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~Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780)

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Term Definition
online analysis tools

help biologists interpret molecular biology data. Examples include: bioinformatics tools, genomics tools (for whole genome analysis), DNA sequence analysis (predicting alignments, motifs, homologies, transcription factors, etc), protein sequence analysis (homologies, motifs, structure, etc), RNA sequence analysis (promoters, terminators, transcription factors, etc), transcription analysis (clustering, pattern discovery, etc), carbohydrate structure predictors, etc.

organic agriculture

USDA Organic symbola farming system that focuses on building soil humus and using natural products as plant nutrients and pesticides. The organic farming concept arose in the early 20th century in reaction to the soil-degrading practices and toxic chemicals that were often part and parcel of preindustrial era farming. Organic ag was first conducted on a commercial scale in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1990 the US Congress passed legislation requiring the USDA to develop guidelines for organic certification ⎯ a process completed in 2002. In addition to requiring that all inputs meet a definition of natural, the guidelines preclude the use of genetically engineered crops, sewage sludge, and irradiation. As of 2008, only 0.52 percent of harvested US cropland was certified organic. Organic growers are usually paid a price premium to compensate for their generally lower crop yields.

… we reject the organic-conventional dichotomy and emphasize that, in order to optimize environmental sustainability, individual tactics must be evaluated for their environmental impact in the context of an integrated approach, and that policy decisions must be based on empirical data and objective risk-benefit analysis, not arbitrary classifications. ~Bahlai et al


biological organisms collagegenes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Normally, orthologs retain the same function over the course of evolution. Ortholog identification is critical for reliable gene function prediction in newly sequenced genomes. Behold the unity of life!

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