OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

college of engineering

Tough tail of a seahorse may provide robotic solutions

CORVALLIS, Ore. – One of the ocean’s oddest little creatures, the seahorse, is providing inspiration for robotics researchers as they learn from nature how to build robots that have capabilities sometimes at odds with one another – flexible, but also tough and strong.

Their findings, published today in the journal Science, outline the virtues of the seahorse’s unusual skeletal structure, including a tail in which a vertebral column is surrounded by square bony plates. These systems may soon help create technology that offers new approaches to surgery, search and rescue missions or industrial applications.

Although technically a fish, the seahorse has a tail that through millions of years of evolution has largely lost the ability to assist the animal in swimming. Instead, it provides a strong, energy-efficient grasping mechanism to cling to things such as seaweed or coral reefs, waiting for food to float by that it can suck into its mouth.

At the same time, the square structure of its tail provides flexibility; it can bend and twist, and naturally returns to its former shape better than animals with cylindrical tails. This helps the seahorse hide, easily bide its time while food floats to it, and it provides excellent crushing resistance - making the animal difficult for predators to eat.

“Human engineers tend to build things that are stiff so they can be controlled easily,” said Ross Hatton, an assistant professor in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University, and a co-author on the study. “But nature makes things just strong enough not to break, and then flexible enough to do a wide range of tasks. That’s why we can learn a lot from animals that will inspire the next generations of robotics.”

Hatton said biological systems can combine both control and flexibility, and researchers gravitated to the seahorse simply because it was so unusual. They theorized that the square structure of its tail, so rare in nature, must serve a purpose.

“We found that this square architecture provides adequate dexterity and a tough resistance to predators, but also that it tends to snap naturally back into place once it’s been twisted and deformed,” Hatton said. “This could be very useful for robotics applications that need to be strong, but also energy-efficient and able to bend and twist in tight spaces.”

Such applications, he said, might include laparoscopic surgery, in which a robotic device could offer enhanced control and flexibility as it enters a body, moves around organs and bones, and then has the strength to accomplish a surgical task. It could find uses in industrial system, search and rescue robots, or anything that needs to be both resilient and flexible.

The researchers were able to study the comparative merits of cylindrical and square structures by using computer models and three-dimensional printed prototypes. They found that when a seahorse tail is crushed, the bony plates tend to slide past one another, act as an energy absorbing mechanism, and resist fracture of the vertebral column. They can then snap back to their normal position with little use of energy.

The square system also proved to be stiffer, stronger and more resilient than circular ones.

“Understanding the role of mechanics in these biologically inspired designs may help engineers to develop seahorse-inspired technologies for a wide variety of applications in robotics, defense systems or biomedicine,” the researchers wrote in their conclusion.

Collaborators on this study included corresponding author Michael Porter from Clemson University; Ghent University in Belgium; and the University of California at San Diego. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology.

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Seahorse skeleton
Seahorse skeleton


Square structure
Square tail structure


Seahorse
Clinging to grass

New technology using silver may hold key to electronics advances

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Engineers at Oregon State University have invented a way to fabricate silver, a highly conductive metal, for printed electronics that are produced at room temperature.

There may be broad applications in microelectronics, sensors, energy devices, low emissivity coatings and even transparent displays.

A patent has been applied for on the technology, which is now available for further commercial development. The findings were reported in Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

Silver has long been considered for the advantages it offers in electronic devices. Because of its conductive properties, it is efficient and also stays cool. But manufacturers have often needed high temperatures in the processes they use to make the devices, adding to their cost and complexity, and making them unsuitable for use on some substrates, such as plastics that might melt or papers that might burn.

This advance may open the door to much wider use of silver and other conductors in electronics applications, researchers said.

“There’s a great deal of interest in printed electronics, because they’re fast, cheap, can be done in small volumes and changed easily,” said Chih-hung Chang, a professor in the OSU College of Engineering. “But the heat needed for most applications of silver nanoparticles has limited their use.”

OSU scientists have solved that problem by using a microreactor to create silver nanoparticles at room temperatures without any protective coating, and then immediately printing them onto almost any substrate with a continuous flow process.

“Because we could now use different substrates such as plastics, glass or even paper, these electronics could be flexible, very inexpensive and stable,” Chang said. “This could be quite important and allow us to use silver in many more types of electronic applications.”

Among those, he said, could be solar cells, printed circuit boards, low-emissivity coatings, or transparent electronics. A microchannel applicator used in the system will allow the creation of smaller, more complex electronics features.

This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation and Oregon Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Center, or Oregon BEST.

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Chih-hung Chang, 541-737-8548

Inspired by humans, a robot takes a walk in the grass

CORVALLIS, Ore. – In a rolling, outdoor field, full of lumps, bumps and uneven terrain, researchers at Oregon State University last week successfully field-tested for the first time the locomotion abilities of a two-legged robot with technology that they believe heralds the running robots of the future.

The test demonstrated how their “ATRIAS” robot can move quite nicely, keep its balance and withstand mild blows from a bouncing rubber ball, while taking a walk in the grass, up and down hill, and over varying terrain at a normal walking speed of a little more than three miles per hour.

A video demonstration is available at http://bit.ly/1HQKqOZ

As a bipedal robot that was biologically inspired to mimic the spring-legged action of animals, the researchers said this is the closest a machine has yet come to resembling human locomotion.

The human-sized robot had six electric motors powered by a lithium polymer battery about the size of a half-gallon of milk, which is substantially smaller than the power packs of some other mobile robots. This is made possible by the energy efficiency of its elastic leg design and the energy retention that’s natural to animal movement.

“Animals with legs sort of flow in the energy used, in which retained kinetic energy is just nudged by very efficient muscles and tendons to continue the movement once it has begun,” said Jonathan Hurst, an Oregon State associate professor of mechanical engineering, and director of the Dynamic Robotics Laboratory in the OSU College of Engineering.

“That’s part of what’s unique about ATRIAS – not just that it can walk, and will eventually run – but that it’s doing so with animal-inspired fluidity of motion that is so efficient,” Hurst said. “This will ultimately allow a much wider range of robotic uses and potential than something which requires larger amounts of energy.”

In these tests, the robot was tethered to a safety harness on a supporting frame that rolled along with it – not to supply energy or aid in walking, but just to help catch it if it fell, which it did a couple times due to sensor glitches. The goal was to prevent costly damage during the research and development.

“It already appears that ATRIAS is three times more energy-efficient than any other human-sized bipedal robots,” said Christian Hubicki, an OSU postdoctoral scholar working with Hurst. “And this was the first time we’ve been able to show its abilities outside, in a far more challenging environment than anything in a laboratory.

“This is part of a continuous march toward running robots that are going to be useful and practical in the real world.”

This work has been supported by an original $4.7 million, four-year grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. military. It has been done in collaboration with Jessy Grizzle at the University of Michigan and Hartmut Geyer at Carnegie Mellon University, and scientific work on the motion of animals was done with Monica Daley at the Royal Veterinary College, which guided the robot’s development.

A key to progress with this new technology has been fundamental research on how animals move so effectively.

A one-year-old baby, or for that matter a strutting bird, can combine sensory input from nerves, vision, muscles and tendons to allow a level of locomotion that scientists are still working to emulate. Worth noting, however, is that the theoretical concept of “spring mass walking” developed less than a decade ago was on display last week in a working robot.

Near term goals, the researchers said, might be prosthetic limbs for people, or use of an exo-skeleton to assist people with muscular weakness. But robots that can move effectively over uneven terrain also open applications in the military, in disaster response, or any type of dangerous situation.

New videos are being posted regularly on the research group’s social media web site and are available for public viewing, via YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/user/OregonStateDRL; or on Twitter at https://twitter.com/ATRIASrobot

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Jonathan Hurst, 541-737-7010

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Walking robot
Walking robot

OSU to help produce “Grand Challenge Engineers” of the future

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The College of Engineering at Oregon State University has joined more than 120 other engineering schools around the nation in an initiative led by President Barack Obama, to address some of the most pressing engineering issues facing society in the coming century.

As part of this commitment, each school pledges to graduate a minimum of 20 students per year who have been specially trained to lead the way in solving such large-scale problems, with a broader goal of training more than 20,000 “Grand Challenge Engineers” around the nation in the coming decade.

The challenges include complex yet critical goals such as engineering better medicines, making solar energy cost-competitive with coal, securing cyberspace, and advancing personalized learning tools to deliver better education to more individuals.

In pledging OSU to work toward these goals, along with other leading engineering programs in the nation, Scott Ashford, Kearney Professor and dean of the OSU College of Engineering, said in a letter to President Obama that “engineering is about creating a better future.”

“As the 16th largest engineering program in undergraduate enrollment in the United States, we offer our students hands-on research experience as early as their freshman year, in interdisciplinary areas such as materials science, personalized medicine, resilient infrastructure development, advanced manufacturing and clean water and energy solutions,” Ashford said.

“In response to growing demand by students to make a lasting, positive impact on the world, last year we launched one of the nation’s first Humanitarian Engineering programs,” Ashford said. “This new discipline applies engineering solutions to issues that affect local and global populations, such as agriculture, public health and climate change.”

From a hugely successful Global Formula Racing Team to helping the residents of a small community in Kenya obtain safe drinking water, OSU students are already reaching around the world to deal with a variety of technical and humanitarian challenges, Ashford said. Providing access to clean water is one of the challenges that has been outlined.

Other challenges also fit into areas where OSU has significant and growing expertise, such as making solar energy economical, securing cyberspace, advancing health informatics, developing carbon sequestration methods, preventing nuclear terror, and restoring and improving urban infrastructure. OSU has a major program under way to revolutionize the treatment of sepsis, a global killer.

Ashford, along with other institutional leaders, signed a commitment letter on this initiative which said that, “A measure of success will be the flourishing of hundreds of successful projects across the nation and globe, each benefitting a community while ultimately leading to solutions for the Grand Challenges themselves.”

Other Oregon engineering programs also agreeing to support the initiative included those at George Fox University and the University of Portland.

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Scott Ashford, 541-737-5232

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Solar reactor
Solar energy advance

OSU to join National Science Foundation “Innovation Corps”

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon State University has received a three year, $300,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to become one of just 36 academic institutions in the United States designated as an “Innovation Corps Site,” to help bring ideas and discoveries to the commercial marketplace.

This recognition will enhance OSU’s collaboration with the National Science Foundation, and allow it to join other prestigious universities that have received the same designation, such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Carnegie-Mellon University, the University of Illinois, the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Southern California. 

The program is designed to accelerate commercialization of new technologies, products and processes that emerge from American universities, according to NSF representatives. It will nurture students and faculty involved in projects with commercial potential; develop a larger system of mentors, researchers, and entrepreneurs; and encourage collaboration between academia and industry.

At OSU, involvement with this program will be another boost to activities in its Advantage Accelerator, an existing initiative to help identify research discoveries with commercial potential and assist startup companies in bringing those discoveries to commercial success.

“This support from the NSF will be particularly helpful in preparing early stage concepts, to keep our pipeline full of new companies,” said John Turner, co-director of the OSU Advantage Accelerator. “One example is a pre-accelerator program we plan to begin next month, which will be a set of workshops open to both student, faculty and community innovators.”

This series of four workshops will allow participants to explore the formation of a startup company, generate a flow of new business concepts and help prepare applicants for the full Advantage Accelerator program, officials said.

OSU officials said this support also helps position the university to apply for larger grants and support from the NSF in the future.

As part of this program, OSU will be expected to create teams that engage competitively with other NSF “I-corps” teams for small business grants and other competitions, and contribute to a “National Innovation Network.”

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John Turner, 541-737-9219

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New company
Building new companies

OSU innovation boosts Wi-Fi bandwidth tenfold

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Researchers at Oregon State University have invented a new technology that can increase the bandwidth of WiFi systems by 10 times, using LED lights to transmit information.

The technology could be integrated with existing WiFi systems to reduce bandwidth problems in crowded locations, such as airport terminals or coffee shops, and in homes where several people have multiple WiFi devices.

Experts say that recent advances in LED technology have made it possible to modulate the LED light more rapidly, opening the possibility of using light for wireless transmission in a “free space” optical communication system.

“In addition to improving the experience for users, the two big advantages of this system are that it uses inexpensive components, and it integrates with existing WiFi systems,” said Thinh Nguyen, an OSU associate professor of electrical and computer engineering. Nguyen worked with Alan Wang, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, to build the first prototype.

The prototype, called WiFO, uses LEDs that are beyond the visual spectrum for humans and creates an invisible cone of light about one meter square in which the data can be received. To address the issue of a small area of usability, the researchers created a hybrid system that can switch between several LED transmitters installed on a ceiling, and the existing WiFi system.

“I believe the WiFO system could be easily transformed into a marketable product, and we are currently looking for a company that is interested in further developing and licensing the technology,” Nguyen said.

The system can potentially send data at up to 100 megabits per second. Although some current WiFi systems have similar bandwidth, it has to be divided by the number of devices, so each user might be receiving just 5 to 10 megabits per second, whereas the hybrid system could deliver 50-100 megabits to each user.

In a home where telephones, tablets, computers, gaming systems, and televisions may all be connected to the internet, increased bandwidth would eliminate problems like video streaming that stalls and buffers.

The receivers are small photodiodes that cost less than a dollar each and could be connected through a USB port for current systems, or incorporated into the next generation of laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

A provisional patent has been secured on the technology, and a paper was published in the 17th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems. The research has been supported by the National Science Foundation.

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Rachel Robertson, 541-737-7098

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Thinh Nguyen, 541-737-3470

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Improved WiFi bandwidth

LED transmission system

Optics, nanotechnology combined to create low-cost sensor for gases

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Engineers have combined innovative optical technology with nanocomposite thin-films to create a new type of sensor that is inexpensive, fast, highly sensitive and able to detect and analyze a wide range of gases.

The technology might find applications in everything from environmental monitoring to airport security or testing blood alcohol levels. The sensor is particularly suited to detecting carbon dioxide, and may be useful in industrial applications or systems designed to store carbon dioxide underground, as one approach to greenhouse gas reduction.

Oregon State University has filed for a patent on the invention, developed in collaboration with scientists at the National Energy Technology Lab or the U.S. Department of Energy, and with support from that agency. The findings were just reported in the Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

University researchers are now seeking industrial collaborators to further perfect and help commercialize the system.

“Optical sensing is very effective in sensing and identifying trace-level gases, but often uses large laboratory devices that are terribly expensive and can’t be transported into the field,” said Alan Wang, a photonics expert and an assistant professor in the OSU School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

“By contrast, we use optical approaches that can be small, portable and inexpensive,” Wang said. “This system used plasmonic nanocrystals that act somewhat like a tiny lens, to concentrate a light wave and increase sensitivity.”

This approach is combined with a metal-organic framework of thin films, which can rapidly adsorb gases within material pores, and be recycled by simple vacuum processes. After the thin film captures the gas molecules near the surface, the plasmonic materials act at a near-infrared range, help magnify the signal and precisely analyze the presence and amounts of different gases.

“By working at the near-infrared range and using these plasmonic nanocrystals, there’s an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity,” said Chih-hung Chang, an OSU professor of chemical engineering. “This type of sensor should be able to quickly tell exactly what gases are present and in what amount.”

That speed, precision, portability and low cost, the researchers said, should allow instruments that can be used in the field for many purposes. The food industry, for industry, uses carbon dioxide in storage of fruits and vegetables, and the gas has to be kept at certain levels.

Gas detection can be valuable in finding explosives, and new technologies such as this might find application in airport or border security. Various gases need to be monitored in environmental research, and there may be other uses in health care, optimal function of automobile engines, and prevention of natural gas leakage.

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Alan Wang, 541-737-4247

Expert: Artificial intelligence systems more apt to fail than to destroy

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The most realistic risks about the dangers of artificial intelligence are basic mistakes, breakdowns and cyber attacks, an expert in the field says – more so than machines that become super powerful, run amok and try to destroy the human race.

Thomas Dietterich, president of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence and a distinguished professor of computer science at Oregon State University, said that the recent contribution of $10 million by Elon Musk to the Future of Life Institute will help support some important and needed efforts to ensure AI safety.

But the real risks may not be as dramatic as some people visualize, he said.

“For a long time the risks of artificial intelligence have mostly been discussed in a few small, academic circles, and now they are getting some long-overdue attention,” Dietterich said. “That attention, and funding to support it, is a very important step.”

Dietterich’s perspective of problems with AI, however, is a little more pedestrian than most – not so much that it will overwhelm humanity, but that like most complex engineered systems, it may not always work.

“We’re now talking about doing some pretty difficult and exciting things with AI, such as automobiles that drive themselves, or robots that can effect rescues or operate weapons,” Dietterich said. “These are high-stakes tasks that will depend on enormously complex algorithms.

“The biggest risk is that those algorithms may not always work,” he added. “We need to be conscious of this risk and create systems that can still function safely even when the AI components commit errors.”

Dietterich said he considers machines becoming self-aware and trying to exterminate humans to be more science fiction than scientific fact. But to the extent that computer systems are given increasingly dangerous tasks, and asked to learn from and interpret their experiences, he says they may simply make mistakes.

“Computer systems can already beat humans at chess, but that doesn’t mean they can’t make a wrong move,” he said. “They can reason, but that doesn’t mean they always get the right answer. And they may be powerful, but that’s not the same thing as saying they will develop superpowers.”

More immediate and real risks, he said, will be to identify how mistakes might occur, and how to create systems that can help deal with, minimize or accommodate them.

Some of the most imminent threats computers will pose in a malicious sense, Dietterich said, will probably emerge as a result of cyber attacks. Humans with malicious intent using artificial intelligence and powerful computers to attack other computer systems are a real threat, he pointed out, and thus it would be a good place to focus some of the first work in this field.

That work should receive a significant boost from the recent grant, Dietterich said, which will facilitate research around the world via an open grants competition.

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Thomas Dietterich, 541-737-5559

Massive amounts of fresh water, glacial melt pouring into Gulf of Alaska

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Incessant mountain rain, snow and melting glaciers in a comparatively small region of land that hugs the southern Alaska coast and empties fresh water into the Gulf of Alaska would create the sixth largest coastal river in the world if it emerged as a single stream, a recent study shows.

Since it’s broken into literally thousands of small drainages pouring off mountains that rise quickly from sea level over a short distance, the totality of this runoff has received less attention, scientists say. But research that’s more precise than ever before is making clear the magnitude and importance of the runoff, which can affect everything from marine life to global sea level.

The collective fresh water discharge of this region is more than four times greater than the mighty Yukon River of Alaska and Canada, and half again as much as the Mississippi River, which drains all or part of 31 states and a land mass more than six times as large.

“Freshwater runoff of this magnitude can influence marine biology, nearshore oceanographic studies of temperature and salinity, ocean currents, sea level and other issues,” said David Hill, lead author of the research and an associate professor in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University.

“This is an area of considerable interest, with its many retreating glaciers,” Hill added, “and with this data as a baseline we’ll now be able to better monitor how it changes in the future.”

The findings were reported in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, by Hill and Anthony Arendt at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks. It was supported by the North Pacific Research Board.

This is one of the first studies to accurately document the amount of water being contributed by melting glaciers, which add about 57 cubic kilometers of water a year to the estimated 792 cubic kilometers produced by annual precipitation in this region. The combination of glacial melt and precipitation produce an amount of water that’s larger than many of the world’s great rivers, such as the Ganges, Nile, Volga, Niger, Columbia, Danube or Yellow River.

“By combining satellite technology with on-the-ground hydraulic measurements and modeling, we’re able to develop much more precise information over a wider area than ever before possible,” Hill said.

The data were acquired as an average of precipitation, glacial melting and runoff over a six-year period, from 2003 to 2009. Knocked down in many places by steep mountains, the extraordinary precipitation that sets the stage for this runoff averages about 6 feet per year for the entire area, Hill said, and more than 30 feet in some areas.

The study does not predict future trends in runoff, Hill said. Global warming is expected in the future, but precipitation predictions are more variable. Glacial melt is also a variable. A warmer climate would at first be expected to speed the retreat of existing glaciers, but the amount of water produced at some point may decrease as the glaciers dwindle or disappear.

Additional precision in this study was provided by NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, or GRACE satellites, which can make detailed measurements of gravity and, as one result, estimate the mass of glaciers they are flying over. As the glacial mass decreases over time, the amount of melted water that was produced can be calculated.

The close agreement of land-based measurements also help confirm the accuracy of those made from space, a point that will be important for better global understanding of water stored in a high-altitude environment.

Some of the processes at work are vividly illustrated at Glacier Bay National Park, where some of the most rapidly retreating glaciers in the world are visited each year by hundreds of thousands of tourists, many on cruise ships.

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David Hill, 541-737-4939

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Exit Glacier
Exit Glacier


Glacial melt
Melt into sea

“Distracted driving” at an all-time high; new approaches needed

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Young, inexperienced drivers have always gotten into more automobile accidents, but if you add in a lot of distractions, it’s a recipe for disaster – and a new Pacific Northwest research program is learning more about these risks while identifying approaches that may help reduce them.

Distractions have been an issue since the age of the Model T, whether a driver was eating a sandwich or talking to a passenger. But the advent of cell phones, text messaging and heavy urban traffic has taken those distractions to a historic level, say researchers, who emphasize that there appears to be value in educating young drivers about these special risks.

A new study of 3,000 teenage drivers in Alaska, Washington, Idaho and Oregon has found that interactive presentations administered to young drivers in a classroom or auditorium – more than passive listening – can have some ability to raise their awareness of this problem. Experts conclude that more work of this type should be pursued nationally.

“Based on recent studies, anything that takes your attention away, any glance away from the road for two seconds or longer can increase the risk of an accident from four to 24 times,” said David Hurwitz, an assistant professor of transportation engineering in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University, and corresponding author of the study, which was published in the Journal of Transportation Safety and Security.

“This is a dramatic increase in risk, with inexperienced drivers who are least able to handle it,” he said. “The absolute worst is texting on a cell phone, which is a whole group of distractions. With texting, you’re doing something besides driving, thinking about something besides driving, and looking at the wrong thing.”

One study has equated texting on a cell phone equivalent to driving drunk.

While many young drivers understand the risks of texting, Hurwitz said, they are much less aware of other concerns that can be real – eating, drinking, talking on a cell phone, smoking, adjusting the radio, changing a CD, using a digital map or other controls.

“Automobile manufacturers have made cars significantly safer, but in the interests of passenger comfort they also continue to add more pleasant distractions within the vehicle,” Hurwitz said. “More experienced drivers learn how to control these distractions, but we’re finding the most problems with the very young driver, within six months of getting a license.”

Aside from lack of experience, he said, young drivers also have a higher risk tolerance, use seat belts less, and choose higher speeds. The recent research found that 27 percent of respondents changed clothes or shoes while driving, and some worked on homework. Adding more distractions doesn’t help.

What researchers found that can help is “interactive” driver training that focuses on the issue of distractions, which can be done with driving simulators or simple computers, and can involve writing, discussion and tactile problem-solving.

“Young people learn better when they are involved in the process, not just sitting and listening to a lecture,” Hurwitz said. “We think an increase in active learning will help with this problem and can improve driver education. Students doing this can see how much better their awareness and reaction time are when they aren’t distracted.”

The research is finding some surprises, as well.

Studies are showing that “hands-free” cell phones are really no safer than a hand-held cell phone. The real distraction appears to be the driver talking to someone who is not in the car, a distant voice who’s oblivious to the freeway traffic jam.

“The evidence suggests that it may be reasonably safe to have passengers that you talk to in the car,” Hurwitz said. “For one thing, if an incident happens that requires a quick reaction, everyone in the car may see it, stop talking and pay immediate attention. And you literally have more sets of eyes on the road to see upcoming problems.”

There are some gender differences among young drivers. Females are more likely to use a cell phone while driving, and males are more likely to look away from the road while talking to others in the car.

A large increase in this type of training will be necessary for it to become more widely integrated, the researchers said.

This project was funded by the Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium, an initiative supported by OSU, the University of Washington, University of Idaho, Washington State University and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

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David Hurwitz, 541-737-9242

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A YouTube video about

this “distracted driver”

program is available online:

http://bit.ly/1MuqpNC