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Every science requires a special language because every science has its own ideas.
~Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780)
creations of the mind (musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs). Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract creations has exclusive rights to it — this is why we have trademarks, copyrights, and patents. In many instances, owners (or their designated licensees) can restrict, or impose fees for, the use of IP.
the practice of planting two or more mutually beneficial crops together. (On a small scale, this is often called companion planting.) Intercropping benefits can include higher yields per hectare, lower agricultural inputs, pest suppression, structural support, or shade. Intercropping can encourage biodiversity by better supporting beneficial organisms above and below the soil surface. Typical intercropping systems include a cereal and a legume, but many sucessful tree-based intercropping systems are also in use. See also permaculture.
genetic diversity occurring between or involving different species, or created by crossing different species or by adding a specific gene or genes from one species to another species using genetic engineering.
genetic diversity occurring within a species, involving members of one species. Classical breeding efforts to produce new crop varieties are highly limited by the genes already present in the gene pool of that crop species. See also interspecific diversity.
integrated pest management
The goal of IPM is to manage pest damage by the most economical means, with the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment. IPM is a continuum of common-sense practices grounded in knowledge about pest life cycles and environmental interactions. It takes advantage of all appropriate pest management options, including the judicious use of both natural and synthetic pesticides. In contrast, organic production applies many of the same concepts as IPM but limits the use of pesticides to natural chemicals.
Carefully designed integrated pest management systems are likely the best strategy for minimizing environmental impact of agriculture: where certified organic systems may reject the technology with the smallest environmental impact based on ideology, IPM maintains the flexibility to incorporate any strategy empirically determined to have the smallest impact. ~Bahlai et al.