OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

college of agricultural sciences

Another mechanism discovered by which sulforaphane prevents cancer

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University have discovered yet another reason why the “sulforaphane”compound in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables is so good for you – it provides not just one, but two ways to prevent cancer through the complex mechanism of epigenetics.

Epigenetics, an increasing focus of research around the world, refers not just to our genetic code, but also to the way that diet, toxins and other forces can change which genes get activated, or “expressed.” This can play a powerful role in everything from cancer to heart disease and other health issues.

Sulforaphane was identified years ago as one of the most critical compounds that provide much of the health benefits in cruciferous vegetables, and scientists also knew that a mechanism involved was histone deacetylases, or HDACs. This family of enzymes can interfere with the normal function of genes that suppress tumors.

HDAC inhibitors, such as sulforaphane, can help restore proper balance and prevent the development of cancer. This is one of the most promising areas of much cancer research. But the new OSU studies have found a second epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation, which plays a similar role.

“It appears that DNA methylation and HDAC inhibition, both of which can be influenced by sulforaphane, work in concert with each other to maintain proper cell function,” said Emily Ho, an associate professor in the Linus Pauling Institute and the OSU College of Public Health and Human Sciences. “They sort of work as partners and talk to each other.”

This one-two punch, Ho said, is important to cell function and the control of cell division – which, when disrupted, is a hallmark of cancer.

“Cancer is very complex and it’s usually not just one thing that has gone wrong,” Ho said. “It’s increasingly clear that sulforaphane is a real multi-tasker. The more we find out about it, the more benefits it appears to have.”

DNA methylation, Ho said, is a normal process of turning off genes, and it helps control what DNA material gets read as part of genetic communication within cells. In cancer that process gets mixed up. And of considerable interest to researchers is that these same disrupted processes appear to play a role in other neurodegenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease, immune function, neurodegenerative disease and even aging.

The influence of sulforaphane on DNA methylation was explored by examining methylation of the gene cyclinD2.

This research, which was published in the journal Clinical Epigenetics, primarily studied the effect on prostate cancer cells. But the same processes are probably relevant to many other cancers as well, researchers said, including colon and breast cancer.

“With these processes, the key is balance,” Ho said. “DNA methylation is a natural process, and when properly controlled is helpful. But when the balance gets mixed up it can cause havoc, and that’s where some of these critical nutrients are involved. They help restore the balance.”

Sulforaphane is particularly abundant in broccoli, but also found in other cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower and kale. Both laboratory and clinical studies have shown that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables can aid in cancer prevention.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the OSU Environmental Health Sciences Center.

Story By: 
Source: 

Emily Ho, 541-737-9559

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Broccoli

Broccoli

Study: Forested riparian zones important to nitrogen control, stream health

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Human activities from agriculture to fossil fuel consumption have resulted in high levels of nitrates in many streams and rivers; now a new study suggests that nurturing riparian zone forests may be a key in maintaining healthy waterways.

Streams flowing through urban areas and agricultural lands may have some of the same ability to process nitrates as healthy forest streams – if they have adequate forest buffer zones along their banks, the researchers say.

Results of the research were just published the professional journal, Ecosystems.

“There are many important ways in which streamside trees help maintain healthy river systems,” said lead author Daniel Sobota, who conducted the research as part of his doctoral studies at Oregon State University. “The shade they offer may reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the stream, preventing excessive algae growth.

“Additionally, the leaves and woody debris generated by streamside forests hold the nitrogen and prevent it from being released downstream all at once,” added Sobota, whose Ph.D. was in fisheries and wildlife at OSU. “This ability of a stream to ‘take up’ the nitrogen can help reduce the impacts of nitrogen enrichment in human-altered river basins.”

In the study, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, Sobota and his colleagues looked at nine streams in Oregon’s Willamette Valley that flowed through forest, agricultural or urban landscapes. Among their goals was to discover how much nitrogen was absorbed by the streams near the source, and how much went downriver.

In tests in Willamette Valley streams, the researchers discovered that 21 to 72 percent of nitrates entering the waterway could be stored in leaves, wood and aquatic mosses within one kilometer downstream.

The inability of a stream or river to hold nitrogen can cause “eutrophication,” or excess algae growth that can die and lead to low-oxygen waters. Eutrophication has caused significant problems in the Gulf of Mexico where the Mississippi River drains, as well as in the Chesapeake Bay.

“Forested riparian buffers can help delay nitrogen from going downstream so there isn’t a large influx at one time that could trigger harmful algal blooms,” Sobota said. “From a management perspective, that is a desirable trait.”

Rivers also can process nitrogen naturally through a process called “denitrification.” When oxygen levels in the water are low, bacteria will consume nitrogen instead and release it into the atmosphere – mostly as a harmless gas, Sobota pointed out. However, previous studies by researchers at OSU and the U.S. Forest Service found that the Oregon streams in their study have lower-than-average rates of denitrification.

The reason is a combination of high-gradient streams, oxygenated water and porous streambeds, which are not conducive to denitrification, said Sherri Johnson, a research ecologist with the U.S. Forest Service and a courtesy professor of fisheries and wildlife at OSU.

“A lot of streams in Oregon have subsurface water flowing beneath the streambed through the gravel,” said Johnson, also an author on the Ecosystems article. “This ‘hyporheic’ flow intermixes with the river water and limits the anaerobic processes.”

Linda Ashkenas, a senior faculty research assistant in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at OSU and an author on the study, said maintaining complex river channels is also important to stream health.

“Human impacts on rivers have eliminated many of the braids and channels that existed naturally, causing water to flow downstream faster, carrying nitrates with it,” Ashkenas said. “River systems that are more complex slow the water down and give organisms time to filter out the nitrogen.”

Sobota is working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency office on the OSU campus as a National Research Council post-doctoral researcher. The Ecosystems study is part of a large, multi-institution project called Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II, or LINX II.

Story By: 
Source: 

Daniel Sobota, 541-754-4833

Food Hero: Helpful messages for healthy eating

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The newly updated Food Hero website (foodhero.org) is an online resource for people who want to eat healthy meals, and it is the center of the Oregon State University Extension Service Food Hero campaign.


"The idea is to use the Internet to connect with people and offer them tools for healthy eating," said Lauren Tobey, OSU nutrition specialist. "Right now, there are things they can do to make healthy, kid-friendly meals for their families."


Food Hero is a research-based social marketing campaign aimed at parents who use the Internet and have kids under the age of 18 living in their homes, Tobey said. "Our secondary population is the children in the families."


The goal is simple: show parents and their kids how easy it is to eat more fruits and vegetables, whether fresh, frozen or canned. The website provides recipes, tips and tools on how to prepare meals that are low cost, simple and fast. The entire site is in both English and Spanish.


"A long-term goal is that foodhero.org becomes the WebMD of healthy eating," Tobey said.


Fourteen OSU county Extension offices in Harney, Jackson, Josephine, Klamath, Linn/Benton, Marion/Polk/Yamhill, Multnomah, Tillamook, Umatilla/Morrow and Washington are participating and have aprons, table covers, community posters, postcards and cookbooks to use in their communities.


Billboards and grocery store displays point to the Food Hero website for tools on what families can do immediately to make healthy food choices. In Multnomah County bus shelters and benches, as well as movie theaters pilot the how-to-eat-well information because the county has the largest population in the state using SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly the Food Stamp program).


The idea for Food Hero came in 2009 after OSU surveyed Oregon people eligible for SNAP. Results showed that although 81 percent of those surveyed said they wanted to serve more balanced meals, they tended to not eat recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the largest percentage of those surveyed (47 percent) want to find healthy food choice information online.


"A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic disease, such as some types of cancer, heart disease and stroke. It also can help people maintain a healthy weight," Tobey said.


The Food Hero campaign is funded through the USDA Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Oregon Department of Human Services and OSU Extension.

Source: 

Lauren Tobey, 541-737-1017

OSU unveils new purple tomato, ‘Indigo Rose’

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The "Indigo Rose" tomato steps out this year as the first "really" purple variety to come from a program at Oregon State University that is seeking to breed tomatoes with high levels of antioxidants.

The new variety is a novelty type intended for home gardens and the fresh market, and it is now available in seed catalogs, said Jim Myers, a professor in the OSU horticulture department.

"It is the first improved tomato variety in the world that has anthocyanins in its fruit," he said.

Breeding for the antioxidant potential of the purple anthocyanins in the fruit is the most important goal for OSU breeders. "It will lead to a better understanding on how the antioxidants express in tomatoes and may contribute to human health," Myers said.

"If you want a really, really purple tomato that can be as black as an eggplant, give Indigo Rose a try," Myers said. "Other so-called purple and black tomatoes have the green flesh gene, which prevents normal chlorophyll breakdown. A brown pigment called pheophytin accumulates and has a brownish color that makes a muddy purple when combined with carotenoids."

Anthocyanins are in the class of flavonoids – compounds found in fruits, vegetables and beverages – that have aroused interest because of their potential health benefits. "They have many varied effects on human health, but while they are powerful antioxidants in the test tube, we don’t really know whether they have an antioxidant effect in the human body."

Indigo Rose's genesis began in the 1960s, when two breeders – one from Bulgaria and the other from the United States – first crossed-cultivated tomatoes with wild species from Chile and the Galapagos Islands, Myers said. Some wild tomato species have anthocyanins in their fruit, and until now, tomatoes grown in home gardens have had the beneficial pigment only in their leaves and stems, which are inedible.

Graduate students working with Myers crossed together the lines carrying wild tomato species genes to create the population from which ‘Indigo Rose’ was selected.

Indigo Rose is a full-season cultivar in Oregon with an average first ripe date about 91 days after transplanting, which is about 13 days later than 'Siletz' and eight days later than 'Early Girl.' Fruit yield of Indigo Rose was similar to the heirloom cultivar 'Black Prince,' and significantly lower than 'Early Girl' and 'Siletz,' but Indigo Rose produced significantly more fruit than any of the cultivars in trial.  

The new tomato is released as an open pollinated variety, and as such, seed saved from self-pollinated plants will grow true and not produce hybrids. "It's also important to know that genetic engineering techniques are never used to develop these lines," Myers said. "These tomatoes are not GMO."

Does the new variety taste good?

"People are passionate about their tomatoes," Myers said. "The purple color draws their interest and because it's extraordinary, people tend to expect impressive flavor as well. It does have a good balance of sugars and acids and tastes just like a tomato. Anthocyanins are essentially tasteless."

Myers cautions not to pick the tomato too soon. Indigo Rose must be allowed to ripen fully for complete development of sugars and acids. It's easy to harvest too early because the usual visual clues won't be there.

The tomatoes will be purple where exposed to light, Myers said, and they tend to have a purple crown. They are ripe when their color changes from a shiny blue-purple to a dull purple-brown. The fruit also softens similarly to regular tomatoes, and the bottom of the tomatoes will turn from green to red when ripe.

Anthocyanin produces in the fruit only where exposed to sunlight. If shaded by a leaf or on the base, the purple pigment does not develop. "However, if you pick an Indigo Rose and expose the non-purple area to sunlight, it will turn purple in about a week," Myers said.

"While other fruits, such as blueberries, have higher concentrations of anthocyanin, tomatoes are consumed practically daily in the United States," he said. The tomato is the nation's fourth most popular fresh-market vegetable behind potatoes, lettuce and onions, according to the USDA.

Cherry tomatoes likely will be the next of several new versions in the Indigo anthocyanin series to be bred within the next three years and are expected to have a good flavor.

Seed company catalogs that carry Indigo Rose include Territorial, Nichols,
High Mowing (organic), and Johnnys (organic).

A publication on frequently asked questions about the purple tomato is available online: http://hort.oregonstate.edu/purple_tomato_faq

Source: 

Jim Myers, 541-737-3083

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

tomato003TW

Indigo Rose, a truly purple tomato, has been bred at Oregon State University

Myers004TW

Jim Myers shows the interior of the Indigo Rose tomato.

New lecture series helps you dig the science of soils

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new lecture series at Oregon State University will shed light on the wonders of soil hidden beneath our feet.

The Harward Endowed Lecture Series honors professor emeritus Moyle Harward, who joined the OSU faculty in 1955 and is best known for his studies of volcanic ash in Oregon’s soils.

Dutch scientist Alfred Hartemink will present the first Harward lecture, “The Joy of Looking at Soils,” on Monday, Jan. 30, beginning at 7 p.m. at LaSells Stewart Center on the OSU campus. The talk is free and open to the public.

Hartemink will explore the similarities between art and science, and tell the story of how these endeavors built on each other to begin the study of soils. A question and answer session will follow the lecture.

Hartemink is secretary general of the International Union of Soil Sciences and a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who has studied soils in Papua New Guinea and other landscapes throughout Africa and Australasia.

The Harward lecture series endowment was created by a group of Harward’s former graduate students, known as the Ash Crew. These OSU alums contributed nearly $30,000 to honor “the fellow who made it all possible for us,” said Del Dingus, one of the Ash Crew and a professor emeritus at California Polytechnic State University, who earned his doctorate under Harward,

The Ash Crew wants the lecture series to embody Harward’s show-and-tell philosophy of teaching soil science, according to Dingus. He says they hope to stimulate a new generation of aspiring soil scientists to protect and restore the small fraction of the Earth’s surface that provides human sustenance – cultivable soil.

Russ Karow, head of OSU’s Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, organizes the Harward Endowed Lecture Series. According to Karow, “The Joy of Looking at Soils” will be filmed and made available on streaming video. Hartemink will also give a technical lecture to graduate students during his OSU visit. More information can be found at http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu.

Source: 

Russ Karow, 541-737-2821

Loss of river complexity contributes to flooding, but fish should survive

CORVALLIS, Ore. – In the space of a few days, many rivers in western Oregon have gone from near-record low levels to flood stage, jeopardizing riverside homes, causing flooding and challenging Chinook salmon, steelhead and other native fishes.

The reason for the high water is mostly evident – heavy rainfall from a strong “pineapple express” storm from the southwest has pounded western Oregon and melted the snowpack, adding to the flood peak. But decades of human alterations to Oregon’s river systems has also contributed to worsening the situation, according to hydrologists.

What once were complex, braided rivers, with multiple channels that spread the impact of flooding, have been transformed into single channels that act like pipelines, according to Oregon State University ecologist Stan Gregory.

“Historical river systems were much more complex and their multiple channels spread the impact of the flooding, and slowed the currents,” said Gregory, a professor of fisheries and wildlife at OSU. “It also created holding places for migrating and resident fish. But dams, development, and the transition from natural forests to housing tracts and pastures have eliminated complexity from many river systems.”

Gregory says salmon, steelhead and native fish should be able to survive the floods. After all, they have had thousands of years to adapt to flooding. There can be short-term damage, however, he pointed out. Recently deposited eggs and young fry can be washed downriver. However, steelhead typically migrate from Thanksgiving through March – or longer – in many rivers, so single flooding events rarely result in catastrophe for all fish.

The impact of a single flood event on steelhead is hard to gauge, Gregory says, because the juvenile fish live in streams from one to three years and then go out to the ocean where most spend one or two years. A flood can affect a part of the overall steelhead population, while other individuals are in the ocean phase of their life.

“Adult steelhead are large, strong fish and can navigate most rivers even at flood stage,” Gregory said. “And flooding is actually beneficial in many cases. It can improve habitat by scouring out river bottoms, creating new pools and cleaning out silt.

“We have found populations of cutthroat trout in streams in the Cascade Mountains to be highest in the summers following the largest floods,” he added, “while winters with low flooding are followed by low populations.”

Smaller native fish also have proven adept at surviving floods – and using what humans have provided for them. In 2009, OSU ecologist Guillermo Giannico and his colleagues published a study that found farmers’ fields that are inundated with floodwater play a role in creating a sanctuary for native fish, where they may find both food and temporary shelter from fast waters and introduced fish species.

“Floods have always been a dynamic part of the system, much the same way that snow is for elk in Yellowstone,” said Giannico, also a faculty member in OSU’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife.  “Over time, animals will adapt to get the most out of their habitat.

“We have found that native fish have adjusted their behavior to use these floodplains, mostly in agricultural lands, to great benefit,” Giannico said.

Story By: 
Source: 

Stan Gregory, 541-737-1951

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

Spawning steelhead

Online interest more than doubles enrollment in fisheries and wildlife

CORVALLIS, Ore. – When Oregon State University launched the nation’s first online fisheries and wildlife bachelor’s degree in 2009, administrators were unsure of just what the response from students would be.

They have quickly found out.

In the past two years, skyrocketing interest in the degree has more than doubled the undergraduate student enrollment in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and now the program is about to launch a new online professional science master’s degree in the spring.

These online degree-seekers aren’t your typical students, according to Dan Edge, who chairs the department. They are on average nine years older than other OSU students, 40 percent already have one college degree, and 20 percent are employed by a natural resources agency.

“It is all about access,” Edge said. “Many of our students are place-bound or situation-bound because of jobs and family, and simply cannot move to campus from another community and become a full-time student. And increasingly, students are becoming more interested in learning online. So we’ve tailored a degree program for them.”

Since offering the degree, the OSU department has grown from 265 mostly on-campus students to more than 600 students enrolled in on-campus and online degree programs, with many additional students declaring fisheries and wildlife as a minor and taking classes part-time. Selina Heppell, a fisheries ecologist who coordinates the online programs for the department, said the online degree is designed to get students away from the computer and out into the field.

“We really pushed for an experiential component to this degree program,” she said. “First, all of the students are required to complete an internship – usually with an agency or other organization. They also have to take a biology course with a lab through a local university or community college. And many of our courses require going out into the field to observe, sample or monitor wildlife and habitats.

“Being online really offers a different element – especially with the technological capabilities of our students,” she added. “They will collect data and take photos out in the field with their cell phones, for instance, and share them with the class, or enhance their project presentations.”

Because so many of the students have atypical backgrounds, the online classroom discussions are often rich, Heppell said.

“Obviously, there are some things you can’t do online that you can do in a classroom,” she said. “You lose a little bit of spontaneity, for example. But you get participation from a much greater percentage of the class online. It isn’t just the one or two extroverts that dominate – most students take part.”

The same demand that launched the undergraduate degree program has prompted OSU’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife to design a master’s degree program for working professionals, which it hopes to launch this spring. The “Professional Science Master’s in Fisheries and Wildlife Administration” will be limited to a cohort of about 10 students per year and the program will require participants to have five years of professional experience at a natural resources agency or organization.

“This really is in response to agency employees looking for even more training, especially at the management level,” Edge said. He likens the professional science master’s degree to an MBA for natural resources specialists.

The degree will offer training in cooperative project management, conflict resolution, policy decisions, the human dimension of resource management and communication skills, according to Heppell. OSU will work with the agencies to create a flexibility timeline for its employees who wish to participate.

“We’ve got a long list of people already interested in the degree, so it is an exciting experiment for us and the agencies we work with,” Heppell said.

Story By: 
Source: 

Selina Heppell, 541-737-9039

Registration opens for OSU's small farms conference on Feb. 25

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Registration has opened for the 12th annual Oregon Small Farms Conference on Feb. 25 at Oregon State University.

Kristin Kimball will open the daylong event with a talk about Essex Farm, which she and her husband run in New York. She'll discuss the evolution of their farm, the advantages and disadvantages of scaling up and the importance of holding on to a clear vision in the face of rapid change.

Kimball, a graduate of Harvard University, is the author of "The Dirty Life," a memoir about her first year farming after abandoning a career as a writer in New York City.

The conference will feature 21 workshops on topics that include:

  • Harvesting rainwater;
  • Marketing meat products;
  • Extending the growing season into winter;
  • Developing a farm business plan;
  • Attracting customers to farmers markets;
  • Writing about farming;
  • Using permaculture on farms;
  • Grafting vegetables to reduce soil-borne diseases and improve vigor and yield;
  • Selling products to schools and health care facilities;
  • Organizing dinner events on farms;
  • Legislation affecting small farmers who sell condiments at farmers markets;
  • Advocacy plans for reforming Oregon's land-use policies to favor agricultural producers;
  • Resources for financing farms.

The event, one of the flagship educational offerings of the OSU Extension Service's Small Farms Program, is geared toward farmers, agriculture professionals, food policy advocates and managers of farmers markets. Speakers will include farmers, OSU faculty and representatives from the Oregon Department of Agriculture and the Oregon Farmers' Markets Association.

The cost, which includes lunch, is $45 per person or $80 for two people from the same farm or organization through Feb. 15. It rises to $50 per individual on Feb. 16, and will be $55 at the door. The conference will take place at the LaSells Stewart Center on campus. To register, go to http://smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/2012SFC.

A special hands-on workshop on poultry slaughter and marketing will take place on Feb. 26 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. It aims to help poultry producers comply with the requirements of a state law that exempts businesses that slaughter up to 1,000 birds per year from certain licensing requirements. The class requires an additional registration and is limited to 25 people. The cost is $100. To register, go to https://secure.oregonstate.edu/smallfarms-events/register/5. To inquire about scholarships for the poultry session, contact Linda Brewer at linda.brewer@oregonstate.edu.

Source: 

Linda Brewer, 541-737-1408

Booklet explains grafting and budding techniques to propagate plants

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Most plants multiply from seeds following germination and seedling development. Others reproduce when their parts – stems, roots or leaves – are combined with another plant to encourage growth as a unified plant.

The process is called grafting and budding. The resulting plants from these vegetative (asexual) combinations are called clones and are identical to the parent plant.

An updated publication available through the Extension offices of Oregon State University, Washington State University and University of Idaho describes in an 18-page illustrated book why gardeners and growers graft and bud, and how to do it. "Propagation of Plants by Grafting and Budding, PNW 496" is available online free of charge at http://bit.ly/vvm5sH

In grafting, a piece of stem containing three to four vegetative buds is inserted into the stem of the plant that will be the root system for the unified plant. For budding, or bud grafting, a single vegetative bud on a stem is excised and attached to the stem of the rootstock. It is called a budded plant and is preferred when plant material is in limited supply.
 
"The major objective of grafting or budding is to multiply plants identical (true to type) to the parent plant," said G.N.M. Kumar, an associate professor department of horticulture and landscape architecture at WSU. "Although other methods of propagation are simpler, grafting and budding in plants such as fruit trees are used commonly to repair damaged plants or derive certain benefits from root stocks, he said."
 
In certain cases, grafting and budding can allow cultivation of fruit varieties when climate or soil in the area to be planted are not favorable to start new trees, Kumar said. "Grafting and budding can allow us to change the out-dated variety of a well-established orchard. This will be more economical than establishing a new orchard."
 
The booklet describes factors that affect success of grafting or budding and provides information on grafting and budding methods, best season to propagate and tools and materials required to achieve success in grafting and budding.

Source: 

G. N. M. Kumar, 509-335-3455

OSU posts 100 years of farming research, homemaking advice online

CORVALLIS, Ore. – More than 6,000 documents from Oregon State University that cover a century of agricultural research and homemaking advice are now available to the public online.

Dating as far back as 1888, the publications were produced by OSU's Extension Service and the university's agricultural research centers around the state. The materials include annual research reports and instructional guides covering everything from agricultural techniques to housecleaning.

The project was the result of a partnership between OSU Libraries and the university's department of Extension and Experiment Station Communications (EESC).

"These publications represent more than 100 years of communicating the university’s research advancements for the benefit of Oregon’s communities, natural resources and economy," said Peg Herring, the head of EESC. “Now they’re digitally preserved, searchable and free to anyone in the world with an Internet connection."

The topics of the publications offer a glimpse of Oregon life over the past century and will delight Oregon history buffs. "Bulletin No. 1," issued in 1888, outlined how OSU's newly created agricultural research centers would operate. "Low Cost Menus for One Month," published in 1933, advocated giving three teaspoons of cod liver oil per day to young children to ensure healthy development. And a 1971 booklet titled "30 Days to Reality" explained what a credit card was and how it worked.

Oregonians can also find information from current publications to help with modern life. Recent titles in the database include "Canning Seafood" and "Composting With Worms."

All publications are available through OSU's institutional repository, ScholarsArchive@OSU. A direct link to the EESC publications is: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/3904. Users can also find names of specific publications through the library catalog (http://oasis.oregonstate.edu/) and Internet search engines. The descriptions for out-of-date publications contain a disclaimer advising readers to search for the most current information in the OSU Extension catalog (http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog).

"It’s a great publishing model, and a valuable partnership between EESC and OSU Libraries," said Sue Kunda, digital scholarship librarian. “The most current research-based information is in the OSU Extension catalog, and all publications are preserved online for the benefit of the university and the public."

Source: 

Sue Kunda, 541-737-7262

Multimedia Downloads
Multimedia: 

publications001RB

Oregon State University Extension Service publications, some dating back to the 1800s, are now available online. Photo by Rachel Beck.