OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

energy and sustainability

A better battery: one-time pollutant may become valued product to aid wind, solar energy

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Chemists at Oregon State University have discovered that one or more organic compounds in a family that traditionally has been known as pollutants could offer an important advance to make cheap, reliable batteries.

Such batteries might be of particular value to store electricity from some clean energy systems. The inability to easily and cheaply store energy from the wind and sun, which is highly variable and intermittent, has been a key constraint to wider use of those forms of energy.

Although pumped hydro systems or compressed air facilities comprise almost all of the alternative energy storage capacity of this type, they have limitations. There is a tremendous demand, scientists say, for energy storage solutions that are modular and particularly suited to community storage, “smart grid” and micro-grid uses.

A new advance, published in ACS Energy Letters, has shown that at least one, and probably more compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, can function as a potentially low-cost, long-lasting and high-performance cathode in “dual-ion” batteries.

Such batteries would contain a carbon electrode as the anode and solid PAH as the cathode, with no need for the rare or costly metal elements now usually used.

Traditionally thought of as pollutants, PAHs are usually products of combustion – anything from a campfire to an automobile exhaust or coal-burning power plant – and pose significant concerns as toxins and carcinogens, often when inhaled.

But in this study, scientists found that at least one PAH compound called coronene, in a safe, crystallized solid form, makes a high-functioning electrode material with promising characteristics in dual-ion batteries.

“Prior to this work, PAHs were not considered stable when storing large anions,” said Xiulei (David) Ji, an assistant professor of chemistry in the OSU College of Science, and recipient of a 2016 National Science Foundation CAREER Award, the most prestigious award for junior faculty.

“We found that coronene crystalline solid, a PAH, can lose electrons and provide a good capacity of anion storage while being structurally and chemically stable. Coronene had good performance as an electrode and the ability to have a very long cycle life, or the number of charges and discharges it can handle.”

Avoiding the use of metals in the electrodes is a huge advantage for dual-ion batteries and makes them much more sustainable, Ji said. Graphite cathodes can do this, but a serious challenge that has held them back for two decades is that they operate at levels hostile to the non-aqueous solvents in the electrolyte. The batteries based on coronene largely eliminate this problem, and would significantly improve the maintenance cost and sustainability of a stationary battery system.

The researchers in this study demonstrated the potential of coronene, but also said that other PAH compounds as well may have similar potential.

This research opens the door to an entirely new concept in battery construction, they said, which might take what had once been an unwanted pollutant and turn it into a safe, valued product.

Primary collaborators on this project in OSU’s Department of Chemistry included lead author and graduate student Ismael Rodriguez-Perez, and professors Michael Lerner and Rich Carter.

The research was supported by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund.

 

Story By: 
Source: 

David Ji, 541-737-6798

david.ji@oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

New battery
New battery

New technology could improve use of small-scale hydropower in developing nations

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Engineers at Oregon State University have created a new computer modeling package that people anywhere in the world could use to assess the potential of a stream for small-scale, “run of river” hydropower, an option to produce electricity that’s of special importance in the developing world.

The system is easy to use; does not require data that is often unavailable in foreign countries or remote locations; and can consider hydropower potential not only now, but in the future as projected changes in climate and stream runoff occur.

OSU experts say that people, agencies or communities interested in the potential for small-scale hydropower development can much more easily and accurately assess whether it would meet their current and future energy needs.

Findings on the new assessment tool have been published in Renewable Energy, in work supported by the National Science Foundation.

“These types of run-of-river hydropower developments have a special value in some remote, mountainous regions where electricity is often scarce or unavailable,” said Kendra Sharp, the Richard and Gretchen Evans Professor in Humanitarian Engineering in the OSU College of Engineering.

“There are parts of northern Pakistan, for instance, where about half of rural homes don’t have access to electricity, and systems such as this are one of the few affordable ways to produce it. The strength of this system is that it will be simple for people to use, and it’s pretty accurate even though it can work with limited data on the ground.”

The new technology was field-tested at a 5-megawatt small-scale hydropower facility built in the early 1980s on Falls Creek in the central Oregon Cascade Range. At that site, it projected that future climate changes will shift its optimal electricity production from spring to winter and that annual hydropower potential will slightly decrease from the conditions that prevailed from 1980-2010.

Small-scale hydropower, researchers say, continues to be popular because it can be developed with fairly basic and cost-competitive technology, and does not require large dams or reservoirs to function. Although all forms of power have some environmental effects, this approach has less impact on fisheries or stream ecosystems than major hydroelectric dams. Hydroelectric power is also renewable and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

One of the most basic approaches is diverting part of a stream into a holding basin, which contains a self-cleaning screen that prevents larger debris, insects, fish and objects from entering the system. The diverted water is then channeled to and fed through a turbine at a lower elevation before returning the water to the stream.

The technology is influenced by the seasonal variability of stream flow, the “head height,” or distance the water is able to drop, and other factors. Proper regulations to maintain minimum needed stream flow can help mitigate environmental impacts.

Most previous tools used to assess specific sites for their small-scale hydropower potential have not been able to consider the impacts of future changes in weather and climate, OSU researchers said, and are far too dependent on data that is often unavailable in developing nations.

This free, open source software program was developed by Thomas Mosier, who at the time was a graduate student at OSU, in collaboration with Sharp and David Hill, an OSU associate professor of coastal and ocean engineering. It is now available to anyone on request by contacting Kendra.sharp@oregonstate.edu

This system will allow engineers and policy makers to make better decisions about hydropower development and investment, both in the United States and around the world, OSU researchers said in the study.

Story By: 
Source: 

Kendra Sharp, 541-737-5246

kendra.sharp@oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Small scale hydropower
Small scale hydropower

New program to train international specialists in water conflict resolution

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The increasing need for access to fresh water for drinking, agriculture, fisheries and other uses is at the root of a growing number of geopolitical conflicts around the world, yet there are few resource managers in charge who have training in both water science and diplomacy.

A new cooperative international education program aims to address that shortfall.

Oregon State University, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, and the UNESCO-IHE Water Education Center in The Netherlands are creating an international joint education program aimed at addressing water conflicts in a more professional manner. The program will launch this fall with about 10 students enrolled to earn master’s degrees, eventually growing to 30 students from around the world.

“There is a real need for people trained in the art of ‘hydro-diplomacy,’” said Aaron Wolf, an Oregon State University geographer and internationally recognized expert on water conflict. “The problem is really rather simple – there just isn’t enough water to go around for every need. So if you manage water, you have to know how to manage conflict and that’s where the training has been lacking.

“The good news is that water gives you the opportunity to get certain people into the room that wouldn’t ordinarily sit across from each other,” Wolf added. “And it gives them a common language.”

Students in the new program will study at each of the three sites, ending up at Oregon State where they will be required to conduct a collaborative, applied research project somewhere in the United States where water management issues are in play, according to Mary Santelmann, director of Oregon State’s Water Resources Graduate Program, which will coordinate the new degree in the U.S.

The venture builds on a certificate program OSU offers in water conflict management, and utilizes the expertise of each institution.

“Oregon State has some 90 faculty members who are involved in some aspect of water science and another 20 faculty members who focus on some aspect of public policy and conflict resolution,” Santelmann said. “That expertise, along with OSU’s work with a variety of federal agencies, made the university uniquely positioned to play a lead role in the new educational venture.”

The University for Peace in Costa Rica is a United Nations-mandated institution established in 1980 as a treaty organization by the UN General Assembly. Scholars there have a great deal of experience at high-level diplomacy, as well as conflict theory and geopolitical expertise with developing countries.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Water Education is the largest international graduate water education facility in the world, and has researchers with extensive experience in working on water resource issues in Europe and elsewhere.

“There is no single institution that could offer an entire curriculum and suite of experiences necessary to train a generation of students in hydro-diplomacy,” said Wolf, who is a 2015 recipient of the prestigious Heinz Award for public policy. “It had to be collaborative, international and experiential.”

The issues students will deal with are vast. In Oregon, for example, there has been a major conflict over water rights in the Klamath River basin, where agricultural interests compete with fisheries management and tribal rights.

These kinds of issues are not unusual in the United States, Wolf pointed out, and can become even more contentious when an international component is added.

“Ethiopia has been constructing a major dam and Egypt is so concerned about the impact on its water that it has discussed going to war over it,” Wolf said. “There are many countries in central and Southeast Asia where similar border tensions have arisen over water that flows across multiple jurisdictions.”

Water management is conflict management, Santelmann pointed out. The collaborative new program will focus on guiding students to gain skills in a variety of areas through field work, working with experts from different disciplines, and gaining a broad understanding of varying points of view, resolution processes, and water management science.

“Regardless of the scale, there is a demand for people who can ensure that the needs of the people and the ecosystem that rely on this critical resource will be met,” Santelmann said.

Santelmann and Wolf are in Oregon State’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

Story By: 
Source: 

Mary Santelmann, 541-737-1215, santelmm@geo.oregonstate.edu;

Aaron Wolf, 541-737-2722; wolfa@geo.oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

 

 

 

This tributary of the Nu River in China has all of its water diverted by dams and is dry – just one example of water use conflict around the world. A new collaborative program that includes Oregon State University aims to help train leaders in water conflict resolution. (Photo by Kelly Kibler, courtesy of Oregon State University)

OSU’s Aaron Wolf receives prestigious Heinz Award

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University’s Aaron Wolf, an internationally recognized expert on water conflict resolution, has been named a 2015 recipient of the Heinz Award in the category of public policy.

Established to honor the memory of U.S. Sen. John Heinz, the awards recognize significant contributions in arts and humanities, environment, human condition, public policy, and technology, the economy and employment. Wolf’s award, given by the Heinz Family Foundation, includes an unrestricted cash award of $250,000.

Wolf was cited for “applying 21st-century insights and ingenuity, as well as ancient wisdoms, to problems that few are paying attention to for the security of the planet.”

“In a world where water is rapidly becoming the most precious of resources and most geopolitical of issues, Aaron Wolf has found practical solutions to protect our water resources and find common ground on water-centered conflicts,” said Teresa Heinz, chairman of the Heinz Family Foundation.

“Water issues cross state and national boundaries, and his advocacy has driven treaties and agreements that recognize our competing demands on water resources and the vital importance of protecting those resources from a modern-day ‘tragedy of the commons.’”

A professor of geography in Oregon State’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Wolf decided early in his career to find ways to ease the tension over water rights, developing a negotiation approach that emphasizes listening and finding shared values among competing users.

Wolf also was cited for working to prepare future generations of scholars and leaders in water conflict resolution. He and other leading academics founded a consortium of 10 universities on five continents that seeks to build a global water governance culture focused on peace, sustainability and human security.

He also helped develop a new partnership between Oregon State, the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in The Netherlands and the University for Peace in Costa Rica that will offer a joint master’s degree program on water cooperation and peace.

“One thing I’m struck by over and over is what people of goodwill and creativity can accomplish, even in situations where everybody feels like they’re going to lose something,” Wolf said. “As I’ve watched the discourse change from water wars to water cooperation and peace, I’ve learned firsthand that people will resolve seemingly intractable problems when they’re given the space and the opportunity.”

Other Heinz Award winners include:

  • Roz Chast of Ridgefield, Connecticut, best-selling illustrator and cartoonist, the arts and humanities category;
  • Frederica Perera of New York, and environmental health researcher at Columbia University, the environment category;
  • William McNulty and Jacob Wood, founders of Team Rubicon in Los Angeles – which engages returning veterans to help in global relief efforts – the human conditions category;
  • Sangeeta Bhatia, a bioengineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in the technology, economy and employment category for pioneering efforts to cultivate liver cells outside the human body.

Wolf and the other winners will be honored at a ceremony on May 13 in Pittsburgh.

Story By: 
Source: 

Aaron Wolf, 541-737-2722; wolfa@geo.oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Natural Resources Leadership Academy 2012
OSU's Aaron Wolf

OSU named a “top green school” by Princeton Review

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University was ranked number 38 of “50 Top Green Schools” in the 2015 edition of The Princeton Review Guide to 353 Green Colleges.

The guide profiles colleges with exceptional commitments to sustainability, based on their academic offerings and career preparation for students, campus policies, initiatives, and activities. It also gives college applicants information about each school's admission requirements, cost and financial aid, as well as student body facts and statistics.

OSU received a green rating score of 98, and was recognized for its formal sustainability committee, available transportation alternatives and the availability of sustainability-focused degrees, among other things. The highest score a college can receive is 99.

The company tallied 861 colleges in summer 2014, using data from its 2013-14 survey of school administrators. The survey asked them to report on their school's sustainability-related policies, practices, and programs. 

The guide is available online at http://bit.ly/1DQ8te0 and is the only free comprehensive resource of its kind.

According to the review, students at OSU enjoy an "exceptional 'green living' education" on campus. Even the exercise machines at the recreation center help power the university's electrical grid. Known for its excellent reputation in sustainability, many students are drawn to OSU's outstanding engineering, forestry, biology, and geoscience programs. 

“OSU continues to be recognized for going above and beyond in its efforts to create a sustainable campus and a well-rounded student experience that increases awareness of critical global issues,” said Brandon Trelstad, OSU’s sustainability coordinator. “It’s great to be consistently recognized by the Princeton Review and other organizations, and it encourages us to keep meeting higher goals for our sustainability efforts.”

Story By: 
Source: 

Brandon Trelstad, 541-737-3307 or Brandon.trelstad@oregonstate.edu

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

bentonhall

Benton Hall

OSU receives Gold designation for sustainability

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University has again received a “Gold” designation from the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System, or STARS, the second highest rating a university can receive.  Platinum is the highest rating, but no university received that designation this year.

STARS is administered by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, of which OSU is a member. Schools are rated in four large categories of academics; engagement; operations, planning and administration; and one additional innovation category.

“This repeated Gold designation is a great indicator of the comprehensive and consistent nature of OSU’s sustainability work,” said Brandon Trelstad, OSU’s sustainability coordinator.

“It’s a team effort that includes entities beyond the Sustainability Office, like Campus Recycling and the Student Sustainability Initiative,” Trelstad said. “We have established solid programs but are always looking for ways to expand positive impact and demonstrate leadership.”

OSU was the first Oregon university to be rated by STARS, and received a Gold designation in 2011, and again in 2013.

This year, OSU received high marks for its sustainability coordination and planning, its diversity and affordability, and a perfect score on campus engagement. It also earned high marks for academic research, including support and access.

President Edward Ray said that STARS provided a guidepost in helping the university develop programs and initiatives around sustainability.

"The assessment is a valuable tool in forging new conversations and inspiring actions around issues of global importance, like biodiversity, climate change, divestment and social justice," Ray wrote in his submittal letter to the STARS Steering Committee.

Of other participating Oregon institutions, only Portland State University received a Gold designation. Pacific University and Oregon Institute of Technology received “Bronze” designations, and University of Oregon’s designation was “Reporter.”

To see OSU’s full STARS assessment, visit http://bit.ly/1qOeGAW. For more information on OSU’s efforts in sustainability,  http://fa.oregonstate.edu/sustainability/

Story By: 
Source: 

Brandon Trelstad, 541-737-3307

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

solar Solar panel array at Oregon State University

Technology using microwave heating may impact electronics manufacture

The study this story is based on is available online: http://bit.ly/1pJjhnK

 

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Engineers at Oregon State University have successfully shown that a continuous flow reactor can produce high-quality nanoparticles by using microwave-assisted heating – essentially the same forces that heat up leftover food with such efficiency.

Instead of warming up yesterday’s pizza, however, this concept may provide a technological revolution.

It could change everything from the production of cell phones and televisions to counterfeit-proof money, improved solar energy systems or quick identification of troops in combat.

The findings, recently published in Materials Letters, are essentially a “proof of concept” that a new type of nanoparticle production system should actually work at a commercial level.

“This might be the big step that takes continuous flow reactors to large-scale manufacturing,” said Greg Herman, an associate professor and chemical engineer in the OSU College of Engineering. “We’re all pretty excited about the opportunities that this new technology will enable.”

Nanoparticles are extraordinarily small particles at the forefront of advances in many biomedical, optical and electronic fields, but precise control of their formation is needed and “hot injection” or other existing synthetic approaches are slow, costly, sometimes toxic and often wasteful.

A “continuous flow” system, by contrast, is like a chemical reactor that moves constantly along. It can be fast, cheap, more energy-efficient, and offer lower manufacturing cost. However, heating is necessary in one part of the process, and in the past that was best done only in small reactors.

The new research has proven that microwave heating can be done in larger systems at high speeds. And by varying the microwave power, it can precisely control nucleation temperature and the resulting size and shape of particles.

“For the applications we have in mind, the control of particle uniformity and size is crucial, and we are also able to reduce material waste,” Herman said. “Combining continuous flow with microwave heating could give us the best of both worlds – large, fast reactors with perfectly controlled particle size.”

The researchers said this should both save money and create technologies that work better. Improved LED lighting is one possibility, as well as better TVs with more accurate colors. Wider use of solid state lighting might cut power use for lighting by nearly 50 percent nationally. Cell phones and other portable electronic devices could use less power and last longer on a charge.

The technology also lends itself well to creation of better “taggants,” or compounds with specific infrared emissions that can be used for precise, instant identification – whether of a counterfeit $20 bill or an enemy tank in combat that lacks the proper coding.

In this study, researchers worked with lead selenide nanoparticles, which are particularly good for the taggant technologies. Other materials can be synthesized using this reactor for different applications, including copper zinc tin sulfide and copper indium diselenide for solar cells.

New Oregon jobs and businesses are already evolving from this work.

OSU researchers have applied for a patent on aspects of this technology, and are working with private industry on various applications. Shoei Electronic Materials, one of the collaborators, is pursuing “quantum dot” systems based on this approach, and recently opened new manufacturing facilities in Eugene, Ore., to use this synthetic approach for quantum dot enabled televisions, smartphones and other devices.

The research has been supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory, OSU Venture Funds, and the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, or ONAMI.

Story By: 
Source: 

Greg Herman, 541-737-2496

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Continuous flow reactor

Continuous flow reactor

OSU solar projects provide cost savings, reduce carbon emissions

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University this spring has brought the largest of its ground-mounted solar arrays online as part of the Oregon University System’s “Solar by Degrees” program.

The university now has three solar project sites in Corvallis covering some 10 acres collectively that have the capacity to generate more than 2.6 million kilowatt-hours of power per year. The system not only provides cost savings by providing solar energy for less than current utility power rates, it helps Oregon State reduce its carbon footprint in a way that doesn’t cost the university money up front.

The arrays were constructed and are owned and operated by SolarCity, which has worked with OSU and the Oregon Institute of Technology for several years on the Solar by Degrees programs. The company’s collaboration with OSU has not been limited to the Corvallis campus, according to Brandon Trelstad, the university’s sustainability coordinator.

“The way the partnership works is that SolarCity installs the solar arrays at no cost to the university, and OSU simply pays for solar energy that they produce – at a lower rate than they would pay for utility power,” Trelstad said.

This past fall, SolarCity completed a 431-kilowatt installation at OSU’s Hermiston Agricultural Research and Experiment Station in Eastern Oregon, and another 221-kilowatt solar project at the North Willamette Research and Extension Center in Aurora. Annual electrical output from all five OSU solar sites is approximately equivalent to the annual carbon emissions from 255,025 gallons of gasoline or 477 passenger vehicles, according to US Environmental Protection Agency’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator.

“This is another step toward meeting OSU’s aggressive carbon emissions reduction targets,” Trelstad said. “It also saves the university money and provides some unique research and educational opportunities. Advancements like Solar by Degrees don’t come along often and I’m glad that OSU has been able to maximize our use of the groundwork laid by the Oregon University System.”

Two of the sites in Corvallis have operated for more than a year, but the latest site in Corvallis - which is located near 35th Street and Campus Way – just went online. Each installation is “grid-tied,” which means it seamlessly provides power when the sun shines and blends in utility power when it doesn’t.

At the branch Experiment Stations, the arrays not only save money, they provide an example of how solar power can work in a rural and/or agricultural setting.

“The solar array at Hermiston is expected to reduce our electricity costs by about half – a savings of about $30,000 in the first year and could increase in the future depending on electricity costs,” said Philip B. Hamm, director of the Hermiston Agricultural Research and Experiment Station.

“This allows us to provide more financial support toward our mission, which is to provide new research-based information to clients.”

Michael Bondi, director of the North Willamette Research and Extension Center located just south of Wilsonville, said the center at the end of February received its first electrical utility bill since the project was launched.

“For that month, we reduced our cost from the previous year by 50 percent,” Bondi said. “I like how that looks, especially in the middle of winter and a lot of gray days. Based on the design specs for the project, we expect to reduce our electrical usage from the grid by 80 to 85 percent each year.

“I’d say we are well on the way to that goal.”

“This will likely be the largest scale installations we complete here,” said Trelstad. “However, over the next few years, we will look for additional opportunities to install solar panels on roofs since we already have used much of the compatible ground space.”

At two of the three Corvallis installations, the College of Agricultural Sciences is grazing sheep next to the solar arrays, which is how the land previously was used. “This is a great way to optimize land use and not consume productive ground solely with solar installations,” Trelstad noted.  At the Aurora location, a bee and insect pollinator habitat area is being planned. At the Hermiston location, the area had never been used for research given its irregular shape and lack of water availability, but now benefits the campus to provide solar power in an otherwise unusable space.

More information on the arrays, including photos and electricity production information, is available at: http://oregonstate.edu/sustainability/ground-mounted-photovoltaic-arrays

Story By: 
Source: 

Brandon Trelstad, 541-737-3307, Brandon.trelstad@oregonstate.edu; Phil Hamm, 541-567-6337; philip.b.hamm@oregonstate.edu; Michael Bondi, 503-705-2434; Michael.bondi@oregonstate.edu

OSU scientists part of national APLU report outlining research challenges

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The national Association of Public and Land-grant Universities released a report today outlining six “grand challenges” facing the United States over the next decade in the areas of sustainability water, climate change, agriculture, energy and education.

The APLU project was co-chaired by W. Daniel Edge, head of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. The report is available online at: http://bit.ly/1ksH2ud

The “Science, Education, and Outreach Roadmap for Natural Resources” is the first comprehensive, nationwide report on research, education and outreach needs for natural resources the country’s university community has ever attempted, Edge said.

“The report identifies critical natural resources issues that interdisciplinary research programs need to focus on over the next 5-10 years in order to address emerging challenges,” Edge noted. “We hope that policy-makers and federal agencies will adopt recommendations in the roadmap when developing near-term research priorities and strategies.”

The six grand challenges addressed in the report are: 

  • Sustainability: The need to conserve and manage natural landscapes and maintain environmental quality while optimizing renewable resource productivity to meet increasing human demands for natural resources, particularly with respect to increasing water, food, and energy demands.
  • Water: The need to restore, protect and conserve watersheds for biodiversity, water resources, pollution reduction and water security.
  • Climate Change: The need to understand the impacts of climate change on our environment, including such aspects as disease transmission, air quality, water supply, ecosystems, fire, species survival, and pest risk. Further, a comprehensive strategy is needed for managing natural resources to adapt to climate change.
  • Agriculture: The need to develop a sustainable, profitable, and environmentally responsible agriculture industry.
  • Energy: The need to identify new and alternative renewable energy sources and improve the efficiency of existing renewable resource-based energy to meet increasing energy demands while reducing the ecological footprint of energy production and consumption.
  • Education: The need to maintain and strengthen natural resources education at our schools at all levels in order to have the informed citizenry, civic leaders, and practicing professionals needed to sustain the natural resources of the United States.

 

Three other OSU researchers were co-authors on the report, including Hal Salwasser, a professor and former dean of the College of Forestry; JunJie Wu, the Emery N. Castle Endowed Chair in Resource and Rural Economics; and George Boehlert, former director of OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center.

Wu played a key role in the climate change chapter in identifying the need to better understand the tradeoffs between investing now in climate change adaptation measures versus the long-term risk of not adopting new policies.

Edge and Boehlert contributed to the energy chapter, which focuses primarily on renewable energy.

“The natural resources issues with traditional sources of energy already are well-understood,” Boehlert said, “with the possible exception of fracking. As the country moves more into renewable energy areas, there are many more uncertainties with respect to natural resources that need to be understood and addressed. There are no energy sources that do not have some environmental issues.”

Salwasser was an author on the sustainability chapter that identifies many issues associated with natural resource use, including rangelands, forestry, fisheries and wildlife and biodiversity. The authors contend the challenge is to use these resources in a sustainable manner meeting both human and ecosystem needs.

The project was sponsored by a grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to Oregon State University, which partnered with APLU and authors from numerous institutions.

-30-

Story By: 
Source: 

Dan Edge, 541-737-2810; Daniel.edge@oregonstate.edu

Amber fossil reveals ancient reproduction in flowering plants

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A 100-million-year old piece of amber has been discovered which reveals the oldest evidence of sexual reproduction in a flowering plant – a cluster of 18 tiny flowers from the Cretaceous Period – with one of them in the process of making some new seeds for the next generation.

The perfectly-preserved scene, in a plant now extinct, is part of a portrait created in the mid-Cretaceous when flowering plants were changing the face of the Earth forever, adding beauty, biodiversity and food. It appears identical to the reproduction process that “angiosperms,” or flowering plants still use today.

Researchers from Oregon State University and Germany published their findings on the fossils in the Journal of the Botanical Institute of Texas.

The flowers themselves are in remarkable condition, as are many such plants and insects preserved for all time in amber. The flowing tree sap covered the specimens and then began the long process of turning into a fossilized, semi-precious gem. The flower cluster is one of the most complete ever found in amber and appeared at a time when many of the flowering plants were still quite small.

Even more remarkable is the microscopic image of pollen tubes growing out of two grains of pollen and penetrating the flower’s stigma, the receptive part of the female reproductive system. This sets the stage for fertilization of the egg and would begin the process of seed formation – had the reproductive act been completed.

“In Cretaceous flowers we’ve never before seen a fossil that shows the pollen tube actually entering the stigma,” said George Poinar, Jr., a professor emeritus in the Department of Integrative Biology at the OSU College of Science. “This is the beauty of amber fossils. They are preserved so rapidly after entering the resin that structures such as pollen grains and tubes can be detected with a microscope.”

The pollen of these flowers appeared to be sticky, Poinar said, suggesting it was carried by a pollinating insect, and adding further insights into the biodiversity and biology of life in this distant era. At that time much of the plant life was composed of conifers, ferns, mosses, and cycads.  During the Cretaceous, new lineages of mammals and birds were beginning to appear, along with the flowering plants. But dinosaurs still dominated the Earth.

“The evolution of flowering plants caused an enormous change in the biodiversity of life on Earth, especially in the tropics and subtropics,” Poinar said.

“New associations between these small flowering plants and various types of insects and other animal life resulted in the successful distribution and evolution of these plants through most of the world today,” he said. “It’s interesting that the mechanisms for reproduction that are still with us today had already been established some 100 million years ago.”

The fossils were discovered from amber mines in the Hukawng Valley of Myanmar, previously known as Burma. The newly-described genus and species of flower was named Micropetasos burmensis.

Story By: 
Source: 

George Poinar, 541-752-0917

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Ancient flowers

Ancient flower


Pollen tubes

Pollen tubes