OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

energy and sustainability

Oregon State to host grid energy storage symposium

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Leaders in energy storage technology will converge on the Oregon State University campus Nov. 5-6 for a symposium to discuss opportunities and challenges for next-generation, large-scale grid energy storage systems in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide.

The meeting, expected to draw 100 to 150 participants, is intended to serve as a forum for industry representatives, utility companies, academic and government researchers, and policymakers to discuss energy storage and potential major applications in the region.

 “This meeting brings together the thought leaders who are driving the implementation of novel energy storage systems for the grid, wave power, and other sustainable energy technologies,” said conference chair Zhenxing Feng, assistant professor of chemical engineering in OSU’s College of Engineering. “These are the enabling technologies that can make the dream of 100 percent renewable energy into a reality.”

The symposium is being organized by Oregon State with assistance from the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, a public/private partnership established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2012. Topics for discussion include the status of current battery technology, challenges and opportunities in the emerging sectors of transportation and the energy grid, energy resilience in the electrical grid, special needs in Oregon, and commercialization and manufacturing opportunities throughout the region.

Invited presenters include researchers from Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, as well as representatives from industry, such as Lebanon, Oregon-based Entek International LLC.

The agenda includes keynote speakers, panel discussions, breakout sessions and a poster session networking event. Also planned are tours to a local utility company and Oregon State’s state-of-the-art facility for energy storage and materials characterization research.

More information and registration are available online at cbee.oregonstate.edu/energy-storage-symposium. 

Media Contact: 

Keith Hautala, 541-737-1478

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Ocean Sentinel

Testing wave energy

September workshop set to explore drilling project at Newberry Volcano

BEND, Ore. – An international group of geoscience experts will convene in Bend Sept. 10-14 to develop a proposal for drilling one of the hottest wells in the world at Newberry Volcano in central Oregon.

More than 40 scientists and engineers will meet at the Oregon State University-Cascades campus in Bend to explore options for the geothermal energy project, as well as funding potential. The workshop is sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program, a non-profit organization that supports international science teams pursuing land-based drilling.

The event is being coordinated by the NEWGEN consortium, which was formed in 2015 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, AltaRock Energy, Oregon State University and Statoil to develop a research observatory on geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano.

The Newberry Geothermal Test Facility, located on the western flank of the caldera rim of Newberry Volcano, is one of the largest geothermal heat reservoirs in the western United States. Hot rock is relatively close to the surface at the site, making it easier to drill super-hot wells and carry out enhanced geothermal system research, according to Adam Schultz, an OSU geologist and geophysicist involved with the effort.

“There is enormous geothermal energy potential in the United States, with the greatest concentration of resources in the West,” Schultz said. “Our test site at Newberry Volcano represents one of the most promising geologic settings for geothermal power in the West, where super-hot rock could produce a high yield of stable, baseline electric power production that – unlike other renewable energy sources – doesn’t vary with sunlight, wind or wave conditions.

“Geothermal can serve as a like-for-like replacement for coal, oil, gas and nuclear power that can operate 24/7 and underpin our nation’s energy supply. By drilling deep beneath the west flank of the volcano, we can develop new technologies for green, carbon-free energy production.”

The site has been studied for 40 years and millions of dollars have been invested there by the U.S. Department of Energy and private geothermal developers, resulting in a ready-to-use facility with the necessary infrastructure, environmental permits, land commitments, and monitoring plans.

An idle geothermal exploration well drilled in 2008, which is 3,500 meters deep, has temperatures of 320 degrees Celsius (608 degrees Fahrenheit) at the bottom. Researchers are evaluating plans to deepen the well another 1,500 meters to reach temperatures above 450 degrees Celsius (842 degrees Fahrenheit).

Scientists and engineers with expertise in geothermal energy, high-temperature drilling, seismology and volcanology are expected to attend the workshop. They are from the U.S., Canada, Japan, Norway, Iceland, France and Italy.

More information on the project is available at http://www.newberrygeothermal.com.

Story By: 
Source: 

Adam Schultz, 541-737-9832, adam.schultz@oregonstate.edu

New assessment identifies global hotspots for water conflict

CORVALLIS, Ore. – More than 1,400 new dams or water diversion projects are planned or already under construction and many of them are on rivers flowing through multiple nations, fueling the potential for increased water conflict between some countries.

A new analysis commissioned by the United Nations uses a comprehensive combination of social, economic, political and environmental factors to identify areas around the world most at-risk for “hydro-political” strife. This river basins study was part of the U.N.’s Transboundary Waters Assessment Program.

Researchers from the United States, Spain and Chile took part in the analysis, which has been recommended by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe as an indicator for the U.N.’s sustainable development goals for water cooperation.

Results of the study have just been published in the journal Global Environment Change. 

The analysis suggests that risks for conflict are projected to increase over the next 15 to 30 years in four hotspot regions – the Middle East, central Asia, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, and the Orange and Limpopo basins in southern Africa.

Additionally, the Nile River in Africa, much of southern Asia, the Balkans in southeastern Europe, and upper South America are all areas where new dams are under construction and neighboring countries face increasing water demand, may lack workable treaties, or worse, haven’t even discussed the issue.

“If two countries have agreed on water flow and distribution when there’s a dam upstream, there usually is no conflict,” said Eric Sproles, an Oregon State University hydrologist and a co-author on the study. “Such is the case with the Columbia River basin between the United States and Canada, whose treaty is recognized as one of the most resilient and advanced agreements in the world. 

“Unfortunately, that isn’t the case with many other river systems, where a variety of factors come into play, including strong nationalism, political contentiousness, and drought or shifting climate conditions.”

The conflict over water isn’t restricted to human consumption, the researchers say. There is a global threat to biodiversity in many of the world’s river systems, and the risk of species extinction is moderate to very high in 70 percent of the area of transboundary river basins.

Asia has the highest number of dams proposed or under construction on transboundary basins of any continent with 807, followed by South America, 354; Europe, 148; Africa, 99; and North America, 8. But Africa has a higher level of hydro-political tension, the researchers say, with more exacerbating factors.

The Nile River, for example, is one of the more contentious areas of the globe. Ethiopia is constructing several dams on tributaries of the Nile in its uplands, which will divert water from countries downstream, including Egypt. Contributing to the tension is drought and a growing population more dependent on a water source that may be diminishing.

“When you look at a region, the first thing you try to identify is whether there is a treaty and, if so, is it one that works for all parties and is flexible enough to withstand change,” Sproles said. “It’s easy to plan for water if it is the same every year – sometimes even when it’s low. When conditions vary – and drought is a key factor – the tension tends to increase and conflict is more likely to occur.”

In addition to environmental variability and lack of treaties, other factors leading to conflict include political and economic instability, and armed conflict, the analysis shows.

Sproles said one reason the Columbia River Basin treaty between the U.S. and Canada has worked well is the relative stability of the water supply. In contrast, climate models suggest that the Orinoco River Basin in northern Brazil and the Amazon Basin in upper South America may face drier conditions, which could lead to more strife.

Sproles is a courtesy faculty member in Oregon State’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, where he received his doctorate.

More information on the United Nations Transboundary Waters Assessment Program is available at: http://www.geftwap.org/.

A shorter version of the paper was published July 13 on the Sustainable Security website.

Story By: 
Media Contact: 

Mark Floyd, 541-737-0788

Source: 

Northwest researchers map out regional approach to studying food, energy, water nexus

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Natural resource researchers at Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho are gearing up for a late-summer summit aimed at addressing food, energy and water challenges as interconnected, regional issues.

The August meeting in Hermiston, Ore. – centrally located to many National Science Foundation-funded research projects – represents the second step of a collaboration that began with an April workshop in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho.

Research offices at the three universities hosted the gathering, where scientists explored ways to partner with each other and with industry to address issues that affect regional economies as well as environmental and human health.

Stephanie Hampton from WSU and Andrew Kliskey from Idaho led the planning of the workshop, at which six teams combined to start five U.S. Department of Agriculture and NSF grant proposals on issues ranging from water conservation to energy infrastructure.

“We’re really building a critical mass of researchers and research experience in the region,” said Chad Higgins, an agricultural engineering professor leading OSU’s role in the partnership. “The workshop was awesome. It exceeded all expectations with mind-blowing scientific discussions, new collaborations formed and new proposals floated. And now we have to keep it going because that was just the opening salvo, not the crescendo.”

Topics for future exploration might be broad – such as, will the region have enough food in 2050? – or narrow, like tracing the impact of a single technology. For example, a more efficient system for irrigation could lead to less energy used for pumping and also result in more food being produced.

“The food, energy, water nexus is so huge that it’s scary, but it’s also exciting,” Higgins said. “There are so many opportunities to look at things either in detail or to try to be broad and think about how the region will be influenced. We can bring each person’s expertise together to predict pain points, like are we going to be scarce in any one resource in the future, and where?”

Janet Nelson, vice president for research and economic development at the University of Idaho, said the tri-state collaboration “will poise us to build relationships among researchers from all three universities with many areas of expertise in order to work toward solutions that improve communities, economies and lives.”

“The University of Idaho is committed to examining issues that are critical not only to the people of Idaho, but also to the entire Northwest region, with rippling effects around the world,” she said.

Those issues include how to best update aging hydropower plants and food production infrastructure.

Cynthia Sagers, vice president for research at Oregon State, notes that when it comes to food, energy and water challenges, a solution in one location can lead to problems hundreds of miles away.

“That’s why this demands regional cooperation,” she said. “I am proud that our three land grant institutions are working together on these issues for a healthy Pacific Northwest." 

Christopher Keane, vice president of research at WSU, echoed the sentiment and said he “looks forward to seeing the results of continued collaboration.”

“Working across disciplines and institutions to ensure a sustainable supply of food, energy and water for future generations is a top research priority for WSU,” he said.

In addition to the August event, the planning team is applying for external funding to support ongoing meetings to help sustain momentum. 

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Sunflowers

Sunflower crop

Research aims to protect eagles from wind turbines

CORVALLIS, Ore. – New research from Oregon State University will aim to make eagles less likely to collide with wind-turbine blades.

The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Technology Office has awarded Roberto Albertani of the OSU College of Engineering a 27-month, $625,000 grant to develop technology for detecting and deterring approaching eagles and for determining if a blade strike has occurred.

A growing energy source in the U.S., wind power uses towers up to 300 feet tall typically equipped with three blades with wingspans double that of a Boeing 747. At their tips, the blades are moving close to 200 miles per hour.

Wind power is generally regarded as green energy, but danger to birds – particularly bald eagles and golden eagles – is a concern.

Albertani’s team will work on a three-part system for protecting the eagles. “We’re the only team in the world doing this kind of work,” said Albertani, an associate professor of mechanical engineering.

The team includes Sinisa Todorovic, associate professor of computer science, and Matthew Johnston, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering.

If successful, Albertani said, the system that he and his colleagues develop will be a major breakthrough in a safer-for-wildlife expansion of wind energy worldwide.

The system will feature a tower-mounted, computer-connected camera able to determine if an approaching bird is an eagle and whether it’s flying toward the blades. If both those answers are yes, the computer triggers a ground-level deterrent: randomly moving, brightly colored facsimiles of people, designed to play into eagles’ apparent aversion to humans.

“There’s no research available, but hopefully those will deter the eagles from coming closer to the turbines,” Albertani said. “We want the deterrent to be simple and affordable.”

At the root of each turbine blade will be a vibration sensor able to detect the kind of thump produced by a bird hitting a blade. Whenever such a thump is detected, recorded video data from a blade-mounted micro-camera can be examined to tell if the impact was caused by an eagle or something else.

“If we strike a generic bird, sad as that is, it’s not as critical as striking a protected golden eagle, which would cause the shutdown of a wind farm for a period of time, a fine to the operator, big losses in revenue, and most important the loss of a member of a protected species,” Albertani said.

Albertani’s team includes two collaborators from the U.S. Geological Survey, biological statistician Manuela Huso and wildlife biologist and eagle expert Todd Katzner. An external advisory board includes Siemens Wind Power and Avangrid Renewables.

Primary field testing will take place at the North American Wind Research and Training Center in Tucumcari, N.M., and the NREL National Wind Technology Center in Boulder, Colo. Field work will also be done in Oregon and California.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates there are roughly 143,000 bald eagles and 40,000 golden eagles in the United States.

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Wind energy

Wind turbines

New hydronium-ion battery presents opportunity for more sustainable energy storage

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new type of battery developed by scientists at Oregon State University shows promise for sustainable, high-power energy storage.

It’s the world’s first battery to use only hydronium ions as the charge carrier.

The new battery provides an additional option for researchers, particularly in the area of stationary storage.

Stationary storage refers to batteries in a permanent location that store grid power – including power generated from alternative energy sources such as wind turbines or solar cells – for use on a standby or emergency basis.

Hydronium, also known as H3O+, is a positively charged ion produced when a proton is added to a water molecule. Researchers in the OSU College of Science have demonstrated that hydronium ions can be reversibly stored in an electrode material consisting of perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydridem, or PTCDA.

This material is an organic, crystalline, molecular solid. The battery, created in the Department of Chemistry at Oregon State, uses dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte.

Graduate student Xingfeng Wang was the first author on the study, which has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, a publication of the German Chemical Society.

“This may provide a paradigm-shifting opportunity for more sustainable batteries,” said Xiulei Ji, assistant professor of chemistry at OSU and the corresponding author on the research. “It doesn’t use lithium or sodium or potassium to carry the charge, and just uses acid as the electrolyte. There’s a huge natural abundance of acid so it’s highly renewable and sustainable.”

Ji points out that until now, cations – ions with a positive charge – that have been used in batteries have been alkali metal, alkaline earth metals or aluminum.

“No nonmetal cations were being considered seriously for batteries,” he said.

The study observed a big dilation of the PTCDA lattice structure during intercalation – the process of its receiving ions between the layers of its structure. That meant the electrode was being charged, and the PTCDA structure expanded, by hydronium ions, rather than extremely tiny protons, which are already used in some batteries.

“Organic solids are not typically contemplated as crystalline electrode materials, but many are very crystalline, arranged in a very ordered structure,” Ji said. “This PTCDA material has a lot of internal space between its molecule constituents so it provides an opportunity for storing big ions and good capacity.”

The hydronium ions also migrate through the electrode structure with comparatively low “friction,” which translates to high power.

“It’s not going to power electric cars,” Ji said. “But it does provide an opportunity for battery researchers to go in a new direction as they look for new alternatives for energy storage, particularly for stationary grid storage.”

Media Contact: 

By Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 
Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

hydronium-ion battery

Simulated PTCDA unit cell

Marine ecologist offers suggestions for achieving a strong, lasting ‘blue economy’

BOSTON – Incentive-based solutions offer significant hope for addressing the myriad environmental challenges facing the world’s oceans – that’s the central message a leading marine ecologist delivered today in during a presentation at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Jane Lubchenco, a distinguished professor in the Oregon State University College of Science, shared lessons from around the world about ways “to use the ocean without using it up” as nations look to the ocean for new economic opportunities, food security or poverty alleviation.

Elizabeth Cerny-Chipman, a former postdoctoral scholar under Lubchenco who’s now a Knauss Fellow at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, co-authored the presentation, titled “Getting Incentives Right for Sustained Blue Growth: Science and Opportunities.”

In her presentation, Lubchenco pointed out that achieving the long-term potential of blue growth will require aligning short- and long-term economic incentives to achieve a diverse mix of benefits. Blue growth refers to long-term strategies for supporting sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors as a whole.

“If we harness human ingenuity and recognize that a healthy ocean is essential for long-term prosperity, we can tackle the enormous threats facing the ocean,” Lubchenco says, “and we can make a transition from vicious cycles to virtuous cycles.”

Lubchenco and her collaborators note that the world’s oceans are the main source of protein production for 3 billion people; are directly or indirectly responsible for the employment of more than 200 million people; and contribute $270 billion to the planet’s gross domestic product.

“The right incentives can drive behavior that aligns with both desired environmental outcomes and desirable social outcomes,” Lubchenco says.

The first step in building increased support for truly sustainable blue growth, she says, is highlighting its potential. That means working with decision-makers to promote win-win solutions with clear short-term environmental and economic benefits. Governments, industry and communities all have important roles to play, Lubchenco notes.

“Another key step is transforming the social norms that drive the behavior of the different actors, particularly in industry,” Lubchenco says. “Finally, it will be critical to take a cross-sector approach.

“Some nations, like the Seychelles, Belize and South Africa, are doing integrated, smart planning to deconflict use by different sectors while also growing their economies in ways that value the health of the ocean, which is essential to jobs and food security. They are figuring out how to be smarter about ocean uses, not just to use the ocean more intensively.”

Prior to her presentation, Lubchenco gave a related press briefing on how to create the right incentives for sustainable uses of the ocean.

In November 2016, Lubchenco, Cerny-Chipman, OSU graduate student Jessica Reimer and Simon Levin, the distinguished university professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton University, co-authored a paper on a related topic for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Media Contact: 

By Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 
Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Catch share

"Catch share" fisheries program

New technique could lead to safer, more efficient uranium extraction, aid environmental cleanup

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The separation of uranium, a key part of the nuclear fuel cycle, could potentially be done more safely and efficiently through a new technique developed by chemistry researchers at Oregon State University.

The technique uses soap-like chemicals known as surfactants to extract uranium from an aqueous solution into a kerosene solution in the form of hollow clusters. Aside from fuel preparation, it may also find value in legacy waste treatment and for the cleanup of environmental contamination.

The research at OSU involves a unique form of uranium discovered in 2005, uranyl peroxide capsules, and how those negatively charged clusters form in alkaline conditions. Results were recently published in the European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry.

“This is a very different direction,” said study lead author Harrison Neal, a graduate student in Oregon State’s College of Science. “A lot of the work done now is in acid, and we’re at the other end of the pH scale in base. It’s a very different approach, overall using less harmful, less toxic chemicals.”

Throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, many separations are required – in mining, enrichment and fuel fabrication, and then after fuel use, for the recovery of usable spent isotopes and the encapsulation and storage of unusable radioactive components.

“When you use nuclear fuel, the radioactive decay products poison the fuel and make it less effective,” said May Nyman, professor of chemistry at Oregon State and corresponding author on the research. “You have to take it, dissolve it, get the good stuff out and make new fuel.”

Nyman notes the work represents significant fundamental research in the field of cluster chemistry because it allows for the study of uranyl clusters in the organic phase and can pave the way to improved understanding of ion association.

“With extracting these clusters into the organic phase, the clusters themselves are hollow, so when we get them into the organic solution, they’re still containing other atoms, molecules, other ions,” Neal added. “We can study how these ions interact with these cages that they’re in. The fundamental research is understanding how the ions get inside and what they do once they’re inside because they’re stuck there.”

When the clusters form, each contains 20 to 60 uranium atoms, “so we can extract them in whole bunches instead of one at a time,” Nyman said. “It’s an atom-efficient approach.”

Existing separation techniques require two extraction molecules for every uranium ion, whereas the OSU technique requires less than one extraction molecule per ion.

Scientists from the University of Notre Dame collaborated on the research, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 
Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

uranyl peroxide capsules

Uranyl peroxide capsules

Off-grid power in remote areas will require special business model to succeed

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Low-cost, off-grid solar energy could provide significant economic benefit to people living in some remote areas, but a new study suggests they generally lack the access to financial resources, commercial institutions and markets needed to bring solar electricity to their communities.

Around the world, more than 1.2 billion people lack access to basic electricity service. The majority of those people are living in developing nations, in rural or isolated areas with high rates of poverty. Steep costs and remote terrain often make it impractical or even impossible to extend the electric grid. 

Developing a successful business model that could deliver off-grid power to this market will require addressing challenges unique to the population, an Oregon State University researcher concluded in a study published recently in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

“Surviving and growing in this market is very different than in a typical commercial enterprise,” said Inara Scott, an assistant professor in the College of Business. “There are a lot of people working on off-grid solar products on the small scale, but the problem becomes how can they scale the programs up and make them profitable?” 

When rural, isolated communities do gain access to solar power, the impact on residents can be profound, Scott said. Children are more likely to go to and complete schooling, because they have light to study by. Kerosene lamps, which create a lot of indoor air pollution, are no longer needed, improving people’s health. And work hours are increased, giving people more time to earn money or build home-based businesses.

“Providing electricity starts an incredible cycle of improvement for communities without reliance on charities or government aid,” she said. “There are also environmental benefits to encouraging sustainable development using renewable resources.” 

The market for small solar lighting and charging units has grown dramatically in the last few years, and solar home systems offer cleaner, safer and cheaper lighting over time than kerosene, the primary alternative for lighting in developing nations. But even a small cost can be out of reach for people whose annual incomes are often less than $3,000 per year, Scott said.

She examined successful business models for serving these populations, known as “base of the pyramid” markets, and successful renewable energy enterprises, looking for intersections that might aid businesses looking to market solar energy to base-of-pyramid markets. 

Scott found that a successful enterprise would include four primary components, and she developed a framework around them. Her recommendations:

  • Community interaction: Work with local communities to understand local norms, culture, social issues and economic systems that might influence the effort.
  • Partnerships: Join forces with other companies, government organizations, non-profit groups or non-governmental organizations to share ideas and resources and gain support.
  • Local capacity building: People in the community may lack product knowledge and have little experience with technology, while the community may not have typical distribution channels. Consider the potential customers as both producers and consumers, training local entrepreneurs as distributors, marketers and equipment installation/repair technicians.
  • Barriers unique to the off-grid market: Address issues such as financing of upfront costs, which may be prohibitive to consumers; educate people on the products and their benefits; build trust in quality and reliability; and develop multiple strong distribution networks.

“You’re not going to be successful just trying to sell a product,” she said. “This is really a social enterprise, with the goal of trying to bring people out of poverty while also emphasizing sustainable development.” 

There are a lot of socially-minded enterprises with good intentions that would like to work in these rural, remote and high-poverty areas, Scott noted. Her framework could serve as a checklist of sorts for organizations looking to put their ideas into action, she said.

“It’s a way to pause for a minute and ask yourself if you have all the right pieces in place to be successful,” she said.

Story By: 
Source: 

Inara Scott, 541-737-4102, Inara.Scott@oregonstate.edu

Chemical trickery corrals ‘hyperactive’ metal-oxide cluster

CORVALLIS, Ore. – After decades of eluding researchers because of chemical instability, key metal-oxide clusters have been isolated in water, a significant advance for growing the clusters with the impeccable control over atoms that’s required to manufacture small features in electronic circuits.

Oregon State University chemists created the aqueous cluster formation process. It yielded a polyoxocation of zinc, aluminum and chromium that is not protected by the organic ligand shell that is usually required to capture such molecules from water.

“Our discovery is exciting in that it provides both new fundamental understanding and new materials, and useful applications are always built on a foundation of fundamental understanding,” said May Nyman, a professor of chemistry at Oregon State.

Metal oxides – compounds produced when metals combine with oxygen – serve a variety of important purposes. For example, titanium dioxide is a catalyst that degrades pollutants, and aluminum oxides and iron oxides are coagulants used as the first step in purifying drinking water.

“Metal oxides influence processes everywhere,” Nyman said. “They control the spread of contaminants in the environment. They are the touchscreen of your cellphone. The metal-oxide cluster forms are in your body storing iron and in plants controlling photosynthesis. Most of these processes are in water. Yet scientists still know so little about how these metal oxides operate in nature, or how we can make them with the absolute control needed for high-performance materials in energy applications.” 

Results of the research by the OSU College of Science’s Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry were recently published in the journal Chem.

“We devised some synthetic processes so we can trick the clusters into forming,” Nyman said. “The main thing that we do is control the chemistry so the clusters grow not in the solution where they are highly reactive, but only at the surface, where the water evaporates and they instantly crystallize into a solid phase. Once in the solid phase, there’s no danger of reacting and precipitating metal oxide or hydroxide in an uncontrolled way.”

The clusters created in the research are spherical, contain about 100 atoms, and measure 1 nanometer across.

“Once we have synthesized these, we can prepare a solution of them, and they’re all exactly the same size and contain the same number of atoms,” Nyman said. “This gives us control over making very small features.

“The size of the feature is controlled by the size of the cluster. All metals on the periodic table act differently, and only a few have the right chemistry that behaves well enough to yield these clusters. For the rest of them, we need to innovate new chemistries to discover their cluster forms. The transition metals are particularly hard to control, yet they are earth-abundant and some of the most important metals in energy and environmental technologies.”

Metal-oxo clusters are usually isolated from water with ligands – molecules that protect the cluster surface and prevent precipitation of metal hydroxides.

In this study, an OSU team that included graduate students Lauren Fullmer, Sara Goberna-Ferron and Lev Zakharov overcame the need for ligands with a three-pronged strategy: pH-driven hydrolysis by oxidative dissolution of zinc; metal nitrate concentrations 10 times higher than conventional syntheses; and azeotropic evaporation for driving simultaneous cluster assembly and crystallization at the surface of the solution.

Meanwhile, the team’s computational collaborators in Catalonia provided a deeper understanding of the most stable arrangement of metal and oxygen atoms in the cluster.

“Contrary to common cluster growth, the fully assembled cluster is never detected in the reaction solution,” Nyman said. “Because the reactive clusters do not persist in solution, uncontrolled precipitation of metal hydroxide is avoided. In this sense, we have discovered a new way metal oxides can grow.”

Media Contact: 

Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

Source: 
Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

ZnCrAl-crystals2

Metal-oxide crystals