OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

agriculture and food

Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new analysis suggests that open-ocean aquaculture for three species of finfish is a viable option for industry expansion under most climate change scenarios – an option that may provide a new source of protein for the world’s growing population.

This modeling study found that the warming of near-shore surface waters would shift the range of many species toward the higher latitudes – where they would have better growth rates – but even in areas that will be significantly warmer, open-ocean aquaculture could survive because of adaptation techniques including selective breeding.

Results of the study are being published this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

“Open-ocean aquaculture is still a young and mostly unregulated industry that isn’t necessarily environmentally sound, but aquaculture also is the fastest growing food sector globally,” said James Watson, an Oregon State University environmental scientist and co-author on the study. “One important step before developing such an industry is to assess whether such operations will succeed under warming conditions.

“In general, all three species we assessed – which represent species in different thermal regions globally – would respond favorably to climate change.”

Aquaculture provides a primary protein source for approximately one billion people worldwide and is projected to become even more important in the future, the authors say. However, land-based operations, as well as those in bays and estuaries, have limited expansion potential because of the lack of available of water or space.

Open-ocean aquaculture operations, despite the name, are usually located within several miles of land – near enough to market to reduce costs, but far enough out to have clean water and less competition for space. However, aquaculture managers have less control over currents, water temperature, and waves.

To assess the possible range for aquaculture, the researchers looked at three species of fish – Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), which grows fastest in sub-polar and temperate waters; gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), found in temperate and sub-tropical waters; and cobia (Rachycentron canadum), which is in sub-tropical and tropical waters.

“We found that all three species would shift farther away from the tropics, which most models say will heat more than other regions,” said Dane Klinger, a former postdoctoral researcher at Princeton University and lead author of the study. “Production of Atlantic salmon, for example, could expand well into the higher latitudes, and though the trailing edge of their range may face difficulties, adaptation techniques can offset those difficulties.

“Further, in most areas where these species are currently farmed, growth rates are likely to increase as temperatures rise.”

Open-ocean aquaculture is not without risk, the researchers acknowledge. The recent escape of farmed Atlantic salmon in Washington’s Puget Sound alarmed fisheries managers, who worry that the species may breed with wild Chinook or coho salmon that are found in the Pacific Northwest. Introduced species and populations also have the potential to introduce disease to native species. “A key unresolved question is how large the industry and individual farms can become before they begin to negatively impact surrounding ecosystems,” Klinger said.

The authors say their modeling study was designed to assess the potential growth rates and potential range for the three fish species, based on climate warming scenarios of 2-5 degrees Celsius (or 3.6 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit).

The study also found:

  • Seabream will have the greatest potential for open-ocean farming in terms of area, but the fish will grow at a slower rate than with salmon or cobia;
  • Cobia has the second largest potential area for growth, just ahead of salmon;
  • For all species, depth of water is the greatest constraint to development, followed by suitable currents;
  • Other factors dictating success include environment, economics (feed, fuel and labor), regulations and politics, ecology (disease, predators, and harmful algal blooms), and social norms.

“Offshore aquaculture will continue to be a small segment of the industry in the near-term, but there is only so much you can do on land and there are not enough wild fish to feed the world’s population,” Watson said. “Assessing the potential is the first step toward reducing some of the uncertainties for the future.”

Watson, who is on the faculty of OSU’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, did his research while at Princeton University.

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James Watson, 541-737-2519, jrwatson@coas.oregonstate.edu;

Dane Klinger, dhklinger@stanford.edu

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aquaculture

Northwest researchers map out regional approach to studying food, energy, water nexus

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Natural resource researchers at Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho are gearing up for a late-summer summit aimed at addressing food, energy and water challenges as interconnected, regional issues.

The August meeting in Hermiston, Ore. – centrally located to many National Science Foundation-funded research projects – represents the second step of a collaboration that began with an April workshop in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho.

Research offices at the three universities hosted the gathering, where scientists explored ways to partner with each other and with industry to address issues that affect regional economies as well as environmental and human health.

Stephanie Hampton from WSU and Andrew Kliskey from Idaho led the planning of the workshop, at which six teams combined to start five U.S. Department of Agriculture and NSF grant proposals on issues ranging from water conservation to energy infrastructure.

“We’re really building a critical mass of researchers and research experience in the region,” said Chad Higgins, an agricultural engineering professor leading OSU’s role in the partnership. “The workshop was awesome. It exceeded all expectations with mind-blowing scientific discussions, new collaborations formed and new proposals floated. And now we have to keep it going because that was just the opening salvo, not the crescendo.”

Topics for future exploration might be broad – such as, will the region have enough food in 2050? – or narrow, like tracing the impact of a single technology. For example, a more efficient system for irrigation could lead to less energy used for pumping and also result in more food being produced.

“The food, energy, water nexus is so huge that it’s scary, but it’s also exciting,” Higgins said. “There are so many opportunities to look at things either in detail or to try to be broad and think about how the region will be influenced. We can bring each person’s expertise together to predict pain points, like are we going to be scarce in any one resource in the future, and where?”

Janet Nelson, vice president for research and economic development at the University of Idaho, said the tri-state collaboration “will poise us to build relationships among researchers from all three universities with many areas of expertise in order to work toward solutions that improve communities, economies and lives.”

“The University of Idaho is committed to examining issues that are critical not only to the people of Idaho, but also to the entire Northwest region, with rippling effects around the world,” she said.

Those issues include how to best update aging hydropower plants and food production infrastructure.

Cynthia Sagers, vice president for research at Oregon State, notes that when it comes to food, energy and water challenges, a solution in one location can lead to problems hundreds of miles away.

“That’s why this demands regional cooperation,” she said. “I am proud that our three land grant institutions are working together on these issues for a healthy Pacific Northwest." 

Christopher Keane, vice president of research at WSU, echoed the sentiment and said he “looks forward to seeing the results of continued collaboration.”

“Working across disciplines and institutions to ensure a sustainable supply of food, energy and water for future generations is a top research priority for WSU,” he said.

In addition to the August event, the planning team is applying for external funding to support ongoing meetings to help sustain momentum. 

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Sunflowers

Sunflower crop

Even short-duration heat waves could lead to failure of coffee crops

CORVALLIS – “Hot coffee” is not a good thing for java enthusiasts when it refers to plants beset by the high-temperature stress that this century is likely to bring, research at Oregon State University suggests.

A study by OSU’s College of Forestry showed that when Coffea arabica plants were subjected to short-duration heat waves, they became unable to produce flowers and fruit.

That means no coffee beans, and no coffee to drink.

C. arabica is the globe’s dominant coffee-plant species, accounting for 65 percent of the commercial production of the nearly 20 billion pounds of coffee consumed globally each year.

Continually producing new flushes of leaves year-round, C. arabica grows on 80 countries in four continents in the tropics.

The OSU research investigated how leaf age and heat duration affected C. arabica’s recovery from heat stress during greenhouse testing. A major finding was that the younger, “expanding” leaves were particularly slow to recover compared to mature leaves, and that none of the plants that endured the simulated heat waves produced any flowers or fruit.

“This emphasizes how sensitive Coffea arabica is to temperature,” said lead author Danielle Marias, a plant physiologist with OSU’s Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. “No flowering means no reproduction which means no beans, and that could be devastating for a coffee farmer facing crop failure.

“Heat is very stressful to the plants and is often associated with drought. However, in regions where coffee is grown, it may not just be hotter and drier, it could be hotter and wetter, so in this research we wanted to isolate the effects of heat.”

In the OSU study, C. arabica plants were exposed to heat that produced leaf temperatures of a little over 120 degrees Fahrenheit, for either 45 or 90 minutes. That leaf temperature, Marias emphasizes, is a realistic result of global climate change and also more than the surrounding air temperature – think of how hot, for example, asphalt gets in the sunshine on a 90-degree day.

Expanding leaves subjected to the 90-minute treatment took the longest to recover physiologically as measured by photosynthesis; chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of photosynthetic energy conversion; and the presence of nonstructural carbohydrates, which include starch and free sugars involved in growth, reproduction and other functions.

“In both treatments, photosynthesis of expanding leaves recovered more slowly than in mature leaves, and stomatal conductance of expanding leaves was reduced in both heat treatments,” Marias said. “Based on the leaf energy balance model, the inhibited stomatal conductance reduces evaporative cooling of leaves, which could further increase leaf temperatures, exacerbating the aftereffects of heat stress under both full and partial sunlight conditions, where C. arabica is often grown.”

Regardless of leaf age, the longer heat treatment resulted in decreased water-use efficiency, which could also worsen the effects of heat stress, particularly during drought.

Results of the research were recently published in Ecology and Evolution. The National Science Foundation supported the study, co-authors of which were Frederick Meinzer of the U.S. Forest Service and Christopher Still of the OSU Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society.

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By Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Coffea arabica

Coffea arabica

Fish and mercury: Detailed consumption advisories would better serve women across U.S.

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Among women of childbearing age in the U.S., fish consumption has increased in recent years while blood mercury concentrations have decreased, suggesting improved health for women and their babies, a new study shows.

The research at Oregon State University also indicates fish consumption advisories tailored to specific regions and ethnic groups would help women of childbearing age to eat in even more healthy ways, including better monitoring of mercury intake.

Food from the ocean has a unique and valuable nutritional profile. Among seafood’s many benefits are the omega-3 fatty acids that promote neurodevelopment, and the nutrients in seafood are especially important for pregnant women to pass on to developing fetuses.

But the main way people are exposed to toxic methylmercury – a mercury atom with a methyl group, CH3, attached to it – is through eating seafood. Thus the need for precise, nuanced fish consumption advisories, said Leanne Cusack of Oregon State University, the corresponding author on the study. 

Comparatively less-toxic elemental mercury enters the ocean from natural sources such as volcanic eruptions and also from human activities like the burning of fossil fuels, which accounts for about two-thirds of the mercury that goes into the water.

Once in the ocean, the mercury is methylated, diffuses into phytoplankton and passes up the food chain, accumulating along the way.

A scallop or a shrimp, for example, can have a mercury concentration of less than 0.003 parts per million. A large predator like a tuna, on the other hand, can contain roughly 10 million times as much methylmercury as the water that surrounds it and have a concentration of many parts per million.

Exactly how the mercury in the ocean becomes methylated, scientists don’t know.

Fish advisories are usually aimed at women of childbearing age because a developing fetus has greater sensitivity to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury. Jointly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration recommend women in that group eat two meals of low-mercury fish per week.

Using data from the ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cusack’s research group looked at fish consumption patterns with regard to blood mercury levels in U.S. women of childbearing age from 1999 to 2010.

Findings were recently published in the journal Environmental Health.

Women in the coastal regions, particularly the Northeast, were found to have the highest blood mercury concentrations; women living away from the sea, especially in the inland Midwest, had the lowest.

Coastal residents also ate fish the most frequently, with the species consumed varying by region. The type of fish most often consumed was shellfish in every part of the U.S. except for the inland West and inland Midwest.

As women’s age and household income increased, so did their fish consumption frequency and blood mercury concentrations. Among ethnic groups, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, Alaska Natives and Native Americans ate fish the most often and showed the most mercury, and Mexican Americans consumed fish the least often and showed the smallest concentration of mercury.

“We also found total monthly fish consumption by women of reproductive age was higher than it had been in recent years, with women consuming more marine fish and shellfish but with no appreciable difference in the mean consumption of freshwater fish, tuna, swordfish and shark,” said Cusack, a postdoctoral scholar in OSU’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences.

“That’s encouraging because marine and shellfish are associated with smaller increases in blood mercury. And also encouragingly, an average women who’d eaten fish nine or more times in the previous month had lower blood mercury levels than women who’d had fish at the same rate in 1999-2000.”

The differences in consumption and mercury levels by race and region illustrate the need for tailored fish advisories, she said.

“They need to have information about fish types and quantities you can safely eat,” Cusack said. “The more detailed they can be, the better.

“The main thing is we do need to increase fish consumption in this demographic,” Cusack added. “It has been increasing since 1999, but it’s still not at the level where we want to see it. People need to start consuming fish, and advisories need to focus on the benefits of consumption and not just the risks by providing a broad range of fish that are low in methylmercury and high in omega-3’s.” 

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Leanne Cusack, 541-737-5565
Leanne.Cusack@oregonstate.edu

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filets

Salmon filets

Photos show promise as dietary assessment tool, but more training needed

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Research at Oregon State University suggests that photographs of your food are good for a lot more than just entertaining your friends on social media – those pictures might help improve your health and also national nutrition policy.

But before that can happen, universities that educate the dietitians who review the photos need to provide more consistent, formal training, particularly hands-on work in food measurement and preparation and the use of computerized nutrient database systems.

A shortage of formalized, standardized training in these skills is problematic, the study shows. Results were recently published in the journal Nutrients.

The research tested the ability of 114 nutrition and dietetics students in the U.S. and Australia to identify foods and determine serving sizes by looking at photos of food on plates. They chose their food identification answers from entries in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies.

The students correctly identified the nine different foods nearly 80 percent of the time but struggled with serving size; only 38 percent of the estimates were within 10 percent of the actual weight of the food, with foods of amorphous shape or higher energy density, such as ice cream, proving the hardest to assess.

Image-based dietary assessment, or IBDA, aims to reduce or eliminate the inaccuracies that commonly accompany traditional methods such as written dietary records, 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires.

Dietary intake information is important both to individuals using nutrition-based therapy for conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, and to entire populations for identifying nutrition and disease risk.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses information from its National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to set policy for everything from school lunch programs to nutrition education for food-stamp recipients. The survey gathers data about dietary patterns and potential food intake inadequacies.

“We need to know where there are inadequacies in these surveys to identify nutrition and food policy and research needs,” said the study’s corresponding author, Mary Cluskey, an associate professor in OSU’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences and a registered dietitian.

With the prevalence of smartphones, photography is emerging as a means of augmenting food-intake information gathering. A pre-diabetes patient, for example, could take a picture of everything he ate for three days, and a dietitian could then analyze those photos to make recommendations for dietary improvements.

“If you’re providing me with your dietary intake information, you may not be trying to falsify the information, because you’re sincerely interested in improving your diet,” Cluskey said. “But I’m depending on your ability to recall what you ate and your ability to correctly tell me what portions and specific ingredients you had – there are all kinds of things that can make it go wrong.

“Images can facilitate your recall,” Cluskey added, “and they also prompt important questions from a dietitian: ‘Was that low-fat dressing or high-fat?’ Plus, images make dietary assessments more entertaining because people do like to take pictures of food.”

Students with a food preparation background that included cooking from recipes and frequently measuring portions performed better than those without that type of background, suggesting that future training of dietetics students should incorporate more of those types of experiences.

“We also need to work with people on their ability to take photos,” Cluskey said. “Shoot at a 45-degree angle to the food, preferably while you’re standing, and make sure you have adequate light. We want to make it as easy as possible for people to provide information that’s as accurate as possible.”

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Jelly

Dietary assessment photo

Varmint hunters’ ammo selection influences lead exposure in avian scavengers

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Varmint hunters’ choice of ammunition plays a role in the amount of lead that scavengers such as golden eagles could ingest, a new study shows, and offers a way to minimize the lead exposure to wildlife.

Using a new bullet-fragment recovery technique known as “digestion,” the research also suggests that radiographs, or X-rays, a common tool for estimating how much of the toxic metal left is behind in shot pests or game animals, tend to produce low estimates.

A team of researchers that included Oregon State University undergraduate student Mason Wagner and U.S. Geological Survey scientists collected 127 Belding’s ground squirrel carcasses from alfalfa fields in southern Oregon and northern California.

Eleven western states produce roughly 40 percent of the U.S.’s alfalfa, and burrowing mammals such as ground squirrels and prairie dogs can cause significant yield loss. Shooting the rodents is an important form of pest control as well as a popular recreational pastime throughout the West.

The carcasses are typically left on the fields, where avian scavengers like eagles, hawks and kestrels descend upon the carrion to feed both themselves and their nestlings.

This study looked at how much lead remained in the carcasses and how that correlated with the type of bullet used. Models were also created to estimate from radiographs the amount of lead left in a carcass and the potential effect of the lead on nestlings’ mortality, growth and production of an enzyme critical to the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.

Results of the study by Oregon State’s College of Agricultural Sciences and the USGS were recently published in PLOS ONE.

The research found 80 percent of shot carcasses had detectible fragments of lead. The study also found bullet type didn’t have an effect on the number of fragments, but it did influence the mass of the retained fragments. Also, smaller carcasses showed more “pass-through,” i.e. less retained lead.

Squirrels shot with high-velocity, high-mass .17-caliber Super Mag bullets, for example, had 28 times the retained fragment mass of those shot with .22-caliber solid bullets. One percent of the Super Mags’ original mass was left behind, by far the highest percentage of any ammo type, and the Super Mag fragments also dispersed more than two times farther through the carcass – making them more likely to be eaten by a scavenging animal.

Modeling suggested that hawk and eagle nestlings fed regularly with shot ground squirrels could likely lose more than half the production of the key enzyme ALAD throughout the nestling period, though no nestlings would be expected to die of lead poisoning. They could, though, eat enough lead to impair late-nestling-stage growth, but by then they would have done most of their growing anyway.

The digestion procedure for extracting bullet fragments involved processing carcasses into a solution that was run through sieves and a gold-prospecting sluice box. Researchers used digestion on 30 carcasses to determine a relationship between digestion results and radiography results.

“We found that radiographs are not very accurate at estimating how much lead is left in a carcass,” said study co-author Collin Eagles-Smith, a USGS ecologist and OSU courtesy assistant professor of fisheries and wildlife. “They underestimate density when there are more small fragments. Small ones are the pieces that are more digestible and likely to enter the circulatory system.”

Radiography has also been used to estimate how much lead is present in shot game animals such as deer and elk.

In addition to providing a check on the accuracy of estimating via radiography, the research also suggests a way for hunters to minimize the amount of lead left in varmint carcasses.

“The sheer number of carcasses after a hunting session is a challenge to pick up, assuming you can even find all of the carcasses,” said lead author Garth Herring, also a USGS ecologist. “Picking up every last carcass is not realistic, but there are choices people can make regarding ammunition that may result in smaller amounts of lead in the carcasses left behind.”

Eagles-Smith noted that rodenticides, an alternative to shooting, have their own toxicological implications.

“These pests are really an economic threat to farmers, and shooting them is one method to control their numbers,” he said. “Choosing an ammunition type, such as .22-caliber solid bullets, that creates substantially fewer fragments can be a way to minimize lead exposure to scavengers and other wildlife.” 

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Belding's Ground Squirrel

Belding's ground squirrel

Bacteria discovery offers possible new means of controlling crop pest

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A bacterium common in insects has been discovered in a plant-parasitic roundworm, opening up the possibility of a new, environmentally friendly way of controlling the crop-damaging pest.

The worm, Pratylenchus penetrans, is one of the “lesion nematodes” -- microscopic animals that deploy their mouths like syringes to extract nutrients from the roots of plants, damaging them in the process. This particular nematode uses more than 150 species as hosts, including mint, raspberry, lily and potato.

The newly discovered bacterium is a strain in the genus Wolbachia, one of the world’s most widespread endosymbionts – organisms that live within other organisms. Wolbachia is present in roughly 60 percent of the globe’s arthropods, among them insects, spiders and crustaceans, and also lives in nematodes that cause illness in humans.

Postdoctoral scholar Amanda Brown in the Oregon State University Department of Integrative Biology was the lead author on the study, and recently accepted an assistant professor position at Texas Tech. Findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Depending on the host species, Wolbachia can be an obligate mutualist – the bacteria and the host need each other for survival – or a reproductive parasite that manipulates the host’s reproductive outcomes in ways that harm the host and benefit the bacteria. Parasitic Wolbachia can cause its host populations to heavily skew toward female.

In the case of the crop-pest nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, that Brown and her colleagues studied, the bacteria-host relationship appears to not be one of obligate mutualism – many examples of non-infected worms have been found, meaning the worm doesn’t rely on Wolbachia to survive.

But more study is needed to determine the exact nature of the relationship, said Dee Denver, an associate professor in the Department of Integrative Biology in the College of Science.

Whatever the relationship, simply discovering Wolbachia in Pratylenchus penetrans opens up the potential for managing the roundworm’s population via biocontrol rather than environment-damaging fumigants, such as methyl bromide, that are being phased out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

“We can use what’s already infecting them against them,” Denver said.

Nematode biocontrol would involve releasing Wolbachia-infected worms into farm fields whose worm populations weren’t infected. From there, a couple of situations, both favorable to the crops, might arise:

  •  The bacterium could hinder the worms’ ability to reproduce;
  •  It also might force the worm to devote energy to dealing with the bacterium, effectively distracting it from being as damaging to the crops as it otherwise would be.

Wolbachia is already being used as a biocontrol strategy in Colombia and Brazil, where infected mosquitoes are being released in an effort to control the Zika, dengue and malaria viruses. Mosquitoes are a vector for those diseases, but Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes pass the bacteria to their offspring, who lose their ability to transmit the diseases. Wolbachia also can interfere with the mosquitoes’ ability to reproduce at all.

“We can see where all of that goes and learn from it to help our decision making on how the strategy might get deployed to control the population of plant-parasitic nematodes,” Denver said. “One big thing with nematodes is the load. Many crops have some, but once you get above certain thresholds, fields go down and there are economic losses.”

In addition to the potential for an environmentally safe way to deal with a crop pest, the research is noteworthy for providing genomic evidence that nematodes, not arthropods, were the original Wolbachia hosts. The strain that OSU researchers discovered – known as wPpe – proved to be the earliest diverging Wolbachia, meaning the bacteria adapted to arthropods and then later evolved to reinvade nematodes.

“Were they originally reproductive parasites or play-nice mutualists?” Dee said. “These are outside the range of better-studied Wolbachia, so we don’t know, but we have preliminary data and we think they’re reproductive parasites.”

Another unanswered question: How widespread is Wolbachia among plant-parasitic nematodes?

“There are thousands of nematode species infecting plants,” Denver said. “Wolbachia has always been thought of as an arthropod thing, an insect thing. It was kind of a serendipitous discovery for us. We were sequencing genomes from nematodes for the purpose of understanding nematodes, and the mapping went to Wolbachia.”

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Steve Lundeberg, 541-737-4039

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Pratylenchus penetrans

Pratylenchus penetrans

Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives at OSU is expanding

CORVALLIS, Ore. —  The Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives at Oregon State University’s Valley Library is celebrating its third anniversary with expanded collecting areas.

To meet the needs of researchers, the Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives is broadening its reach to include the history of home brewing, cider, mead, barley farming and research, and the pre-Prohibition eras. In August 2013, the library’s Special Collections and Archives Research Center established the first archives in the country dedicated to collecting materials related to the history of hops and craft brewing.

"We are so proud of the support we've gotten over the past three years and are excited to broaden our collecting areas to cover more topics, more time periods, and more territories," said Tiah Edmunson-Morton, an archivist at Oregon State’s Valley Library and the curator for the library’s Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives.

The archives includes the papers of world-renowned beer historian Fred Eckhardt; oral histories with growers, brewers and scientists; the records of the Oregon Hop Growers Association; extensive industry periodicals and book collections; homebrew club newsletters; photographs; memorabilia and advertising materials from Oregon breweries; and OSU research on plant disease, breeding and processing that dates to the 1890s.

“OBHA is an archive unlike any other, one that allows scholars to research seriously the craft beer revolution and the rich agricultural history of hops upon which good beer rests,” said Peter A. Kopp, author of “Hoptopia: A World of Agriculture and Beer in Oregon’s Willamette Valley.”

To celebrate the expansion of the collecting areas and the three-year anniversary, the archives is releasing a photo per day for three months beginning on Aug. 1.

The photos will be on “The Brewstorian” blog (http://thebrewstorian.tumblr.com/and OHBA's Twitter and Facebook pages. For more information http://guides.library.oregonstate.edu/brewingarchives.

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Daniel Moret, 541-737-4412; dan.moret@oregonstate.edu

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Tiah Edmunson-Morton, 541-737-7387, tiah.edmunson-morton@oregonstate.edu

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Norman Goetze, OSU; Wilson Foote, OSU; Warren Kronstad, OSU; Scotty Coleader, Amity

Award-winning food writer and critic Ruth Reichl to speak at OSU Feb. 17

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Noted national food writer, critic and television personality Ruth Reichl will speak at Oregon State University on Feb. 17 as part of the Provost’s Lecture Series.

Reichl’s talk, “American Food Now: How We Became a Nation of Foodies,” begins at 7:30 p.m. in The LaSells Stewart Center, 875 S.W. 26th St., Corvallis. The event is free and open to the public. Doors open at 6:30 p.m., and a book-signing will follow.

Reichl was editor in chief at “Gourmet” from 1999 until the magazine’s closure in 2009. Before joining the magazine, she was restaurant critic at The New York Times and at the Los Angeles Times, where she also was food editor.

She has served as a judge on the television show “Top Chef Masters” on Bravo and hosted three Food Network specials that covered her culinary exploits in New York, San Francisco and Miami. Her 10-episode PBS show, “Gourmet’s Adventures with Ruth,” highlighted her trips to the best cooking schools on five continents with famous foodie friends such as actress Dianne Wiest and Chef Dean Fearing.

Reichl is the author of a novel and several memoirs. Her most recent work is “My Kitchen Year: 136 Recipes That Saved My Life,” a cookbook published in September 2015. She is the recipient of six James Beard Awards. The awards, considered the highest honor for food industry professionals in America, cover all aspects of the food industry, including cookbook authors and food journalists; chefs and restaurants; and restaurant designers and architects.

Reichl’s visit is supported by the Wait and Lois Rising Endowment and the College of Agricultural Sciences at OSU, which has become a leader in the nation’s food culture. The college is a strong partner with Oregon’s rapidly growing food and beverage industries.

Born and raised in New York City’s Greenwich Village, Reichl moved to Berkeley, California, in the early 1970s, where she played an integral role in America’s culinary revolution as chef and co-owner of The Swallow Restaurant.

Co-sponsored by the Office of the Provost and the OSU Foundation, the Provost’s Lecture Series brings renowned speakers to the Oregon State University community to engage in thought-provoking discussions on topics of cultural and global significance.

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University Events, 541-737-4717, events@oregonstate.edu

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Ruth Reichl

Ruth Reichl

OSU applying to feds for permission to conduct industrial hemp research

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Faculty in the Oregon State University College of Agricultural Sciences have submitted an application to the federal Drug Enforcement Administration seeking permission to conduct research on industrial hemp.

OSU faculty members believe there is interest within Oregon for industrial hemp production and related research, as well as potential to promote the crop’s agricultural and economic opportunities.

Jay Noller, head of the crop and soil science department in the College of Agricultural Sciences at OSU, said the university hopes to secure approval from the DEA and the Oregon Department of Agriculture to begin approved industrial hemp research trials for the 2016 growing season. The research likely would focus on learning more about the crop’s productivity, yield and growing conditions in western Oregon.

“We still need to secure funding for the research once the other hurdles are cleared,” Noller said. OSU expects that the results of peer-reviewed research regarding industrial hemp will be available in three to five years and that research planned over that time frame will require as much as $2.5 million in funding.

The growing and distribution of industrial hemp is regulated by the federal Controlled Substances Act, according to Steve Clark, OSU vice president for University Relations and Marketing. That act precludes Oregon State faculty from performing research that involves the possession, use, or distribution of hemp – unless such research is in compliance with already established federal guidelines.

“Thanks to the leaders of the Oregon Congressional delegation, the federal 2014 Farm Bill provided important authority regarding hemp research,” Clark said. “A provision in the bill enables higher education institutions to conduct industrial hemp research if the institution is located in a state in which industrial hemp production is legal.”

Industrial hemp has many uses, proponents say, including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, fuel, and health and food products. It is a fast-growing plant that requires few pesticides, and it potentially could lead to replacing some environmentally harmful products.

Clark said the university’s decision to seek state and federal approval to conduct industrial hemp research will not extend to research related to the cultivation or propagation of marijuana.

Media Contact: 

Steve Clark, 541-737-3808, steve.clark@oregonstate.edu

Source: 

Jay Noller, 54-737-6187, jay.noller@oregonstate.edu