Unnoticed by most beach–goers, a showdown is under way in Oregon’s coastal dunes, and the winner could pack increased risks for coastal property, especially during winter storms.
OSU scientists have documented a slow but steady takeover by American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata), an invasive species from the East Coast and Great Lakes. They have found that protective “foredunes” covered by the new species are only about half as high as those created by the European species of grass (Ammophila arenaria), another non–native that was dominant. And they are initiating research to understand what gives the American variety the edge and what that might mean for coastal property owners and native plant restoration.
The takeover has already occurred from Ocean Shores, Washington, to Pacific City, Oregon, and it’s continuing. “This decrease in dune height may translate into a significant decrease in coastal protection from storms and tsunamis,” says Eric Seabloom, an OSU assistant professor of zoology. Historically, the dunes were more open than they are today, hosting plants such as wild rye and relatives of morning glory, buckwheat and other wildflowers. The European grass has stabilized Oregon dunes since it was first introduced for this purpose around 1900. “It did its job extremely well,” says Sally Hacker, OSU associate professor of zoology and an expert on estuaries. “Without it, the sand would cover towns and roads.”
It was so successful that by the 1930s it had spread along the entire Oregon coast and created an extensive “foredune” system, large protective sand hills in front of almost every sandy beach. These dunes can provide significant protection for homes, roads, towns and other infrastructure, and serve as a barrier against flooding during storm surges.
The second invasion, by American beach grass, went practically undetected for 50 years. Introduced near the mouth of the Columbia River in the mid–1930s, also to stabilize beaches, it out–competes its European cousin. It wasn’t until a survey in the late 1980s by Seabloom and a colleague at Evergreen State College that scientists realized how far it had spread, south to Tillamook Head and north to the Olympic Peninsula.
Coastal surveys have now determined that from Pacific City north, American beach grass has nearly replaced the European variety. “Lower dune heights, increasing wave heights that have been observed over the last 50 years and global climate change could create a scenario in which the dunes no longer serve a coastal protection function,”
With funding from Oregon Sea Grant, zoology Ph.D. student Phoebe Zarnetske of Storrs, Connecticut, is teasing out the story behind these trends. In experiments at the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport and at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory on the OSU campus, she is subjecting the two grasses to varying rates of sand deposition to see which one thrives. She has visited practically every sandy beach in Oregon and Washington to survey beach grass conditions. And as a student in OSU’s Ecosystem Informatics IGERT program, she will develop a mathematical model to explain how this dynamic system is changing.
Beyond the protection concerns, there are other ecological issues in play as well. While the foredune system created by European beach grass is good for coastal landowners, it is not so good for endangered native plant species and the federally threatened Western snowy plover. As more sand accumulated in growing stands of the European grass, the land behind the dune tended to get turned into wetlands and forest habitats. “The willows and other trees and larger shrubs you often see behind the dunes are an indication that wetlands are being formed in the mini–valley behind the
dunes,” says Hacker.
As European grass advanced, beach habitat disappeared, taking with it the plovers’ critical nesting grounds. The southward march of the American beach grass could reverse the trend. Hacker and Seabloom are also working with Peter Ruggiero, a coastal geomorphologist in the OSU Department of Geosciences, to understand how coastal sediment supply and nearshore oceanographic conditions influence beach grass competition and the coastal protection capabilities of dunes. The researchers plan to meet with coastal property owners in 2008 to discuss the results of their work.
Article courtesy of Terra Magazine
Photo by Phoebe Zarnetske