environment and natural resources


CORVALLIS - The biggest new threat to America's drinking water supplies - nonpoint source pollution - is documented in a new half-hour educational video released by the Oregon State University Extension Service.

"We All Live Downstream" explores urban and rural runoff and the problems it creates for surface and groundwater.

Nonpoint source pollution is carried by rain and irrigation that runs off farms, forests and city streets. It flows from construction sites, mines and septic systems and just about everywhere, experts say. As a national problem, it has surpassed "point source pollution," which involved industry and sewage treatment waste entering rivers, lakes and streams at specific points.

After two decades of cleanup, America's point source pollution is largely under control.

"We All Live Downstream" was shot primarily in Oregon's Tualatin River basin, but Ron Miner, OSU Extension water quality specialist, says its subject matter has implications for most every watershed in the country.

"This video should interest anyone who is concerned about healthy watersheds and clean water supplies," said Miner. "It examines how Oregon residents and government officials are trying to reduce nonpoint source pollution, and offers a variety of tips that can help Americans protect their drinking water sources."

"We All Live Downstream" (VTP 021) costs $30 (including shipping) and may be ordered by mail from: Publications Orders, Agricultural Communications, Oregon State University, A422 Administrative Services Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119.


Ron Miner, 541-737-6295

Japanese agreement with OSU lab paves way for smoother trade of straw

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Straw from tall fescue and perennial ryegrass that has been tested for alkaloid toxicity at Oregon State University’s Endophyte Testing Laboratory – and is below the threshold considered harmful to livestock – can be traded directly to Japan without further testing.

An agreement was reached this week between representatives of the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center in Japan and the OSU laboratory, operated by the College of Agricultural Sciences and the College of Veterinary Medicine.

“Essentially, it means that we are like an extension of a FAMIC laboratory,” said A. Morrie Craig, a professor of veterinary medicine at OSU and director of the Endophyte Testing Laboratory. “This will make it easier for Northwest grass seed growers to market the straw left over after harvesting the grass seed – and it’s a clean industry.”

In 1998, Japan temporarily refused shipments of straw from Oregon after the deaths of dairy and beef cattle were traced to toxins produced by endophyte, a fungus bred into perennial ryegrass and tall fescue to promote hardiness and disease-resistance. Unfortunately, when stressed, the endophyte produces alkaloids such as Ergovaline and Lolitrem B, which can be toxic to livestock at certain levels.

“The trend has been to produce grasses with higher endophyte levels because they are so good for lawns and golf courses,” Craig said. “And that can create a problem when you’re trying to market the straw.”

Craig and his colleagues at OSU and within the grass seed industry developed a program to test Oregon straw for endophyte and alkaloid levels and initiated a protocol they called “Solution by Dilution,” which mixed alkaloid-free straw with straw that contained high levels of alkaloids to bring the overall levels down to a safe threshold.

For the past decade, Japan has been accepting Oregon straw – only after it has been rigorously tested by one of its six FAMIC labs. Straw sent to the OSU lab for testing has been retested in Japan. Now the lab protocols – and results – are close enough for the Japanese agency to accept OSU test results, Craig said.

The OSU lab tests about 3,700 samples each year and in the process has developed the kind of “traceability” system that Japan requires and the United States is trying to emulate.

“What has happened during the past 10 years is that we have learned a lot about endophytes and alkaloids,” Craig said. “Endophyte levels are influenced by the variety of grass, geographic location, soil types, precipitation and when that precipitation occurs. As the plant is stressed, it produces alkaloids and that process also has a lot of variability.

“The ‘Solution by Dilution’ method has been working, but it always has been considered a short-term solution,” Craig added. “We’re working on a long-term solution that would make all Oregon straw safe to eat for livestock.”

OSU has received a $1.5 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to develop that solution, which Craig said is modeled after an effort to make cattle less susceptible to tansy ragwort, a weed that produces toxins that can be deadly to livestock. The solution, he said, may be in developing a feed supplement that includes the type of microbes that essentially destroy the toxins.

Keeping cattle safe from endophyte-triggered toxicity is no small matter. Some 55 percent of the fiber diet of Japan’s prized Kobe beef comes from Northwest straw. Each year, Oregon and Washington ship 33,000 containers of compressed straw to Japan and Korea.

The Pacific Northwest grows about 70 percent of the seed for the cool season grasses in the world, and OSU’s Endophyte Testing Laboratory has begun to develop guidelines for endophyte and alkaloid levels for each of the 100 or so varieties of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue.

More information about the laboratory is available at: http://oregonstate.edu/endophyte-lab/. Additional information on endophyte toxins can be found in an OSU Extension publication (EM 8598), available online at: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/em/em8598-e.pdf


Story By: 

Morrie Craig, 541-737-3036 

Multimedia Downloads


OSU student worker Dustin Galbreith runs through some of the protocols for the university’s Endophyte Testing Laboratory for Toshiaki Hayakawa, director of the lab division for Japan’s Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC) and his colleagues, Akiko Takahashi and Yukinobu Hakamura. (photo courtesy of OSU’s Jill Bartlett)


MONMOUTH - Free water testing, food, entertainment, art projects, well drilling demonstrations, more than 1,000 involved students and many other activities will be part of the Children's and Community Groundwater Festival on Friday, April 12, at Western Oregon State College.

This festival, which is the featured event of the Oregon Groundwater Awareness Week proclaimed by Gov. Kitzhaber from April 8-14, is free and open to the public.

Student activities will be held early in the day and everyone is welcome at the Community Festival from 4-8 p.m., at the Werner College Center, corner of Monmouth and Church Street in Monmouth.

"Creating public awareness of the need to protect groundwater is one of the key goals of the Groundwater Festival," said Loretta Brenner, coordinator of the Groundwater Community Involvement Program in the Oregon Water Resources Research Institute at Oregon State University.

"Contaminated groundwater is difficult, costly, and sometimes impossible to clean up," Brenner said. "The festival offers tips on what home owners, farmers, businesses, students and communities can do to reduce the chance of contamination. It should be fun and the activities relevant to both rural and urban residents."

With a "hands-on" emphasis in the children's part of the festival, about 1,000 Oregon students and teachers will learn about water resources and pollution prevention as they tour a well drilling rig, create a group art project, take a TapWater Tour, and build a groundwater model for their classrooms. Winning entries in the student groundwater poster competition will also be on display.

Other activities during the community part of the festival include

  • Free testing of well or tap water for nitrate pollution
  • Well maintenance, wellhead protection and drilling displays
  • Booths, displays and workshops on prevention of groundwater contamination, septic systems, water conservation and other topics
  • Door prizes, entertainment and a pasta buffet from 5:15 to 6:15 p.m., cost $3.

More than 70 percent of Oregonians are at least partially dependent on groundwater for their drinking water, Brenner said, and in many rural areas groundwater is the only drinking water source.

Nitrates from fertilizers, gasoline, industrial solvents, household chemicals, pesticides and bacteria all pose threats to the state's groundwater supplies, she said.

Information on Oregon's Voluntary Wellhead Protection Program will be featured at this event and community representatives are encouraged to attend.

The festival co-sponsors include the Oregon Groundwater Community Involvement Program, Oregon Children's Groundwater Festival, and Western Oregon State College.

Activities are supported by several other state universities, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Oregon Health Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Extension service, water conservation districts, water resources departments, city and county governments and other agencies.

Anyone who is interested in getting a free water test for nitrate contamination should:

    1) Collect the sample the day of the event and keep it cool.
    2) Rinse out a clean pint size container or jar several times and let air dry.
    3) Let tap water run for several minutes to flush out the line.
    4) Fill the jar and cap tightly.
    5) Attach a label to the jar including name, address, phone number; township, range and section numbers found on property tax statements; and whether the water is from a private well or public water supply.

More information on water testing or other activities can be obtained by contacting Brenner at the Oregon Water Resources Research Institute at OSU, telephone 541-737-4022; or Julie Magers at the Children's Groundwater Festival, telephone 503-725-8288.

Story By: 

Loretta Brenner, 541-737-5736

Riparian zones recover quickly after fire, need little management

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Riparian zones in many Pacific Northwest forests return to health fairly quickly after forest fires and may eventually provide the same ecosystem services and largely the same species mix, with little need for replanting or management, a new study from Oregon State University concludes.

It has been long understood, researchers say, that riparian areas are among the most important features of the forest: They harbor multiple species, a broad range of plants and trees, provide clean water, and are a key part of both the terrestrial and aquatic food chain. The shade from overhanging trees helps cool streams and nurture fisheries. Because of that, it has often been believed that after a fire they required special attention to prevent erosion and streambed damage, and were often targeted for that.

The new research concludes that the streams often do just fine on their own, and surprisingly quickly.

“In the past, most studies of streams after fire looked only at the short-term effect on fisheries,” said David Hibbs, a professor in the OSU Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. “And there was a risk-averse approach to streams after fire, because we knew how important they were. So they were often managed fairly heavily after a fire, without a lot of evidence it was really necessary.”

The new study, just published in the journal Forest Ecology and Management, focused on areas burned in the 2002 Biscuit Fire in southwest Oregon and the 2003 B&B Complex Fire in the central Oregon Cascade Range. Areas were studied at two- and four-year intervals after they burned, to measure the amount of vegetation and streamside recovery.

“Other studies have observed that in some cases trees and shrubs were sprouting almost immediately after the fire, within two weeks,” said Jessica Halofsky, a lead author on this study, formerly an OSU doctoral student and now a research ecologist with the University of Washington. “That’s really amazing. And fireweed moved in very quickly to provide shade, cover and bank stability.”

After that, residual live trees dropped seed in following years, leading to pulses of tree seedling development. As often occurs after a fire, there was some heavier stream flow and higher rates of flooding for a period, which caused some erosion and sediment movement.

Some fire effects are temporarily harmful to salmon and other fish species, other studies have found, but in the long run highly positive. Post-fire flooding scours streams and moves sediment around, creating new and clean gravel beds, new inputs of large woody debris, and in general helps to rejuvenate the long-term health of the stream for fish spawning and survival. Hardwoods such as alder that can fix nitrogen, an important forest nutrient, may also play a role in riparian zone recovery.

The natural tree reproduction in and near the riparian zones was impressive – in streams in the B&B Complex Fire, four years after the fire, there were more than 27,000 seedlings per acre. And the study indicated that the mix of species would ultimately resemble what it was before the fire, more hardwoods such as red alder near the streambank and on the flood plain of larger streams, more conifers as you got further away from the stream and higher in elevation near its headwaters.

“The species mix seems to be largely dictated, in the long run, by the hydrology of the local area, not so much the fact that a fire came through,” Hibbs said.

The study also concluded that the tree mortality after a fire was about the same in riparian zones as in the surrounding uplands. However, due to the higher moisture level in riparian soils, there was more organic matter left on the forest floor near streams to help stabilize soil, retain nutrients and result in less exposed mineral soil.

“Generally, this research suggests that a lot of post-fire rehabilitation in riparian zones isn’t necessary following most fires,” Halofsky said. “The cover, stream shade and recovery of plant and animal species occurs rather quickly, without management. These are very resilient ecosystems.”


Story By: 

David Hibbs, 541-737-6077

Multimedia Downloads

B&B Complex Fire

Two years after the B&B Complex fire, vegetation and resprouting hardwoods in riparian areas are already providing stream bank stabilization and erosion control, even in areas with widespread canopy mortality

Biscuit Fire

A red alder seedling is coming up two years after the Biscuit Fire

Biscuit Fire 2

Nearby, riparian vegetation has adapted to disturbances and flooding fairly quickly in its recovery after the fire


CORVALLIS - A new study has found that American attitudes toward illegal aliens in the United States are built upon the same variables that fuel prejudice against African Americans, homosexuals and other minorities.

The strongest, most common variable among people who have negative feelings toward these groups is "authoritarianism," according to Knud S. Larsen, a professor of psychology at Oregon State University and principle investigator in the study.

"These people are generally submissive to authority, preoccupied with status, preoccupied with conventional middle class values, and they persistently denigrate minorities," Larsen said. "They make their way through society by conforming and they have a very jaundiced eye toward those who do not conform."

An estimated 500,000 illegal aliens enter the country each year and the increasing numbers have prompted both political rhetoric and legislative action. In 1994, California voters passed Proposition 187, which sought to eliminate welfare, and other medical and social benefits for illegal aliens.

Other, more spontaneous responses from individuals have ranged from name calling to violence.

Larsen said racism and other forms of prejudice increase during times of economic strife in society. Social psychologists refer to the phenomenon as the frustration-aggression hypothesis or, more commonly, "scapegoating."

Scapegoating, he points out, is a convenient way to vent anger without taking on the real problem.

"Rather than deal with the trials and tribulations of our complex and often frustrating economic system, certain people target and blame minorities and the focus now is on illegal aliens," Larsen said.

Larsen said there often is an element of justification behind the attitudes - in the case of illegal aliens, the fear that our society is not equipped to handle a huge, comparatively sudden influx of additional people.

But, he added, negative attitudes toward aliens do little to address the problem.

"People see illegal aliens as a growing threat, not just in the U.S., but in Europe," Larsen said. "However, instead of dealing with the issue rationally (and through due process), the responses have included an increase of Neo-Nazism in Germany and a rise among the radical right wing in France."

The OSU study found attitudes toward illegal aliens were strongest on issues of access to U.S. borders and American payment for the care and education of illegal aliens. One of the strongest perceptions, Larsen said, is that illegal aliens cost the U.S. millions and millions of dollars each year.

"Other studies have shown that, overall, illegal aliens contribute more in economic worth than they cost," Larsen said.

The issue of what to do about illegal aliens won't go away, Larsen pointed out, and it likely will escalate.

"There are people all over the world right now, living more or less in crisis," he said. "They can't make enough to buy food, or there isn't enough food to eat. Or the government cannot provide the services that the citizens think it should.

"Those are dangerous times," Larsen added. "That is when fascism can rear its ugly head."

Story By: 

Knud Larsen, 541-737-1365


CORVALLIS - Music, speakers and how-to demonstrations highlight Oregon State University's annual Earth Week Celebration.

Activities are free and open to the public and start on the 26th anniversary of Earth Day - Monday, April 22, said Julie McGowan, an OSU junior in science, and events coordinator.

Focal point of the week is "to celebrate the Earth and get out all information possible to promote environmental awareness," McGowan said. Events are sponsored by Associated Students of OSU Environmental Affairs Task Force.

Top draw is an information fair scheduled from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., Wednesday, April 24, in OSU's Memorial Union Ballroom, McGowan said. The fair features ways to decrease the environmental impacts of everyday life.

Earth Week activities include:


Monday, April 22

  • Noon: William Lunch, OSU associate professor of political science, will speak about the concepts of Earth Day; OSU president Paul Risser also will speak. (MU lounge) Tree planting at OSU's Gilbert Hall follows.


Tuesday, April 23

  • 1 p.m.: A series of presentations by the Corvallis Environmental Center, including the Oregon bottle bill expansion initiative, the sustainable forestry initiative and the clean streams initiative. MU Room 211. Time subject to change.


Wednesday, April 24

  • 10 a.m. - 2 p.m. Information Fair, featuring ways people can learn to live in closer harmony with the earth. Memorial Union Ballroom.


  • Noon: "Oregonians for Environmental Rights," a talk hosted by the Corvallis Environmental Center. MU lounge.


  • 6-7 p.m.: Survey on public perceptions of forestry issues, hosted by the Corvallis Environmental Center. MU Martin Luther King Jr. Room.


Thursday, April 25

  • 10 a.m. - 2 p.m.: "Vegetarian Table," an exhibit on vegetarian eating by the Vegetarian Supper Club. "Waste Audit," by Campus Recycling explores what enters the garbage stream at OSU. Both events in Memorial Union Quad.


Friday, April 26

  • 10 a.m. - 2 p.m.: Campus Recycling display. MU Quad.


  • Noon - 2 p.m.: A series of speakers will discuss environmental issues, topics to be announced. MU lounge.


  • 7 p.m. - 11 p.m.: Singer Rob Hoyt takes center stage at a musical Earth Week celebration hosted by the Corvallis Environmental Center. Refreshments will be provided. MU lounge.


Julie McGowan, 541-737-2101


CORVALLIS - Archaeologists from Oregon State University will team with workers from the City of Woodburn this week to search for evidence of a rich deposit of Ice Age animal remains discovered near Mill Creek in the 1980s.

The project is being coordinated by the Center for the Study of the First Americans at OSU, in cooperation with the City of Woodburn and Woodburn High School. The site is on high school property.

On Thursday, city workers will use backhoes to carefully begin a deep extraction of dirt, retracing the utility route workers used nine years ago when the site was discovered. Along with rock and silt deposits, workers in 1987 uncovered evidence of numerous extinct paleontological animals, including mammoth, mastodon, bison, ground sloth, wolf, bear and horse remains.

For a variety of reasons - including a lack of funding - the site was never developed, though scientists say it may be "one of the richest deposits of Ice Age animals in Oregon."

"The animal remains were all found in a black, organic muck," said Rob Bonnichsen, director of OSU's Center for the Study of the First Americans. "They should be in an anaerobic - oxygen free - environment and have the potential for being preserved in mint condition."

The backhoes will carefully scoop out dirt until scientists locate the remains, according to Chuck Hibbs, one of the archaeologists leading the project. "We know roughly where they are - within 100 meters or so," he said.

A team of archaeologists will be ready to process any samples that are found. OSU researchers also will be looking for Ice Age hair samples to continue their work of extracting ancient DNA from archaeological sites.

If this week's project is successful, a more formal excavation effort is planned for the site in mid-August.


Story By: 

Alison Stenger, 503-292-5862


CORVALLIS - A growing concern about risks to clean water, ecosystem viability, wetland conservation and nonpoint source pollution has prompted the Oregon State University Department of Crop and Soil Science to offer a new, one-year, non-thesis master of science program in environmental soil science.

"The environmental soil science M.S. degree program will prepare candidates for work in soils consulting, waste management, bioremediation, environmental impact assessment, land evaluation, agricultural chemicals management, wetlands and water quality, in the public or private sectors," explained Richard Dick, professor of soil science at OSU.

"This one-year, non-thesis program is designed for those who have been working full-time or for recent graduates," he said.

Course work includes 45 quarter hours of advanced soil science, business administration and engineering. A project is a part of the program and may be completed as an internship with a public or private agency or in cooperation with a faculty member at OSU.

Applicants are encouraged to get in touch with the program before applying, said Dick. Applications can be submitted any time. Students must gain admission into the OSU Graduate School. No previous coursework in soils is required, though it is helpful. For those with a non-science degree, additional coursework in fundamentals of chemistry, math, biology and physics would be required before admittance into the program.

The program will be starting up in the fall of 1996. For more information, contact Richard Dick, Environmental Soil Science M.S. Program, Department of Crop and Soil Science, OSU, 3017 Ag and Life Sciences Bldg., Corvallis, OR 97331-5718.


Richard Dick, 541-737-5718


CORVALLIS - Melodie Putnam cares for about 2,000 plants a year - most of them are dying or diseased.

Depressing? It could be, but Putnam says there is an element of detective work needed for every sample she receives in her position as chief diagnostician at the Oregon State University Extension Plant Disease Clinic.

They come to this "plant doctor" in the form of whole trees, single leaves or, sometimes, plastic bags full of rotting goo.

On a good day Putnam gets a conifer that freshens the laboratory air. On other days, she receives plants that with have fungal problems or viral infections, or others that just look odd.

Despite the case load and the condition of some of her "patients," Putnam says she enjoys the job because she is able help people solve problems. Seldom does she have to administer last rights and sometimes she even discovers a new disease to add to the body of research.

Putnam is sort of a plant doctor of last resort. Before reaching her, Oregonians first can take their questions to an OSU Extension Service county office. If agents there don't have the answer they can refer the case to Putnam. In addition to many questions that originate with home owners and gardeners, she gets hundreds from commercial growers.

"Most of the easy-to-diagnose cases get handled at county extension agents' offices, so the samples I get usually have people stumped," Putnam said. "People want to know, 'Will these mushrooms poison my dog?' Or 'Will I have to cut down my pin oak tree?'

"There are about 330 different crops being grown in Oregon," she added. "Some, such as corn, have been studied to death. Others are more exotic. Echinacea and ginseng, for instance, are new high-value crops in the expanding medicinal herb business."

Echinacea is a flowering plant thought to fight colds and the flu. Marketers say ginseng boosts vitality.

"Just like people, some of the plants that come in have viruses," she said. "And, like viruses that attack humans, these cannot be cured. Some are not deadly, but there isn't much you can do once the plant is infected. There is no Ebola virus in the plant world, but some viruses will kill plants - it may just take a while."

Sometimes no treatment is necessary, Putnam pointed out. Many of the plant problems that come to her lab are "abiotic" - that is, they have a problem not caused by living organisms. They may just have an abnormality or be suffering from excess fertilizer, cold injury or general stress.

Many of the samples coming in now were injured from late-winter freezes, Putnam said. The leaves are not coming out fully or there are unexpectedly few flowers. The tissues that transport water were damaged, so after the leaves came out they wilted. Or, plants such as forsythia, didn't flower well because their buds were killed by late-season freezing.

"Some politicians make jokes about studying stress in plants as if it were somehow a frivolous waste of money," said Putnam. "No, plants don't experience stress over divorce, mortgage or loss of income. But, like humans, plants that are stressed are more likely to contract diseases. Is plant stress frivolous? We depend on plants for food, fiber and building materials.

"The stress that plants experience can be from things such as unseasonable cold weather, drought, transplanting or being taken out of their natural environment," she added. "Take a sycamore tree that is adapted for growth near a stream bed and transplant it to the middle of a park with no provision for irrigation and you're going to have a problem."

"The good news is that most plants are resilient," said Putnam. "I usually give people a 'cultural' and 'chemical' prescription for their plant's disease. A cultural treatment might be pruning off the diseased tissue or simply rotating crops or planting sites. A chemical approach might be applying a commercial fungicide."

Putnam warned Oregonians to be cautious about cultural controls that "you just hear about somewhere." One disease remedy involving a large dose of baking powder and Epsom salts may scorch all the leaves on your plants.

"Your best defense against plant disease is to buy healthy, disease-free and disease-resistant stock," said Putnam. "Look for statements of resistance in seed catalogs or ask at the nursery. The next step, if your plant still develops a problem, is to have it correctly diagnosed before you start any type of treatment.

"One of the best home diagnosis books is Westcott's Plant Disease Control Handbook," she added. "Another option is to take as large a sample as practical to an OSU Extension Service county office. This is a free service. You can save time, effort and a lot of money by getting the correct diagnosis. For example, you could purchase an expensive fungicide only to discover later that your plant has a bacterial problem."

Similar to being a doctor to humans, sometime as a plant doctor you have to deliver bad news. Occasionally you have to tell people it is too late to do anything.

Or, in the case of Dutch Elm disease, you may have to say that immediate removal of the tree is necessary.

"There are no Jack Kevorkian plant doctors," Putnam said, "but telling someone to remove a large living tree that may have been part of their yard for years can be pretty traumatic."


Melodie Putnam, 541-737-3472


CORVALLIS - Oregon State University has released a video called "Towns in Transition" and a companion study guide designed to help communities across the United States whose economies are linked to natural resource industries.

"Global, national and local forces have been causing dramatic economic and social changes in natural resource-dependent communities," said Lyla Houglum, director of the OSU Extension Service. "The goal of this educational package is to lend a helping hand to the families that live and work in them." Produced by an Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station team, the 30-minute "Towns in Transition" video examines the experiences of residents in three towns adjusting to significant change. They are Tulelake, Calif.; Forks, Wash.; and Astoria, Ore. Historical mainstays of the three communities' economies are farming, logging and fishing, respectively.

A 40-page, companion study guide applies a model for managing change to the communities featured in the video, discusses how informal and formal leaders can help, and identifies useful tools.

The video was aired via satellite on July 10 - through the national Agricultural Distance Education Consortium - to the extension services in every state for use with local communities.

The "Towns in Transition" VHS video tape, and study guide (VTP 025), are available as a package for $30 including shipping and handling. Additional copies of the study guide (EM 8648) are $2.50 each. To order write: Publication Orders, Extension and Station Communications, Oregon State University, 422 Kerr Admin., Corvallis, OR 97331-2119. Make check or money order payable to OSU Extension Service.

The video was produced by Andy Duncan and Lynn Ketchum of OSU's Department of Extension and Experiment Station Communications. The study guide was written by Flaxen D.L. Conway, Pat Corcoran and Greg Tillson, Extension Service community development specialists, who consulted on the video.

The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. For more information, call OSU Extension and Experiment Station Communications, 541-737-3311.


Flaxen D.L. Conway, 541-737-1418