OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

agriculture and food

Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives seeks crowd-funding support

CORVALLIS, Ore. — Lovers of beer and history now have an easy way to support the preservation of Oregon beer history.

The Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives at Oregon State University Libraries and Press has launched a crowd-funding campaign to help expand their hops and brewing collection at OSU’s Valley Library in Corvallis.

Begun in 2013, the Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives preserves the story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon. It’s the first archive in the United States dedicated to preserving and telling the intertwined story of hops and beer, documenting all facets of the craft brewing industry, and uniting the social and cultural aspects of brewing with the sciences of OSU.

“We are really proud of all the work we’ve already done highlighting OSU’s archival collections,” said OHBA archivist, Tiah Edmunson-Morton, “ learning more about OSU’s talented scientists, hosting researchers, working with the public, meeting with the community, and attending a wonderfully wide variety of events and conferences.”

The launch of the crowd-funding campaign will help support the work of OHBA, and organizers hope to meet a $5,000 goal by the end of October.

The Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives has been able to attract state, national and international attention and been featured in publications as varied as Draft Magazine and Library Journal, as well as on radio programs such as “Think Out Loud” and “Beer Radio.” More information about OHBA’s crowd-funding effort is available at bit.ly/fundOHBA

Media Contact: 

Daniel Moret, 541-737-4112 or Daniel.moret@oregonstate.edu

Source: 

Tiah Edmunson-Morton, 541-737-7387 or tiah.edmunson-morton@oregonstate.edu

Global decline of large herbivores may lead to an “empty landscape,” scientists say

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The decline of the world’s large herbivores, especially in Africa and parts of Asia, is raising the specter of an “empty landscape” in some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, according to a newly published study.

Many populations of animals such as rhinoceroses, zebras, camels, elephants and tapirs are diminishing or threatened with extinction in grasslands, savannahs, deserts and forests, scientists say.

An international team of wildlife ecologists led by William Ripple, Oregon State University distinguished professor in the College of Forestry, conducted a comprehensive analysis of data on the world’s largest herbivores (more than 100 kilograms, or 220 pounds, on average), including endangerment status, key threats and ecological consequences of population decline. They published their observations today in Science Advances, the open-access online journal of Science magazine.

The authors focused on 74 large herbivore species – animals that subsist on vegetation – and concluded that “without radical intervention, large herbivores (and many smaller ones) will continue to disappear from numerous regions with enormous ecological, social, and economic costs.” Ripple initiated the study after conducting a global analysis of large-carnivore decline, which goes hand-in-hand, he said, with the loss of their herbivore prey.

“I expected that habitat change would be the main factor causing the endangerment of large herbivores,” Ripple said. “But surprisingly, the results show that the two main factors in herbivore declines are hunting by humans and habitat change. They are twin threats.”

The scientists refer to an analysis of the decline of animals in tropical forests published in the journal BioScience in 1992. The author, Kent H. Redford, then a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Florida, first used the term “empty forest.” While soaring trees and other vegetation may exist, he wrote, the loss of forest fauna posed a long-term threat to those ecosystems. 

Ripple and his colleagues went a step further. “Our analysis shows that it goes well beyond forest landscapes," he said, “to savannahs and grasslands and deserts. So we coin a new term, the empty landscape.” As a group, terrestrial herbivores encompass about 4,000 known species and live in many types of ecosystems on every continent except Antarctica.

The highest numbers of threatened large herbivores live in developing countries, especially Southeast Asia, India and Africa, the scientists report. Only one endangered large herbivore lives in Europe (the European bison), and none are in North America, which, the authors add, has “already lost most of its large mammals” through prehistoric hunting and habitat changes.

The authors note that 25 of the largest wild herbivores now occupy an average of only 19 percent of their historical ranges. Competition from livestock production, which has tripled globally since 1980, has reduced herbivore access to land, forage and water and raised disease transmission risks, they add.

Meanwhile, herbivore hunting occurs for two major purposes, the authors note: meat consumption and the global trade in animal parts. An estimated 1 billion humans subsist on wild meat, they write.

“The market for medicinal uses can be very strong for some body parts, such as rhino horn,” said Ripple. “Horn sells for more by weight than gold, diamonds or cocaine.” Africa’s western black rhinoceros was declared extinct in 2011.

Co-author Taal Levi, an assistant professor in Oregon State’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, said the causes of the decline of some large herbivores “are difficult to remedy in a world with increasing human populations and consumption.”

“But it's inconceivable that we allow demand for horns and tusks to drive the extirpation of large herbivores from otherwise suitable habitat,” Levi said. “We need to intensify the reduction of demand for such items.”

The loss of large herbivores suggests that other parts of wild ecosystems will diminish, the authors write. The likely consequences include: reduction in food for large carnivores such as lions and tigers; diminished seed dispersal for plants; more frequent and intense wildfires; slower cycling of nutrients from vegetation to the soil; changes in habitat for smaller animals including fish, birds and amphibians.

“We hope this report increases appreciation for the importance of large herbivores in these ecosystems,” said Ripple. “And we hope that policymakers take action to conserve these species.”

To understand the consequences of large herbivore decline, the authors call for a coordinated research effort focusing on threatened species in developing countries. In addition, solutions to the decline of large herbivores need to involve local people. “It is essential that local people be involved in and benefit from the management of protected areas,” they write. “Local community participation in the management of protected areas is highly correlated with protected area policy compliance.”

In addition to Ripple and Levi, co-authors include Christopher Wolf and Luke Painter of Oregon State; Rodolfo Dirzo of Stanford University; Thomas M. Newsome of The University of Sydney in Australia; Kristoffer T. Everatt and Graham I.H. Kerley of Nelson Mandela University in South Africa; Mauro Galetti of the Universisade Estadual Paulista in Brazil; Matt W. Hayward of Nelson Mandela University and Bangor University in the United Kingdom; Peter A. Lindsey of Panthera (nonprofit organization) and the University of Pretoria in South Africa; David W. MacDonald, Yadvinder Malhi and Christopher J. Sandom of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom; John Terborgh of Duke University; Blaire Van Valkenburgh of UCLA.

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Source: 

William Ripple, 541-737-3056

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Eastern gorilla by Peter Stoel
Eastern Gorilla
African elephant by Kristopher Everatt
African elephant
Black rhino GFRNR 2009 G Kerley
Western black rhinoceros

Lowland tapir by Thomas Newsome
Lowland tapir
Mountain Nyala by Halszka Hrabar
Mountain nyala
Mountain zebraHalszka Hrabar
Mountain zebra
The threatened European bison, Bison bonasus. Photo by Graham Kerley.
European bison
 Common hippopotamus by Kristopher Everatt
Common hippopotomus HerbivoreIllustration

Illustration of herbivore impacts

Veterinary hospital resuming normal operation after cases of equine influenza

CORVALLIS, Ore. – The Lois Bates Acheson Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Oregon State University will resume normal operations on Thursday, Dec. 4, following several cases of equine influenza that for the past week had kept it from accepting horses for anything but emergency services.

There are three remaining horses that still have the infection but are being housed in an isolation unit. They pose no risk to the general hospital operation, officials say, where no horses are now testing positive for the virus.

Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease in horses that usually isn’t fatal, but is a particular concern to foals and pregnant horses, since it can cause abortion. The original source of the infection appears to be a horse admitted to the hospital.

All horse stalls in the Large Animal Hospital have been disinfected and left empty for an adequate time to kill any remaining flu virus in a dry environment.

“We’d like to thank all of our clients for their patience and cooperation,” said Ron Mandsager, interim associate director of the hospital. “Equine influenza is endemic in the U.S. and sometimes these situations occur, and we had to take the necessary precautions to protect the health of our animals.”

Equine influenza is not transferable to humans or other animal species, but can spread rapidly among horses and other equines. It is the most common contagious respiratory pathogen for horses and most animals fully recover. However, young, elderly or pregnant animals are more at-risk for viral diseases such as equine influenza.

Incidents such as this, hospital officials said, should remind all horse owners to vaccinate their animals, practice good biosecurity, and monitor horses closely when they are in contact with other horses during and after events like fairs, competitions and trail rides.

The first clinical sign of this disease in horses is typically a fever, followed by cough, nasal discharge and lethargy. Horses with a fever of greater than 102.5 degrees should be seen by a veterinarian.

Anyone who has concerns about the health of their animals should contact their veterinarian or the Lois Bates Acheson Veterinary Teaching Hospital at OSU, at 541-737-2858 or http://vetmed.oregonstate.edu/

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Ron E. Mandsager, 541-737-6440

History of hops and brewing chronicled on new OSU archive

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Oregon is at the epicenter of a thriving craft-brew industry, and Oregon State University is helping shape the movement – from creating new barley varieties, to offering courses for home brewers, to its growing fermentation science program, which has a Pilot Plant Brewhouse where student brewers create new beers.

Now, the university is going a step further as it actively preserves the rich history of hops and craft brewing.

Recognizing the need to document the intertwined story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon, the Special Collections & Archives Research Center at OSU Libraries & Press established the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives in summer 2013. This month, the official launch of the online archives will be celebrated in appropriate style with “Tap into History” on March 28 at the McMenamins Mission Theater in Portland.

The archive’s goal is to collect and provide access to records related to hops production and the craft brewing industries in Oregon. The first archive in the United States dedicated to hops and beer, it will bring together a wealth of materials in hardcopy and digital formats enabling people to study and appreciate these movements. The work melds the social and economic aspects of brewing in Oregon with the hard science behind the beer research being done at OSU.

The university already has strong collections related to the history of hops, barley, and fermentation research at OSU, but scholars are gathering resources from beyond the campus as well.

“There are valuable items in historical societies, in the boxes of marketing materials in a brewer’s garage, in the computer records of operations at hop farms, on beer blogs, in social media communities, and in the stories that haven’t been recorded,” said Tiah Edmunson-Morton, archivist for the collection.

“While we are interested in adding new items to build the archive, we also want to be a portal to collections through the state, partnering with people in heritage and history communities, state agencies, hops farmers, craft brewers, home brewers, and the general community to think collectively about how to preserve and provide access to this history.”

The free "Tap into History" event at the Mission Theater, which begins at 7 p.m., includes a panel on brewing history in Oregon. Among the topics:

  • Edmunson-Morton will talk about the project and its impact.
  • Peter Kopp, an agricultural historian, will talk about his use of archival materials and the relevance for researchers.
  • John Foyston, an Oregonian writer since 1987 and noted beer columnist, will talk about his work documenting the Oregon beer scene.
  • Irene Firmat, CEO and co-founder of Full Sail Brewing Company, will talk about her work as a female brewing pioneer.
  • Daniel Sharp, a Ph.D. student in the OSU College of Agriculture's Fermentation Science program, will talk about his research and the program.

The event concludes with screenings from "Hopstories," a collection of short videos showcasing breweries in Oregon, and OPB's Beervana, a documentary about the history of beer and the rise of craft brewing in Oregon. The McMenamins Mission Theater is located at 1624 N.W. Glisan St., Portland.

For more information: https://www.facebook.com/brewingarchives

 

 

 

 

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Source: 

Tiah Edmunson-Morton, 541-737-7387

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Grafting hop varieties

House committee OKs exemption allowing OSU Experiment Station flexibility to relocate

HERMISTON, Ore. – Oregon State University’s Hermiston Agricultural Research & Extension Center, which is mostly located within the city limits, is one step closer to gaining the flexibility to relocate when necessitated by population growth, following legislation approved this week by the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee.

The OSU research and extension center is subject to an obscure federal rule, known as a “reverter,” which would be triggered if changes of use and/or location of the facility were enacted. This rule would lead to ownership of the land and infrastructure reverting back to the federal government.

The U.S. House Natural Resources Committee approved an exclusion to this federal reversionary clause – exempting the OSU facility from the requirement – and forwarded it to the floor of the House for its consideration. Full House consideration has not yet been scheduled.

Rep. Greg Walden, R-Ore., led the push to gain the exemption, with support from community stakeholders, local elected officials, OSU agricultural leaders and OSU President Edward J. Ray.

“The growth of Hermiston and the expanding scope of the center will make it desirable to move the center to a more appropriate location in the future,” said Philip B. Hamm, director of the OSU facility. “The move has had the support of city and regional leaders, as well as the agricultural industry that the center supports. Thanks to the efforts of Rep. Walden and his staff, we are now a step closer to resolving this problem.”

The Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center is one of 12 OSU Agricultural Experiment Stations located throughout the state. It has supported agriculture in the Columbia River basin for more than a century. The region is a highly diversified agricultural region where more than 200 different crops are grown.

With its state-of-the-art laboratories, irrigation technology capabilities, research programs and extension efforts, the center supports crops on nearly 500,000 acres of high-value irrigated land, much of it in Morrow and Umatilla counties. In recent years, the center’s research and outreach helped local growers diversify production and convert 30,000 acres of traditional commodity crops to different, high-value crops – resulting in more than $50 million in annual economic returns.

“While the station has no immediate plans to move in the near future, the removal of this reversionary clause will allow OSU to sell the property when development in Hermiston reaches the center’s border,” Hamm said. “It will allow the center to purchase new land, erect laboratories, and install irrigation infrastructure to continue supporting agriculture with new research based on information – as it has for the past 104 years.”

H.R. 3366 provides for “the release of the property interests retained by the United States in certain land conveyed in 1954 by the United States, acting through the Director of the Bureau of Land Management, to the State of Oregon for the establishment of the Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center of Oregon State University in Hermiston, Oregon.”

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Philip Hamm, 541-567-6337; philip.b.hamm@oregonstate.edu

China honors Oregon State researcher for decade of scientific collaboration

CORVALLIS, Ore. — Major advances against some of the world’s most devastating plant diseases are starting to emerge from more than a decade of international scientific collaboration led by Brett Tyler, director of the Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing at Oregon State University. Tyler has fostered collaborative research in China, the United States and Europe on a group of organisms that cause diseases such as late blight in potatoes and soybean root rot. Both diseases cost millions of dollars in annual crop losses worldwide.

The joint research activities have advanced food production by understanding how plants such as potatoes and soybeans resist disease and how the genes responsible for resistance can be incorporated into new varieties. Potatoes developed by European researchers that incorporate these findings are just starting to hit commercial markets, and research is continuing on soybean diseases in the U.S. and China.

The People’s Republic of China recognized Tyler on Sept. 29 for his achievements with its highest civic award for non-Chinese scientists. Tyler, who is also a professor in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, received the Friendship Award of China for a decade of technical assistance and scientific collaboration with researchers at Nanjing Agricultural University and other Chinese institutions.

“It’s a wonderful bridge across the Pacific with the joint objective of increasing food security,” Tyler said.

Tyler, holder of the Stewart Chair in Gene Research, coordinates a worldwide research program on plant pathogens known to scientists as oomycetes. He and his colleagues have identified plant genes that confer long-term resistance to these pathogens. Scientists have focused on plant and pathogen genetics because the diseases can be so devastating, and pesticides tend to be rapidly evaded by these adaptable organisms.

“I have been working with an expanding circle of collaborators in China,” said Tyler, who has traveled to China 13 times. “We have published papers in top journals and established a growing collaborative research program.” In addition to his collaboration with researchers in Nanjing, he has worked with scientists at the Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University, Tsinghua University, the Beijing Genome Institute, Shandong Agricultural University and Yangzhou University.

Tyler’s Chinese partners — especially Yuanchao Wang at Nanjing and Weixing Shan at the NW Agricultural and Forestry University — have formed a consortium in China to apply the results of their disease resistance work in soybean and potato breeding. At the same time, Tyler has developed a similar network involving 19 institutions in the United States. With funding from the U.S. and Chinese governments, labs on both sides of the Pacific have hosted exchange students, jointly planned experiments and shared data.

“During our ten years of cooperation, Brett has helped to guide our research,” said Wang. “Research on the molecular genetics of oomycetes in China started from our cooperation. Brett helped us set up a great platform of genetic transformation and bioinformatics in Nanjing, and many other groups in China learned how to do this research from my group.”

The Chinese government has invested heavily in research in the last decade, added Tyler. “Our colleagues in China now have research facilities that are equal to or surpass what we have available in the United States,” he said.

Genes that provide long-term resistance to oomycete diseases are just starting to emerge in commercially available crops. “Resistance genes have been used in breeding for a long time, but many of them have been quickly defeated by the pathogens,” said Tyler. “We’ve uncovered why that happens. The pathogen produces a group of proteins that the plant has learned to detect. Unfortunately, these are proteins that the pathogen can quickly change. Now we have started to identify proteins the pathogen cannot change.”

In 2011, the USDA awarded $9.3 million to Tyler and his colleagues to apply their research to the U.S. soybean crop. Tyler’s Chinese collaborators are also contributing to that project. Soybean root rot causes major crop losses in China.

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Brett Tyler, 541-737-3686

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Brett Tyler

Soil parasite costs Northwest wheat growers $51 million in lost revenue, says OSU

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A microscopic parasitic roundworm is costing Pacific Northwest wheat growers $51 million in lost revenue each year because it's cutting grain yields by an average of about 5 percent, according to estimates by Oregon State University researchers.

Called the root-lesion nematode, the transparent, eel-shaped roundworm lives in the soil and feeds on the roots of wheat, barley, oats and many other crops. This limits the crops' ability to take up nutrients and water, leaving plants with smaller heads and yellowed leaves.

"The presence of nematodes is usually confused with root rot, viruses or lack of nutrition because the effect on crops looks the same," said Dick Smiley, a plant pathologist at OSU's Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center in Pendleton. “But nematodes often go undetected because they're not well-known, and they're transparent and thinner than a human hair.”

Researchers have detected the root-lesion nematode in about 90 percent of fields sampled in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, according to Smiley, who has studied the pest since 1999. Population densities of nematodes high enough to reduce yields have been detected in 60 percent of fields sampled in Oregon and Washington. The roundworm wreaks the most havoc in drier areas where wheat and barley grow.

Most nematodes are beneficial to agriculture by helping decompose organic matter. Some, however, are parasitic to plants or animals. They spread easily, hitchhiking to new locations via the wind, animals, farm equipment and boots. It's nearly impossible to eradicate them once they're established.

Another harmful roundworm, the cereal cyst nematode, is also damaging wheat, barley and oats in the Pacific Northwest. First identified in western Oregon in 1974, it is now found in eight western states.

Wheat farmers in Idaho, Oregon and Washington are estimated to lose $3.4 million in revenue each year to cereal cyst nematodes, according to OSU calculations. Researchers arrived at the figure by considering a range of factors, including the percentage of fields infested with damaging densities of nematodes, as well as the yields and farmgate value for crops in these infested areas.

OSU scientists are studying crop management strategies to mitigate the worms' impact. The most effective tactic they've found is a three-year crop rotation where farmers skip two years between wheat plantings.

Rotations vary depending upon which nematode is causing problems. Root-lesion nematodes are well-managed by planting winter wheat the first year and spring barley the second year and then letting the field go fallow the third year. Cereal cyst nematodes are best-managed by rotating wheat or barley with broadleaf crops.

Crop damage can also be alleviated to a limited extent by applying extra fertilizer and water. There are no chemicals legally available for wheat and barley growers to kill the two types of nematodes.

OSU researchers have also tested more than 20 wheat, barley and oat cultivars to determine how badly yields are reduced. Most Pacific Northwest wheat varieties don't resist harmful nematodes.

In OSU's tests, nearly every variety suffered severe root injury. Only the hard red spring wheat WB-Rockland prevented cereal cyst nematodes from reproducing while also maintaining consistent yields. UI Stone, a soft white spring wheat, and Buck Pronto, a hard red spring wheat, allowed nematode populations to thrive but still produced a steady crop.

Additionally, University of Idaho, Washington State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and commercial wheat breeders are crossing sources of resistance with a number of wheat varieties to create new cultivars that can potentially stand up to the cereal cyst and root-lesion nematodes.

OSU researchers recommend growers have their soil tested for nematodes. Addresses for testing labs, as well as information about management strategies for farmers, are available in two OSU Extension factsheets at http://bit.ly/OSU_ExtBulletin3 and http://bit.ly/OSU_ExtBulletin2.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington State University and the University of Idaho are collaborators with OSU on its cereal cyst nematode research.

Source: 

Richard Smiley, 541-278-4397

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OSU nematode expert Richard Smiley

Dick Smiley, a plant pathologist at Oregon State University, examines the roots of young wheat plants. (Photo by Lynn Ketchum.)

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About Oregon State University:  As one of only two universities in the nation designated as a land, sea, space and sun grant, Oregon State serves Oregon and the world by working on today’s most pressing issues. Our more than 31,000 students come from across the globe, and our programs operate in every Oregon county. Oregon State receives more research funding than all of the state’s comprehensive public universities combined. At our campuses in Corvallis, Bend and Newport, and through our award-winning Ecampus, we excel at shaping today’s students into tomorrow’s leaders.