OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

environment and natural resources

Human Activities Increasing Carbon Sequestration in Forests

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Human-caused nitrogen deposition has been indirectly “fertilizing” forests, increasing their growth and sequestering major amounts of carbon, a new study in the journal Nature suggests.

The findings create a more complex view of the carbon cycle in forests, where it was already known that logging or other stand-replacement events – whether natural or not – create periods of five to 20 years when there is a net release of carbon dioxide from forests to the atmosphere, instead of sequestration as they do later on.

The end result is a highly variable forest carbon cycle that appears to be heavily influenced by the footprint of humans, one way or another. It’s a complicated process with powerful driving forces that were poorly understood, said scientists from 10 institutions in the United States, Canada and Europe.

Until this report, researchers had never quantified the effect of continuous low levels of nitrogen deposition to spur net carbon uptake by forests and actually offset a significant amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

This broad study analyzed the carbon balance across a network of forest sites that represent nitrogen deposition in most of Western Europe and the continental United States. Until now, it has been difficult to separate the effects of nitrogen deposition on forests from the many other variables that affect their carbon release or sequestration – things like forest age, logging, wildfires, disease or insect epidemics, or other causes. This study attempted to do that, and found that the net carbon sequestration by temperate and boreal forests was overwhelmingly determined by nitrogen inputs.

“What is surprising is that the net sequestration is quite large for a relatively low level of nitrogen addition,” said Beverly Law, a professor of forest science at Oregon State University, co-author of the study and director of the AmeriFlux monitoring network in North and South America.

“Through our forests, fertilization by nitrogen deposition is to some degree offsetting our carbon dioxide emissions – at least right now,” she said.

It was first recognized in the 1980s that human activities, by releasing unprecedented amounts of active nitrogen into the atmosphere, were not just altering the global nitrogen cycle but also causing the eutrophication of large parts of the biosphere, the researchers said in their report. Nitrogen – produced by automobile engines, factories, and intensive agriculture – is often a key, limiting nutrient in forests and other ecosystems.

Early forest growth puts a severe nitrogen stress on the ecosystem initially, and then the forest continues to grow and remove carbon from the atmosphere for the rest of the management or life cycle, accumulating wood at a high rate on the small additional nitrogen inputs.

This growth and sequestration is achieved without applications of fertilizer that would likely result in nitrous oxide emissions, another greenhouse gas, that would offset the benefits to the atmosphere of carbon removal.

However, it’s known that large additions of nitrogen to ecosystems can also be damaging above a certain threshold, researchers say, and it’s unclear how long this process will continue.

“The results demonstrate that mankind is ultimately controlling the carbon balance of temperate and boreal forests, either directly through forest management or indirectly through nitrogen deposition,” the study authors said.

Ultimately, mature forests, at least in northern latitudes, absorb and sequester substantial amounts of carbon from the atmosphere. Forest protection and management options have been viewed as one mechanism to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming.

This work was supported by the European Commission, the US Department of Energy, and other national programs.

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Beverly Law,
541-737-6111

Salvage Logging, Replanting Increased Biscuit Fire Severity

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The Biscuit Fire of 2002 burned more severely in areas that had been salvage logged and replanted, compared to similar areas that were also burned in a 1987 fire but had been left to regenerate naturally, a new study concludes.

The analysis, one of the first to ever quantify the effect of salvage logging and replanting on future fire severity, is being published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a professional journal, by scientists from Oregon State University and the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service.

It found that fire severity was 16 to 61 percent higher in logged and planted areas, compared to those that had burned severely and were left alone in a fire 15 years earlier. The study was done in areas that had burned twice – once in the 1987 Silver Fire, and again in the massive 2002 Biscuit Fire, one of the largest forest fires in modern United States history.

“Many forest managers in the past have assumed that salvage logging after a severe forest fire, along with replanting new trees, will reduce future fire severity,” said Jonathan Thompson, a doctoral student at OSU in the Department of Forest Science, and lead author on the study. “This is based on the assumption that removing dead trees reduces fuel loads and planting conifers hastens the return of fire-resistant forests.”

“However, those assumptions have never really been tested,” Thompson said. “This analysis showed that, after accounting for the effects of topography, Silver Fire severity and other environmental variables, the Biscuit Fire severity was higher where they had done salvage logging and planting.”

It’s not completely clear from these data, Thompson said, what the causative mechanism is – the tree removal, the addition of more fine fuels to the forest floor during the logging operation, or the growth of new trees that for several decades may be very vulnerable to new fires.

The study is not, researchers said, an indictment of salvage logging – it may still have value for economic purposes or to assure the establishment of desired tree species. However, “the hypothesis that salvage-logging, then planting, reduces re-burn severity is not supported by these data,” the scientists said in their report.

“Young forests in this region are susceptible to recurring severe fires,” Thompson said. “Compared to an older forest with branches high above the forest floor, young trees are very vulnerable, whether they are planted or naturally regenerated.”

However, in the aftermath of a wildfire, removal of large dead trees followed by planting conifer seedlings does not appear to lessen the risk of severe fires in the first 10-20 years, Thompson said. This may be because the logging process leaves more available fuel on the forest floor; the dense, homogenous replantation of young trees provides a good setting for fire; or some combination of these factors over time.

“Dead woody fuel . . . is only part of the fire risk story, and it may not be the most important after a few years,” the study noted.

By contrast, natural regeneration of forests, he said, appears to result in at least slightly – and sometimes significantly – less risk of severe future fires. This could be because the regenerating trees are patchier, have open gaps, more species diversity, or other factors. But the study showed that total consumption of tree crowns in a recurring fire situation is more severe in the managed stands than the natural ones, at least when there are one to two decades between fires.

This research was done with satellite data, government agency records and aerial photography, in the mixed-conifer, mixed-evergreen hardwood zones of the Siskiyou Mountains. It analyzed burn severity patterns with a commonly used metric of fire damage on almost 45,000 acres of the Biscuit Fire that had also burned 15 years earlier.

Among its conclusions:

  • Areas that burned severely in 1987 tended to re-burn at high severity in 2002.
  • Areas unaffected by the initial fire tended to burn at the lowest severities in 2002.
  • The findings are consistent with studies that show site history influences fire severity, and that conifer plantations are associated with high severity fire.

There are some potential environmental and management implications of the research, Thompson said.

“If we do have a warmer climate that leads to increasing frequency of wildfire in this region a positive feedback of high severity re-burns may favor plant species more able to deal with that regime – manzanita, ceanothus or tan oak – that could displace conifer forests,” he said.

Managers may have few options to reduce the risk of future high severity fire within areas that have experienced recent severe burns.

Typical fuel treatments such as thinning do not have much effect on fire risk in young forests, Thompson said. There are ongoing experiments within the Biscuit Fire region to test the effectiveness of fuel breaks for slowing the spread of severe fires.

Co-authors on this study were Thomas Spies, principal investigator of the project and a research forester with the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, and Lisa Ganio, an associate professor with the OSU Department of Forest Science.

The study was funded by the Joint Fire Science Program, a partnership of six federal wildland, fire and research organizations, established in 1998 to provide scientific information and support for fuel and fire management programs.

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Jonathan Thompson,
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CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON REGION MAY BE PERVASIVE

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Scientists with expertise in climate and its impacts have developed a "consensus statement" that summarizes the likely effects of climate change on the Pacific Northwest. They predict a future with higher temperatures, rising sea levels, diminished streamflows and snowpack, longer fire seasons and many other changes.

Climate change is real, is already under way, is being strongly influenced by human activities, and future effects may be even more dramatic, the report concludes. These changes could profoundly disrupt the Pacific Northwest environment, ecology, economy, agricultural base, forests and other entities.

The potentially catastrophic impacts of climate change also raise a myriad of questions that need to be addressed by further research, the report said, on topics ranging from wind patterns to precipitation changes, ocean dynamics and effects on human health.

The report will assist the work of the Advisory Group on Global Warming appointed by Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski. The advisory group just released a far-reaching set of recommendations on what Oregonians need to do to address climate change, available from the Oregon Department of Energy at www.energy.state.or.us/climate/warming/Draft_Intro.htm. Comments are being accepted until Nov. 15.

The findings in the consensus statement emerged from a meeting sponsored by the Institute for Natural Resources at OSU last June of 65 of the leading experts from the region, in oceanography, forest ecology, climate, marine ecology, fish biology, agriculture and resource economics, and other fields.

These experts were primarily academic scientists from Oregon State University, the University of Oregon, University of Washington, and Lewis and Clark College. The full report is available on the web at http://inr.oregonstate.edu.

Among the findings of the report:

  • Temperature: The Pacific Northwest has warmed from 1-3 degrees in the past century, mostly due to natural causes earlier in the 1900s and to human causes more recently. Scientists project with "intermediate certainty" that temperatures in the Pacific Northwest will further increase by 1-5 degrees by the 2020s and 3-6 degrees by the 2040s.

     

  • Effects of Warmer Climate: Higher temperatures will likely result in a higher elevation treeline, longer growing seasons, longer fire seasons, earlier animal and plant breeding, longer and more intense allergy seasons and changes in vegetation zones. Drier summers are anticipated, leading to greater drought stress and vulnerability of forests to insects, disease and fire.

     

  • Precipitation: Since the beginning of the 20th century, annual precipitation has increased across the Pacific Northwest by an average of 10 percent, and 30-40 percent in some areas of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Future changes in precipitation are difficult to predict and very uncertain.

     

  • Sea Level: Land on the central and northern coast of Oregon, from Florence to Astoria, is being submerged by rising sea level at a rate of 1.5-2 millimeters per year, and globally has risen by 4-8 inches in the past century. It's certain that the sea level will continue to rise, although in the Pacific Northwest the impact will also depend on how fast the land is rising due to tectonic uplift. A global sea level rise of from four inches to almost three feet by 2100 is possible. Maximum wave heights will likely increase, leading to heavier coastal erosion.

     

  • Snowpack: Snowpacks across the West have been diminishing for 50 years, caused almost equally by warmer temperatures and decreased precipitation during the winter season. It's highly certain that spring snowpack in the Pacific Northwest will continue to decline in many areas, resulting in further losses of natural water storage in the mountains. Mid-level elevations will suffer the greatest snowpack losses.

     

  • Marine Ecosystems: The magnitude and duration of upwelling will likely increase, but it's unclear whether this may lead to increased primary ocean productivity or more "dead zone" events such as those that have occurred twice in the last three years.

     

  • Water Demand: Little precipitation in summer, warmer temperatures, an earlier drop in streamflows, and greater water demand based on population growth should lead to intensified conflicts over scarce water resources. Intensified streamflows in the winter and spring will likely lead to increased flooding events during those seasons, while diminished streamflows in the summer will likely result in increased summer droughts.

     

  • Water Quality: Higher temperatures in lakes and streams, increased salinity, pollutant concentration and lower levels of dissolved oxygen could provide increased stresses on fish health.

The scientists emphasized that although they are able to make predictions about some likely changes, there are also still many uncertainties. Precipitation is a big unknown. Some models, for instance, predict a modest increase in winter precipitation and decreases in the summer. But large-scale changes in ocean temperature and circulation patterns could yield a Northwest climate that is drier.

It's also unclear exactly how marine and terrestrial ecosystems will respond to these changes, and what human land management changes may take place as it becomes clear that the climate is changing.

Some of the most pressing needs for future research, the study indicated, are in the area of precipitation patterns, coastal ocean winds and associated upwelling, the thresholds for abrupt shifts in climate, and the dynamics of large, long-term changes in ocean and atmosphere interactions.

On a global basis outside the Pacific Northwest, the report made note of many other climatic changes that are underway or anticipated as a result of global warming - shorter duration of ice cover on lakes and rivers, thinner Arctic sea ice, retreat of glaciers, loss of permafrost, longer growing seasons, shifts in plant and animal ranges, bleaching of coral reefs, increase in severe weather events, and other changes.

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Sherm Bloomer, 541-737-4811

Bottled Water Boom Has Environmental Drawbacks

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Around the world, factories are using more than 18 million barrels of oil and up to 130 billion gallons of fresh water a year to create something that, by and large, most people don’t need. But the product is so amazingly popular that sales are going up 10 percent a year, just like clockwork.

The big success story? Bottled water. And the resources mentioned above are just to make the plastic containers.

Another 41 billion gallons of water is then used to fill them – water that is often just tap water, and other times has less frequent monitoring for safety or purity than if it had come out of a tap.

“Bottled water has become an incredibly big business, up to $100 billion per year,” said Todd Jarvis, an assistant professor in the Water Resources Graduate Program at Oregon State University, and a research hydrogeologist with the OSU Institute for Water and Watersheds. “There are enormous amounts of money to be made here. Some of the profits make our business majors blush, and everyone wants in. It’s just astonishing.”

Jarvis, who has studied the issue for 15 years and makes frequent presentations on it, arrived long ago at a simple conclusion – bottled water is not worth the price, and the people buying it often have no idea of the environmental repercussions. When his students learn the truth about the water itself and hear about the drawbacks of this burgeoning industry, he said, they often change their behavior.

“There have always been, and still are some places in the developing world where bottled water is necessary for health concerns and relief efforts,” Jarvis said. “But in most of the world it was a niche item until the 1970s, when Perrier spent millions on advertising, and the industry just took off. It hasn’t looked back since, and now in America we’re spending $20,000 every minute of every day on bottled water.”

Between 1978 and 2006, the consumption of bottled water in America went up 20 times, or 2,000 percent. Large soft drink companies dominate the market.

With bottled water, Jarvis said, any past issues of health and safety now take a back seat to convenience, taste, and perhaps most important, trendiness. About 700 name brands of water compete for shelf space, and tap water that originally cost maybe five cents a gallon can be sold for $4 a gallon. Doesn’t take a business genius to see how that pencils out.

The water itself, Jarvis said, is generally fine – usually no more or less safe than tap water, which in the United States is among the safest in the world. Worth noting, however, is that community water supplies are subject to fairly strict and constant monitoring required by the Safe Drinking Water Act, while bottled water is considered a “food” and entails much less frequent monitoring for safety and quality by the Food and Drug Administration or individual states. Tests of bottled water have at times found contaminants.

“There doesn’t seem to be any correlation between safety and bottled water consumption in the U.S.,” Jarvis said. “New York City, for instance, gets its water from a very carefully managed watershed and has some of the best drinking water in the nation – and also among the highest per capita consumption of bottled water.”

And some of the myths surrounding water, Jarvis said, need to be checked. Spring water, for instance, is often touted as if it’s inherently safer or more pure than other forms of water – when in fact it could be subject to more surface pollution because of the engineering difficulties associated with securing a source that is a spring-based or shallow well supply. Water from deep wells – like that often used for municipal water supplies – could be of the same or better quality than water from springs.

Taste, Jarvis said, is often a personal preference. Some bottled brands may indeed taste better than the tap water supplies in some locations, one reason that Jarvis says he’s “not against bottled water – but just want people to know what they are buying.”

But before people get too carried away with visions of pristine water from a sparkling aquifer or mountain stream, Jarvis said, they should be aware that 25-40 percent of what is on store shelves is just tap water that has undergone additional treatment or had minerals added at the bottling plant. Groundwater supplies in some parts of the world have been threatened by heavy use from water bottling companies. Consumers are also endorsing the use of oil, energy and other natural resources to create up to 2.5 million tons of plastic bottles each year, transport the heavy product to the consumer, and then deal with the waste disposal concerns. In Oregon, the waste issue is considered serious enough that legislation is pending that would add plastic water bottles to the “five cent refund” law required for many other drink containers.

Oregon, oddly enough, has some of the best tasting bottled water in the world but is only a very tiny player in this market. Only 4 percent of the bottled water consumed in the state actually comes from within its borders. That may change, as more companies become aware of the huge profit potential, Jarvis said.

“If people still want to drink bottled water, I usually recommend purified water, ‘rain’ water or well water from a nearby local source to provide the best combination of purity and environmental sensitivity,” Jarvis said. “But a reasonable alternative is just chilled tap water in a re-usable container. That often removes the chlorine taste that people complain about with tap water, it’s safe, and it’s a lot cheaper.”

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Todd Jarvis,
541-737-4032

WEB SITE EXPLORES PAST, FUTURE OF WILLAMETTE BASIN

CORVALLIS - A wealth of information about the Willamette River basin is now available on the Web, featuring everything from video clips to research articles, expert listings, pioneer stories and sophisticated data collections - all with a goal of making good conservation decisions for the future.

This new web-based, user-friendly "library," at http://willametteexplorer.info, is called "Willamette Basin Explorer: Past, Present, Future." It was developed by the Willamette Basin Conservation Project as a key part of its two-year effort to provide Oregon residents and community leaders with more information to help make sound, informed land management decisions.

This initiative is a collaborative effort of the Institute for Natural Resources at Oregon State University, OSU Libraries, the University of Oregon, Willamette Restoration Initiative and Defenders of Wildlife. Funding has been provided by the Meyer Memorial Trust.

"The Willamette Basin is one of the most beautiful and productive regions of the country," said Hal Salwasser, dean of OSU's College of Forestry and a principal investigator on this project. "But its population is expected to double in the next 50 years, and we face challenges with water pollution, sensitive habitats, endangered species and urban development.

"Our goal here is to use research, communication and good decision-making to help create a healthy, sustainable environment."

The overall project has a number of activities, Salwasser said, including workshops and town-hall meetings. But creation of the new website that just went online is a primary goal.

The website provides a history of the Willamette basin, analysis of critical issues, mapping tools, colorful video clips, links to publications, data sets, and many more helpful resources. The site explores different development options and scenarios for the Willamette Basin, and provides data ranging from simple to complex, to help people better understand the implications of land management decisions.

A coordinated effort by thousands of individuals involved in land management and conservation activities will be necessary to protect the future health of the Willamette basin, experts say, which has the 13th largest river in the United States and drains an area the size of Maryland. There are also many incentive programs available to aid conservation, and the new website will help provide access to them.

The Willamette Basin Explorer was developed by OSU Libraries and builds on an intensive research effort by the Pacific Northwest Ecosystem Research Consortium, a joint project by the Environmental Protection Agency, OSU and the University of Oregon. In the future, OSU Libraries and the Institute for Natural Resources plan to use this site as a model for providing information about natural resources to other areas in Oregon.

"We're trying to take science to the people," said Karyle Butcher, university librarian and one of the principal investigators on the project.

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Hal Salwasser, 541-737-1585

OSU institute recognized for conservation initiative

CORVALLIS - The Institute for Natural Resources at Oregon State University, along with several other collaborating agencies, received the "Conservation Project of the Year" award, presented recently at the 70th annual North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference.

The award recognized the cooperative efforts of the Western Snowy Plover Working Team, which also includes the Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and other groups.

Conservation and recovery work has been under way for a number of years with this small shore bird on the Pacific Coast, which is federally listed as a threatened species.

A range of federal, state and non-governmental agencies have worked on habitat restoration, population inventories, monitoring of nesting success, predator control, public education and nest protection in efforts to help populations of the bird recover. As a result, the numbers of nests and nesting success of the snowy plover have been increasing in recent years.

 

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Jimmy Kagan, 503-731-3070

Oregon solutions project to produce energy, aid forest health

CORVALLIS - A new project on the Fremont National Forest near Lakeview, Ore., will work to thin the forests, reduce fire risks, protect jobs, produce electricity from biomass thinning, and form a model for other collaborations that merge the needs and interests of industry, government and environmental groups.

The College of Forestry at Oregon State University will join Lakeview County Commissioners in convening potential partners in the initiative, called the Lakeview Biomass Project.

Local leaders, working through Lake County Resources Initiative, are sponsoring the project. And last January, Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski designated this work as an Oregon Solutions project, assuring participation of his staff and appropriate state agencies.

"If this project works the way we anticipate, there will be many benefits, for forest protection, private industry, local jobs, water resources, fish and wildlife," said Hal Salwasser, dean of the College of Forestry. "But more than that, we believe we can establish a model for more efforts of this type that would be relevant to millions of acres in Central and Eastern Oregon that face similar problems."

Like many areas in this dryer region of Oregon, forests are suffering from overcrowding, decades of fire suppression, insect and disease epidemics, and other concerns that leave them highly vulnerable to catastrophic fire.

It's generally agreed that careful forest thinning can help reduce wildfire risks, improve forest health, and free up water resources for use by fish and other wildlife. But such approaches, which can cost $300 to $1,500 per acre, are often prohibitively expensive unless something can be done to produce revenue that offsets the costs.

In this case, that offset mechanism is going to be a new electric power plant, fueled by wood.

A key collaborator in the initiative is The Collins Companies of Portland, Ore., which operates the Collins-Lakeview forest lands in this area, and one of the last surviving timber mills.

"The Collins Companies for many years have been one of the most progressive forest product companies in the Pacific Northwest, with a long interest in sustainable forestry and innovative forest products solutions," Salwasser said. "They already have a co-generation facility at their northern California operation, using the same technologies and providing the same type of ecological as well as economic benefits."

The new project would construct a larger electrical production plant, fueled by biomass from thinning operations in the nearby national forests, as well as sawmill wood by-products. The plant would feed more substantial amounts of electricity into the regional grid. A sustainable supply of wood from small trees with little market value would be taken from these lands, some for lumber production and some for electricity. The cost of building the new electrical plant would be offset with the sale of electricity and steam from the plant.

Lake County Resources Initiative and The Collins Companies are working with two power companies that finance, build and operate their own plants. The new plant will be located at the Collins Company, Fremont Sawmill, taking their older boiler off line and selling steam to the Fremont Sawmill for their kilns.

Besides the immediate benefits of reducing fire risks, there may be other payoffs, experts say. A major wildfire would release large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere.

But the controlled use of that same wood for lumber or electrical production would be positive in terms of "greenhouse gas" emissions. Future fires would not release the same amount of carbon dioxide, the wood that goes into building products stores carbon, and the biomass that goes into power production offsets the need to produce that energy from fossil fuels.

Local jobs in mills and forest thinning would also be created, fire fighting costs might be reduced, tax revenues would be generated, and substantial water and recreational benefits might result.

"If this works right, there could be a lot of benefits," Salwasser said. "Some will be very tangible, such as the production of wood products, electricity, and local residents who will be able to keep good paying jobs," Salwasser said. "But we're also going to evaluate the whole range of environmental, ecological, wildlife and other payoffs from the project. For instance, there should be carbon sequestration benefits that have global climate implications, and might be turned into carbon credits you could sell."

If the project is effective, it could be used to create a model that other localities could learn from and use, with local adjustments, to suit the needs of their own lands, environmental concerns and forest product companies, Salwasser said. Among other things, strategies such as this are one of the recommendations included in the recent Oregon Strategy for Greenhouse Gas Reductions that has been presented to Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski.

"The model we are developing is one where we will be creating jobs and restoring the forest to more natural conditions," said Jim Walls, executive director of Lake County Resources. "Ecological restoration and economic development can accomplish common goals for the environment and the community. They are not mutually exclusive."

Collaborators on the project include OSU, Portland State University, The Collins Companies, Fremont National Forest, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Forestry, Lake County Resources Initiative, conservation interests, and other groups.

"It's good to see groups that sometimes have been in opposing positions come together to create common ground and land management approaches that everyone can support," Salwasser said.

An agreement committing partners to cooperate in the proposed thinning and construction of the new power plant should be complete within six months, Salwasser said, and work in the forest will begin soon after that.

This is the first Oregon Solutions project that the OSU College of Forestry has become involved in, he said, but others may follow in the future.

Oregon Solutions grew out of the Oregon Sustainability Act of 2001. At first it was operated by the executive branch of state government, and now by PSU. The program promotes a new style of community governance based on collaboration, integration and sustainability. About 20 projects around Oregon are already under way.

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Hal Salwasser, 541-737-1585

Logging to being at major forest research effort

CORVALLIS - Timber harvesting will begin this summer in the Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study, one of Oregon's most ambitious research efforts since the 1960s to determine the impact of modern forest practices on fish in forested streams.

The 10-year project is administered by the College of Forestry at Oregon State University.

The Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study is larger, and will last longer, than most research efforts on the environmental impacts of forest practices, and it will give policy makers new information on the relationship between timber production and protection of Oregon's fisheries and aquatic habitat.

Data collection has been under way for four years in this forest in the foothills of the central Cascade Range near Sutherlin, Ore. This will provide a background understanding of the hydrology, water quality, fisheries, other aquatic animals and aquatic habitat characteristics before timber harvesting begins. The site was last logged around 1950, and is owned by the Roseburg Forest Products company.

"For decades there have been improvements in forest practices, scientific advances, new road construction techniques, a move toward logging of young or small diameter trees, and the use of harvesting equipment that has a much smaller environmental footprint," said Arne Skaugset, an associate professor in the Department of Forest Engineering at OSU, and lead scientist in this research effort.

"Forest management and timber harvesting in today's second growth forest stands are quite different than in the past," Skaugset said. "However, many assumptions regarding their environmental impacts are still based on studies that were carried out in the 1960s."

With the current listing of many species and runs of salmonids as threatened or endangered, there is a strong need to protect fisheries and aquatic habitat in Oregon. However, the forest sector is also critical, generating 85,000 jobs and more than $12 billion annually to the state economy. A contemporary data set is needed to inform policy makers, and the hope is this new study will provide that.

The Hinkle Creek watershed is similar to many others and may help answer some questions regarding the protection needed for "headwater" streams during timber harvest. These are very small streams that run water all year. They don't support a fishery, but can influence water quality downstream.

"Current Oregon forest practices regulations don't require buffers on headwater streams during timber harvesting," said Steve Tesch, professor and head of the OSU Department of Forest Engineering.

"However, when the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds was formulated, it identified a need for better knowledge about the functioning of this part of the watershed ecosystem," Tesch said. "The Oregon Board of Forestry is considering an update to riparian protection rules, including the need for protection of headwater streams during harvesting. While results from the Hinkle Creek study will not be available in time to inform the current discussion, the goal of studies like this is to anticipate emerging policy questions and work to strengthen the scientific foundation for Oregon forest practice regulations."

Hal Salwasser, dean of the College of Forestry, said that the stakes are very high.

"It's imperative to protect water quality and fisheries, but we must have a body of field science to know what is really needed," Salwasser said. "Continued pressure to move forest rules beyond the state-of-the-science has the potential to cause needless loss of private property value and productive land base."

In the absence of high quality, experimental field data, state and federal regulators could default to a "precautionary approach" in protecting aquatic habitat on private forestlands with more than is actually needed for water quality and fish, Salwasser said. Excess precaution would have implications for jobs and the state's economy. BLM and Forest Service managers also seek an improved scientific basis for aquatic protection strategies in managed forests on federal lands, and an understanding of landscape-scale cumulative effects where federal lands are interspersed with private lands.

At Hinkle Creek, the treatment and control watersheds will be studied on a long-term basis to determine the impact of modern forest practices compared with unmanaged sites. Areas of research include watershed hydrology, fisheries, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, stream chemistry and soils. The response to forest practices will be tracked over time using tags for fish and other advanced technologies. Everything from caddis flies to cutthroat trout will be counted, measured and mapped, and instruments will measure water temperature, discharge, turbidity and sediment content.

If researchers are able to obtain the funding, they plan to expand this research effort to at least two other sites that have different geology, climate and other terrain characteristics. This would provide policy makers even more data to draw on regarding forest management in different terrain and forests.

Collaborators on this research include the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences; Forest and Rangelands Ecosystem Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey; the Oregon Forest Resources Institute; Oregon Forest Industries Council; Oregon Department of Forestry; Associated Oregon Loggers; Bureau of Land Management; Douglas County; and others.

Oregon's Congressional delegation and leadership by Sen. Gordon Smith, Sen. Ron Wyden, Rep. Greg Walden and Rep. Peter DeFazio have been instrumental in obtaining federal funding for this project.

The research site at Hinkle Creek also serves as a demonstration area where students, the public, natural resource professionals and policy makers can go and observe the ongoing forest management and research activities.

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Steve Tesch, 541-737-4952

Athletes, spectators faced unprecedented air pollution at 2008 Olympic Games

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Particulate air pollution during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing constantly exceeded levels considered excessive by the World Health Organization, was far worse than other recent Olympic Games, and was about 30 percent higher than has been reported by Chinese environmental experts – even though some favorable weather conditions helped reduce the problem.

The weather, in fact, turned out to be more valuable in addressing this concern than major programs by the Chinese government to heavily restrict automobile use, close factories and slow construction during and before the Olympic games.

These findings are among the final results just published in Environmental Science and Technology, a professional journal, in the first comprehensive study of particulate air pollutants in Beijing and how they compared to past Olympics.

The research was done before, during and after the 2008 Olympics by scientists from Oregon State University and Peking University, in work funded by the National Science Foundation in the United States and the National Science Foundation of China.

“Considering the massive efforts by China to reduce air pollution in and around Beijing during the Olympics, this was the largest scale atmospheric pollution experiment ever conducted,” said Staci Simonich, an OSU associate professor of environmental and molecular toxicology. “Despite all that, it was some evening rains and favorable shifts in the winds that provided the most relief from the pollution.

“This demonstrates how difficult it is to solve environmental problems on a short-term, local basis,” she added.

And despite some favorable weather and the pollution control efforts, researchers said, the end result was some of the most severe particulate pollution that Olympic athletes have dealt with in recent games. The levels were about two to four times higher than that of Los Angeles on an average day.

In some of the first comparisons of these type ever made, scientists determined that particulate matter air pollution in the Beijing Olympics were about double the levels of recent games in Athens, Greece; triple those of Atlanta, Ga.; and 3.5 times higher than the games in Sydney, Australia. However, the study also noted that, because of its control efforts, Beijing had the most significant decrease in particular air pollution compared to the other Olympic sites around the time of their games.

Despite these efforts, levels of coarse particular matter were higher than considered safe by the World Health Organization 81 percent of the time during the Beijing Olympics. They reached unacceptable levels 100 percent of the time for the most dangerous particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 microns), which is more easily inhaled into the lungs and causes more serious health problems. Levels of the smaller, most harmful particulate matter was also the least affected by government efforts to reduce pollution output, the study concluded.

The finding of levels of pollution higher than those announced previously by Chinese officials reflects a difference in measurement methodology, researchers said, although the approaches used in this study have been widely accepted for many years.

The studies were initially prompted due to traditionally high levels of air pollution in Beijing and the potential risk they posed to athletes and spectators, Simonich said. The city of 17 million people is surrounded by mountains in several directions that trap air pollutants, and has faced significant increases in particulate air pollution in recent years due to increasing industrialization, numbers of automobiles, coal and biomass burning, and other causes.

Atmospheric particulate matter, researchers say, is a concern because various sized particles have potentially toxic chemicals “sorbed” to them. The fine particles have been linked to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. In China, particulate matter air pollution is believed to be responsible for about one million premature deaths per year, researchers said in their study.

Of some note, the scientists said, is that efforts taken to constrain air pollution may be having a lasting value – particulate matter air pollution in Beijing was as much as 27 percent lower last fall than in the same months a year earlier. Some of this, however, may have been attributable to lower levels of industrial and economic activity.

Simonich said that there is no scientific evidence so far of any health problems that have been linked to the short-term exposure of athletes or spectators to this pollution during the Olympic competition.

“The athletes and visitors were only exposed for a very short time,” Simonich said. “Millions of other people there face this air quality problem their entire lives. It was unlike anything I’ve ever seen – you could look directly at the sun and not have a problem, due to the thickness of the haze.”

 

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OSU scientists study air pollution

The research on this study was done by OSU scientists Staci Simonich and Wentao Wang in both field research

Earth's services in peril, new report concludes

WASHINGTON - The innumerable benefits provided by the Earth - everything from fresh water and clean air to productive soils, wild fisheries, and genetic resources - have been depleted at an unprecedented rate in the past 50 years, and in many cases humans are living on borrowed time unless they wake up, a group of scientific experts said today.

In presentations made jointly in 12 cities around the world, authors of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment delivered a major report on the grim status of the services provided by the planet's ecosystems and the consequences to humans. The report also outlined possible responses that might be adopted to improve ecosystem management and contribute to human well-being.

"This is a sobering report card - but one with useful and hopeful options," said Jane Lubchenco, the Wayne and Gladys Valley Professor of Marine Biology at Oregon State University, and one of the study's 1,360 authors from 95 countries.

"Everyone in the world depends on nature and ecosystem services to provide the conditions for a decent, healthy and secure life," Lubchenco said. "Humans have made unprecedented changes to ecosystems in recent decades to meet growing demands for food, fresh water, fiber and energy," she said. "Although these changes have helped to improve the lives of billions, they have also weakened nature's ability to deliver other key services such as purification of air and water, protection from disasters and the provision of medicines."

Only four of the ecosystem services examined by the assessment were found to be increasing in their ability to benefit human populations, while 15 were in decline. Five more were found to be in a stable state overall.

"Much of the increase in food and timber production we've seen over the last few decades has come at the expense of other key services needed for future food and timber production, as well as other services," Lubchenco said.

Steps can be taken to help address and even reverse some of these crises, the researchers said, but the first and most important step is to understand the gravity of the situation. That is what the new assessment, which was called for in 2000 by the United Nations and supported by a diverse group of nations, agencies and industry, is designed to do.

Five years in the making, the mammoth study was the work of thousands of leading experts around the world. It explored the nature of the Earth's ecosystems, the ways in which they function, the services they provide to humans, whether or not those services are being used sustainably, and what the future may hold. Separate reports addressed specific groups, such as the business community.

The report concludes that human actions are depleting Earth's natural capital, putting such strain on the environment that the ability of the planet's ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.

Among the findings of the report:

  • Humans depend for their existence far more than they realize on the intricate web of physical and biological systems provided by the Earth - the food and fresh water we need to survive, wood for shelter, and fresh air to breathe.
  • More changes have been made to the Earth's ecosystems in recent decades than at any other time in human history - since 1945, more forests, savannah and grasslands have been converted to agriculture than in the previous two centuries.
  • Some of the most critical ecosystem functions are poorly understood or appreciated - the contribution of forests to air quality, wetlands for water filtration and flood control, the health of soils as the basis for our food supply.
  • The demand for water by people and industry has doubled since 1960. Underground aquifers are drying up, and sometimes the flow of once-mighty rivers such as the Nile in Africa or Colorado in North America is drained so severely that the river never reaches the sea.
  • The speed of global warming is greater than anything seen for at least 10,000 years, making it more difficult for many species to survive and adapt to new conditions.
  • About 12 percent of birds, 25 percent of mammals and at least 32 percent of amphibians are threatened with extinction over the next century.
  • Increases in food production have kept pace with population growth, but often at the expense of other ecosystem services that form the foundation for more food - depleted soils, over-fished oceans, polluted waters.
  • Abrupt changes and "tipping points" may soon be reached in many ecosystems, resulting in catastrophic climatic or biological changes over a very short time with little warning.
  • Poverty and degradation of nature may turn into a downward spiral, in which poor communities have fewer options to conserve natural resources, the abuse of land increases and even greater poverty results.
  • The impact of ecosystem disruption often falls first and most heavily on the poor, while wealthier economies can afford some engineered solutions that at least temporarily forestall the crisis.

    "We hear a lot about various environmental problems and ecological issues, but this report integrates all of the changes under way and shows explicitly how they relate to human well-being," Lubchenco said.

    The severity of the problems, Lubchenco said, does not mean the situation is hopeless.

    "Social change is not always steady and gradual," she said. "Once people better understand the situation and what we have to do, I think it's possible we could see dramatic actions from many groups, including business, the general public, religious groups, and the scientific and political communities. The scientific community is offering an evaluation and suggested options. Now is a real opportunity for leadership."

    The study said that three key changes must take place before major change is realistic.

    People must first understand that the services provided by nature are not free and limitless. Local communities must have real influence in how conservation decisions are made, and end up with a fair share of the benefits. And the whole process must become more broad-based, not confined to a single government agency or one small part of a corporate bureaucracy.

    Better understanding the real economic value of natural systems, and the bottom-line cost of losing them, will help, the study suggested.

    Businesses must also learn that their long-term corporate survival may depend on protection of ecosystems, the report concluded, and they should explore changing consumer preferences and new business opportunities created by the demands of a changing world.

    A copy of the report can be found on the web at www.millenniumassessment.org

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    Jane Lubchenco, 541-737-5337