"We were but few, while the white men were many...we could not hold our own with them. We were like deer. They were like grizzly bears...We were contented to let things remain as the Great Spirit Chief made them. They were not; and would change the riv ers and mountains if they did not suit them." --Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé

Salmon Mortality in 1770:

Natural mortality of salmon is due to factors like natural death after spawning; predators, including mammals, birds, and other fish; and naturally-occurring population fluctuations caused by river and ocean conditions. Tribal fisheries are the only human effects at this time.

The Columbia Basin in 1770
The Columbia Basin in 1940
The Columbia Basin Now
Other Salmon Links

To Index To Columbia River History To Regional Data To Related Sites To References

Updated:Wednesday, 11-May-2005 14:22:24 PDT
URL is http://www.orst.edu/instruction/anth481/sal/cr1770.htm