1. The term genomics refers to information about the complete genome of an organism. The genome of an organism includes all of its DNA.
2. It is said that we are in the post-genomic era. This means that the sequences of many complete genomes are known and researchers are focusing now on understanding what the information in those sequences means.
3. Proteomics refers to all of the information about all of the proteins of a cell.
4. A very useful tool of proteomics is 2D gel electrophoresis. It works as follows - proteins are separated in a gel in the horizontal orientation according to their charge and then they are separated in the vertical orientation according to their size (biggest ones at the top, smallest at bottom). The resulting image shows individual proteins as spots in two dimensions. Each protein will be found at a specific spot consistently. The darkness of the spot is related to the amount of the protein.
5. Not all proteins coded in a genome are being made in all cells all the time. With 2D gel electrophoresis, one can separate all of the proteins in one cell type (for example, skin) and compare the pattern to that of the proteins of another cell type (for example, bone). Differences in the spot patterns between the two analyses arise from differences in the proteins being made in each type. Since it is relatively easy to determine which spot corresponds to which protein, one can easily determine the proteins differences.
Good luck to all of you on the finals. I have enjoyed teaching BB 100 to you this term.