OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

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Study: Elderly go from being perceived as capable consumer to ‘old person’

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Many baby boomers want to improve the way people view aging, but an Oregon State University researcher has found they often reinforce negative stereotypes of old age when interacting with their own parents, coloring the way those seniors experience their twilight years.

Drawing on in-depth interviews with consumers in their late 80s, their family members, and paid caregivers, Oregon State University researcher Michelle Barnhart found that study participants viewed someone as “old” when that person consumed in ways consistent with society’s concept of older people, and not simply when he or she experienced inabilities that come with increased chronological age.

“Our society devalues old age in many ways, and this is particularly true in the United States, where individualism, self-reliance, and independence are highly valued,” Barnhart said. “Almost every stereotype we associate with being elderly is something negative, from being ‘crotchety’ and unwilling to change to being forgetful.

“Conflicts come up when someone does not think of themselves as old,” Barnhart added, “but people in their family or caregiving group are treating them as such.”

The study is now available online and will be published in the April 2013 issue of the Journal of Consumer Research.

Barnhart, who is an assistant professor of marketing at OSU, said her study explains how consumption activities, which can range from buying groceries to attending medical appointments, serve as a means of identifying someone as old. They also serve as a venue for working through conflicts that arise when older consumers who do not identify themselves as old are treated as an “old person” by family members and service providers.

“When people in their 80s or 90s exhibited characteristics that society tends to associate with people who are not old, such as being aware, active, safe, or independent, they were viewed and treated as not old,” Barnhart said. “In this way, they were able to age without getting old.”

When perception-triggered conflicts arose, older consumers used various strategies to negotiate their identity with others. Sometimes they attempted to convince others of their not-old identity through verbal arguments. Other times, they tried to prove that they were not old by independently performing activities. Another strategy was to force a change, such as shutting out their younger family member entirely.

“Abbie,” an 89-year-old woman from Texas, told Barnhart when she went to her doctor with her daughters, the physician would only talk to her children.

“If younger people bring you in, they think it’s because you’re not, I guess, lucid enough to understand what they’re saying,” Abbie said. “But that irked me so bad that I wanted to grab him by the collar and say, ‘Look, talk to me! I’m the patient.’” To avoid this type of treatment, Abbie barred her daughters from the doctor’s exam room during future appointments.

Barnhart said the adult children of elderly consumers in the study were primarily in their 50s, and often voiced that baby boomers would change how people view old age, but she said unless society stops devaluing and marginalizing older people, this will not happen.

“Unless we change the way we view old age, the generation younger than the boomers will treat them the same way as soon as they show a few more wrinkles, or seem a bit shaky on their feet,” she said. 

In addition, Barnhart said policies that view aging and health as issues faced by individuals need to change to reflect a larger group decision-making process. Programs such as Medicare, for instance, may need to shift to provide services not just for the elderly consumer, but their support networks to help them deal with the inevitable loss of ability that comes with aging.

“Losing a bit of your independence by getting help from others doesn’t have to equate with becoming a devalued and marginalized member of society,” she said. “Everybody ages, you can’t stop that. But what we can do is respond to someone’s limitations in a way that preserves dignity and value.”

Lisa Peñaloza of the Bordeaux School of Management is co-author of the study.

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Michelle Barnhart, 541-737-1455

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Michelle Barnhart

Study finds slot machine players don’t fit stereotype

BEND, Ore. – A new study looking at why people play slot machines at casinos debunks the stereotype of poor, uneducated senior citizens gambling their Social Security pensions in hopes of a big payday.

In fact, co-author Sandy Chen, of Oregon State University-Cascades, and her colleagues found that the most common profile of a slot machine enthusiast was a female homeowner, between the ages of 55 and 60, with at least some college education and an annual household income of more than $55,000.

Results of the research have been published online in the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, and will be published in a print edition of the journal in 2013.

The study is important, the authors say, because there is little in the professional literature about the motivation for why people like slot machines despite casinos’ acknowledged odds of taking gamblers’ money over the long haul.

“Most of the studies on gambling look at problem gambling, casino atmospheres or general personality and motivational traits,” said Chen, an assistant professor of Hospitality Management at OSU-Cascades. “There’s just not a lot out there about why people are attracted to slot machines.

“And that is surprising,” she added, “since the bulk of a casino’s revenue comes from slot machines.”

Chen said previous research has shown that some 70 percent of casino revenues come from slot machines, up drastically from the 1970s when that figure was closer to 40 percent. Not surprisingly, a 2006 survey showed that 71 percent of casino gamblers prefer slot machines and/or video poker over other games.

Just as popularity of slot machines has increased, however, so has the diversity of machines. Gone are the old-fashioned one-armed bandits that would offer rows of cherries, oranges, and plums. In their place is a dizzying array of machines featuring wizards, horse races, loud music, game show characters and other traits to lure potential customers.

Do they work? That is what Chen set out to discover. In her study, she surveyed more than 1,000 slot machine players to find out why they like slot machines and what characteristics they share. The gamblers were subscribers to Strictly Slots magazine and frequented casinos throughout the country.

What she found was that slot machine players fell naturally into four groups, which she calls utilitarian, excitement, multipurpose and relaxation gambling seekers.

“There are very different motivations for playing slot machines,” Chen said, “so casinos may be making a mistake when they take a one-size-fits-all approach to marketing, or creating an atmosphere within their facility. They may be better off with a segmentation approach.”

Utilitarian gamblers, in essence, are looking for something to do. Many are seniors, who are looking to kill time, reduce boredom, or simply get out of the house – and they are less motivated by financial rewards or excitement. Some, Chen said, enjoy people-watching as much as the actual slot play.

Excitement gamblers are looking for a buzz – the thrill of winning a jackpot, relaxing and having a good time. This group doesn’t like progressive machines with bigger payouts, Chen said, because they don’t pay off frequently enough to provide the excitement.

Multipurpose gamblers tend to be younger, less educated, have lower household income, and are less likely to be married and own a home. Their motivation is to have fun and win money, and they are attracted to themed games and other machines they consider “lucky” or fun to play.

Relaxation gamblers were the most educated and well-to-do, and played slot machines for the socialization and fun. However, they also like to stay within their denomination – usually 25-cent machines or $1 machines, and often look at slot play as a way to relieve day-to-day stress.

“Casinos can cater to these different types of gamblers,” Chen pointed out. “Instead of having a long line of slot machines, for example, they can be arranged in a circle to maximize socialization for those that are motivated by that aspect. Socialization may be a major reason for people to continue going to casinos instead of choosing online gambling options.

“The study also suggests some differences, in general, between male and female slot players,” Chen said. “Women are more into functional motives – the social experience, the excitement and the fun – whereas men tend to look more at the financial rewards. They want to make money.”

Among other findings of the study:

  • More than 60 percent of those surveyed favored small and frequent payouts over larger, sporadic payouts;
  • 52 percent of the respondents played video poker, while about 24 percent played video blackjack;
  • Only 33 percent like machines with progressive jackpots, but of those who did, an overwhelming 70 percent said their favorite game was Wheel of Fortune;
  • Only 18.9 percent said having a themed game was important. Among those who liked themed games, 23.8 percent would choose a board game, 60.8 percent would choose a game show theme, and 56.8 percent liked action movie themes (respondents could choose more than one category);
  • The most popular video poker games were “Jacks or Better” (31.8 percent), followed by “Deuces Wild” (21 percent) and “Double Double Bonus” (16.9 percent).

Other authors on the study include Stowe Shoemaker, from the University of Houston, and Dina M. Zemke, Johnson & Wales University.

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Sandy Chen, 541-322-3164

Family businesses honored during ceremony in Portland on Nov. 15

PORTLAND, Ore. – Generations, LLC. and the Melvin Mark Companies of Portland, along with Fruithill, Inc., of Yamhill and Coelho Winery of Amity, will be recognized as winners at the 2012 Excellence in Family Business Awards at a ceremony Nov. 15 at the Governor Hotel in Portland.

The awards are presented by Oregon State University’s Austin Family Business Program.

This year five winning companies, seven finalist companies and two individuals will be recognized. More than 180 companies have been honored in this peer-reviewed competition since the awards were first presented in 1988.

“We are honored to recognize such accomplished and successful family businesses,” said Sherri Noxel, director of the Austin Family Business Program. “The 2012 winners have strong connections between the generations and are thoughtfully building businesses that will be successful for many generations.”

The awards recognize the achievements of family businesses in innovation, entrepreneurship, and commitment to community involvement.

During the ceremony, Atiyeh Oriental Rugs of Portland will be honored with the Dean’s Award for Family Business Leadership. The Atiyeh family has owned and operated these rug stores since 1900. The family has also been committed to public service, including that of former Oregon Gov. Vic Atiyeh.

Coelho Winery won the micro category for businesses with nine or fewer employees. The Coelho family began growing grapes in the Willamette Valley in 2004 and now produces more than 12,000 cases of wine each year. The family has successfully integrated sons David and Sam Coelho into the business started by parents Dave and Deolinda Coelho.

Andersen Family Farms of Ellensburg, Wash. was a finalist in the micro category.

Fruithill, Inc. of Yamhill was honored in the small family business category, which recognizes businesses with 10-24 employees. The Schrepel family has operated the business since a wedding gift in 1919 provided seed money for a small farm. The company now grows cherries, plums, hazelnuts, wine grapes and other crops in addition to on-site processing.

Twelve-Mile Disposal Service of Portland and Gomberg Kite Productions International of Lincoln City were finalists in the small category.

Melvin Mark Companies were recognized in the medium category for businesses with 25-99 employees. The Portland firm began in 1945 and now has four generations of the family involved in the enterprise. The company manages and leases more than 19 Portland-area commercial properties.

Finalists in the medium category were Alan Brown Tire Center of Newport and Musgrove Family Mortuaries of Eugene.

Generations, LLC. won the large category (100 or more employees). Managed by the fourth generation of the White family, Generations runs senior living communities on the West Coast.

Hubbard-based Ulven Companies and Capitol Auto Group of Salem were finalists in the large category.

Also recognized will be Bobby Garrett, assistant professor of strategy and entrepreneurship at OSU, and Christopher Thompson, a recent College of Business graduate who joined his family firm, TEC Equipment, Inc.

Founded in 1985, the Austin Family Business Program is a university-based family business program providing inspiration, education, outreach, and research to support the success and survival of family businesses.

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Sherri Noxel, 541-737-6019

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Atiyeh Oriental Rugs of Portland will be honored with the Dean’s Award for Family Business Leadership at the 2012 Excellence in Family Business Awards. Photo: OSU College of Business

Wearing two different hats: moral decisions may depend on the situation

CORVALLIS, Ore. – An individual’s sense of right or wrong may change depending on their activities at the time – and they may not be aware of their own shifting moral integrity — according to a new study looking at why people make ethical or unethical decisions.

Focusing on dual-occupation professionals, the researchers found that engineers had one perspective on ethical issues, yet when those same individuals were in management roles, their moral compass shifted. Likewise, medic/soldiers in the U.S. Army had different views of civilian casualties depending on whether they most recently had been acting as soldiers or medics.

In the study, to be published in a future issue of The Academy of Management Journal, lead author Keith Leavitt of Oregon State University found that workers who tend to have dual roles in their jobs would change their moral judgments based on what they thought was expected of them at the moment.

“When people switch hats, they often switch moral compasses,” Leavitt said. “People like to think they are inherently moral creatures – you either have character or you don’t. But our studies show that the same person may make a completely different decision based on what hat they may be wearing at the time, often without even realizing it.”

Leavitt, an assistant professor of management in the College of Business at OSU, is an expert on non-conscious decision making and business ethics. He studies how people make decisions and moral judgments, often based on non-conscious cues.

He said recent high-profile business scandals, from the collapse of Enron to the Ponzi scheme of Bernie Madoff, have called into question the ethics of professionals. Leavitt said professional organizations, employers and academic institutions may want to train and prepare their members for practical moral tensions they may face when asked to serve in multiple roles.

“What we consider to be moral sometimes depends on what constituency we are answering to at that moment,” Leavitt said. “For a physician, a human life is priceless. But if that same physician is a managed-care administrator, some degree of moral flexibility becomes necessary to meet their obligations to stockholders.”

Leavitt said subtle cues – such as signage and motivation materials around the office – should be considered, along with more direct training that helps employees who juggle multiple roles that could conflict with one another.

“Organizations and businesses need to recognize that even very subtle images and icons can give employees non-conscious clues as to what the firm values,” he said. “Whether they know it or not, people are often taking in messages about what their role is and what is expected of them, and this may conflict with what they know to be the moral or correct decision.”

The researchers conducted three different studies with employees who had dual roles. In one case, 128 U.S. Army medics were asked to complete a series of problem-solving tests, which included subliminal cues that hinted they might be acting as either a medic or a soldier. No participant said the cues had any bearing on their behavior – but apparently they did. A much larger percentage of those in the medic category than in the soldier category were unwilling to put a price on human life.

In another test, a group of engineer-managers were asked to write about a time they either behaved as a typical manager, engineer, or both. Then they were asked whether U.S. firms should engage in “gifting” to gain a foothold in a new market. Despite the fact such a practice would violate federal laws, more than 50 percent of those who fell into the “manager” category said such a practice might be acceptable, compared to 13 percent of those in the engineer category.

“We find that people tend to make decisions that may conflict with their morals when they are overwhelmed, or when they are just doing routine tasks without thinking of the consequences,” Leavitt said. “We tend to play out a script as if our role has already been written. So the bottom line is, slow down and think about the consequences when making an ethical decision.”

Pauline Schilpzand from OSU, along with researchers from the University of Washington, Virginia Tech, and Wake Forest University, contributed to this study.

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Keith Leavitt, 541-737-8631

Yoshida’s Gourmet Sauces CEO to speak at OSU May 17

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Junki Yoshida, the high-energy chairman and CEO of Portland-based Yoshida Group, will detail how he created his own “American Dream” during a talk beginning at noon on Thursday, May 17, at Oregon State University.

The free, public event takes place at the Construction & Engineering Hall of LaSells Stewart Center, 875 S.W. 26th St., Corvallis.

Yoshida, the man behind Yoshida’s Gourmet Sauces, rose from his modest beginnings to own 18 successful companies and become recognized as one of the Top 100 Most Respected Japanese in the World by Japanese Newsweek magazine.

Known for his zany marketing of sauces, the seventh-degree black belt will discuss how he went from sleeping in his own car to owning a multimillion dollar conglomerate and traveling the world as a motivational speaker.

Aside from his entrepreneurial activities, he also serves on many charitable boards including the Doernbecher Children’s Hospital Foundation and Ronald McDonald House Charities NW, as well as being a trustee for the Children’s Cancer Association.

The talk is sponsored by the Austin Entrepreneurship Program and the OSU College of Business.

For more information call (541) 713-8044 or go to http://business.oregonstate.edu/programs/aep

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Jenn Casey, 541-737-0695

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Yoshida

New Corvallis microtechnology firm takes aim at $2 billion market

CORVALLIS, Ore. — Microflow CVOTM, a company spun off from research in the Oregon State University Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (MBI), has launched its first product line of stainless steel micromixers. Inside the precision-engineered devices, which are about the size of a dime, is a multilayer network of channels designed to meet manufacturer needs in the pharmaceutical, petrochemical, personal-care product and other industries.

The problem that Microflow CVOTM has addressed seems simple: how to mix two liquids with consistently high-quality results. Manufacturers commonly perform this step in large vats where batches of liquids are stirred and then processed.

In contrast, so-called “microfluidic technologies” push liquids through channels slightly larger than a human hair where mixing occurs under precisely controlled conditions. Microflow CVO’s stainless steel microreactors perform better and cost less than devices currently on the market. They can be customized easily for existing processing operations, said Todd Miller, prototyping manager at the MBI and president of the new firm.

Located in the MBI building on the Corvallis HP campus, the company currently offers two products for sale and will expand its offerings to more than 15 by the end of the calendar year, providing options in flow rates, fluid inputs and operational scale.

Miller has developed and tested micromixers to produce copper nanoparticles, a collaborative effort with the company’s chief technology officer Scott Gilbert, OSU chemistry professor Vincent Remcho and the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With proof-of-concept in hand, Miller applied for and received “gap funding” assistance through the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute (ONAMI), which supports efforts to commercialize technology originating from the Oregon University System. “ONAMI has been critical to this whole process,” said Miller. “Without ONAMI, we wouldn’t be here.”

A market analysis by the OSU College of Business estimates the global micromixer (also called “microreactors”) market in the life sciences at $2 billion. “It’s a rapidly changing and growing market,” said John Turner, OSU instructor and CEO of Microflow CVO. He and OSU MBA student Ken True identified more than 1,000 researchers at 270 institutions in 30 countries using microreactors in pharmaceutical research. “We expect the market to exceed $3 billion by 2014. And that’s only in the life sciences. Other chemical manufacturing markets raise the potential for these products,” added Turner.

Miller said the company has licensed rights to patent applications he has made over the past five years while at OSU.

More information is available at http://www.microflowcvo.com.

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John Turner, 541-760-0225

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Scott Gilbert, left, and Todd Miller of Microflow CVO collaborated in the creation of a stainless steel micromixer for use in the chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries. (Photo: Karl Maasdam)

 

Microflow CVO micromixer
The Microflow CVO micromixer achieves a high-quality mixture of liquids for research and industrial process control. (Photo: Karl Maasdam)

New index identifies periods when global stock markets might decline

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers have found a way to measure the likelihood of global stock market losses by identifying periods in which shocks may be more likely to spread across many national markets.

This “fragility index” identifies periods in which international equity markets are more susceptible to widespread pull-backs by identifying common risk exposures. The index identifies when systemic risk exposure is high in markets across multiple countries, and shows an increasing probability of a global stock market draw-down.

For example, the likelihood of a global decline was one in three on days in which the index was high, but less than one in 20 following days in which the index was low.

Dave Berger, an assistant professor of finance at Oregon State University, is lead author on the study, which was published online today in the Journal of Financial Economics.

"The index may have important uses for policy makers, money managers and ultimately private investors," Berger said.

On one level, he said, the fragility index is a measure of when stock movements are most apt to be exaggerated, either positively or negatively. When it is high, movements are more extreme. When fragility is low, stock movements are less apt to experience a significant change, either up or down.

For instance, global daily returns above 1 percent, as well as losses greater than 1 percent, are both more common when the fragility index is high. But when the fragility index is high instead of low, the down days are by far more common. During such periods the probability of one of the bad days occurring is 33 percent – more than seven times higher than when fragility index is low, when these significant downturns occur only 4.5 percent of the time.

Looking at data from 1994 to 2010 that covers indexes from 82 countries, Berger and Kuntara Pukthuanthong of San Diego State University were able to identify periods in which national stock markets had a high degree of correlation, and then were able to identify periods when an initial shock would be more likely to spread.

Berger said the 2008 stock market crash illustrates the importance of studying systemic risk in international equity markets.

“The factors that lead to global declines can change, so we tried to create a general measure of systemic risk,” Berger said. “The probability of a worldwide financial pull-back is highest during periods in which many countries share a high exposure to our factor. When exposures are high across multiple countries, then if a shock occurs it will manifest globally, and multiple markets will simultaneously decline.”

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Dave Berger, 541-737-2636

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Oregon CEO Summit to be held May 3

PORTLAND, Ore. – The third annual Oregon CEO Summit, which will include business leaders discussing the role real estate plays in the economy, will take place on Thursday, May 3, from 7:30 to 9:15 a.m. at the Governor Hotel in Portland.

Sponsored by Oregon State University’s College of Business, the event, “Real Estate Now: Rethinking, Renewing, Reinventing,” begins with a keynote address by Tom Toomey, president and CEO of United Dominion Realty, Inc. Toomey will speak about how the real estate industry is evolving and doing more with less in today’s economy.

Following the keynote, a panel discussion will discuss the role of real estate in the current economy, which continues to challenge the industry and local communities. Panelists include:

The panel will be moderated by Diane Detering-Paddison, chief strategy officer, Cassidy Turley.

With expertise in different segments of the real estate industry including capital markets, construction, institutional investment, design and sustainability, the diverse group of panelists will discuss new trends, opportunities and innovative solutions that drive the economy.

Registration for the summit is $50, which includes breakfast. The Governor Hotel is located at 614 S.W. 11th Ave., Portland. Registration closes on Thursday, April 26.

For more information and to register, go to: http://business.oregonstate.edu/CEOSummit

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Jenn Casey, 541-737-0695

Alumni and Business Partner Awards held May 3 in Portland

PORTLAND, Ore. – Five prominent business leaders and one Fortune 100 company will be recognized during the Oregon State University College of Business’ Alumni and Business Partner Awards on Thursday, May 3, at the Governor Hotel in Portland.


The annual event, established in 2002, recognizes outstanding professional achievements and services to the college by alumni and business partners.


The evening begins at 5:30 p.m. with a reception, followed by dinner and the awards presentation beginning at 6:30 p.m. Registration opens Friday, March 30, and will be open until Thursday, April 26. For ticket information visit http://business.oregonstate.edu/awards or contact Gwen Wolfram at 541-737-4330 or gwen.wolfram@oregonstate.edu


The 2012 award winners include:



  • Hall of Fame: Wayne Ericksen ’58, vice president and principal, Columbia Management Company (retired)

  • Innovative Business Leader: Tom Toomey ‘82, president and CEO, UDR, Inc.

  • Distinguished Business Professional: Diane Detering-Paddison ’81, chief strategy officer, Cassidy Turley; founder of 4word and author.

  • Distinguished Early Career Business Professional: Eric Winston ‘98, chief financial officer, Keen, Inc.

  • Distinguished Young Professional: Angelina Lusetti ‘07, store team leader, Target Stores.

  • Distinguished Business Partner: Boeing, Inc.
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Jenn Casey, 541-737-0695

OSU accounting students take first place in tax competition

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A team of accounting students from Oregon State University’s College of Business won first prize in the 2012 Foster School of Business Master of Professional Accounting Tax Case Competition held in Seattle.

John Baglien, Kathryn Cook, Victoria Uong, and Brittany Weede solved complex tax-planning problems and took home a $2,400 grand prize after competing against nine teams from the Northwest.

In four tries at this event, OSU students have won twice (2008 and 2012) and came in second in 2009.

The competition was a two-day event sponsored by the University of Washington and KPMG, an audit, tax and advisory firm. On the first day, the students analyzed the tax-relevant activities of a fictional couple and solved various compliance- and planning-related problems. On the second day, the students created a tax plan for the fictional couple and then presented their solutions to actors playing the clients as well as a panel of judges. 

The presentation was structured as a client interview, with the couple frequently interrupting to ask questions or argue with each other about various things, including long-term objectives, when and where they wanted to retire, and whether to keep or sell specific investments.

OSU accounting faculty members Jared Moore and Larry Brown advised the student team.

“My sense is that the quality and depth of their tax planning suggestions along with their professional and positive handling of the difficult clients are what won over the judges,” said Moore, the Mary Ellen Phillips Assistant Professor of Accounting.

OSU accounting students have surpassed the national average on the Certified Public Accounting Exam for the last seven years. Recently, a Master of Business Administration and Accountancy program (MBAA) that will begin in fall 2012 was approved by Oregon State Board of Higher Education.

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Jared Moore, 541-737-2517