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hybrid breeding

by controlling pollination, two inbred plant lines are crossed. The progeny of the first cross (the F1 hybrids) are uniform because the genetic variation among them is low. They are vigorous because they often have two different versions of each gene variant, one of which is likely to be desirable. F1s also carry recessive genes for undesirable traits, which are liable to turn up unexpectedly in subsequent generations if seed is saved. Farmers choose hybrid seed when it’s high yielding or provides them with some other distinct advantage. See also classical breeding.

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