Lam, lamj@onid.oregonstate.edu