References

Hypatia of Alexandria
Nicely developed article from the Free Dictionary. Includes quotes from ancient commentators

Hypatia of Alexandria
A focus on her role as a mathematician.

Bibliotheca Alexandria
The library of Alexandria is being rebuilt! Monitor the progress and read the history.

 

Hypatia

She was a learned philosopher, a creative mathematician, and a popular teacher. Those talents led to her being condemed as a witch and murdered in 415 . Working with her father Theon, a mathematician and keeper of the Great Library of Alexandria, Hypatia contributed to a commentary on Ptolemy's astronomy and a new version of Euclid's Elements (the basic text in the history of geometry.) She is known to have been a neo-platonist following the school of thought developed by Plotinus and derived from Plato. None of Hypatia's or Theon's works survived the burning of the Great Library.

Science writer Carl Sagan aptly summarized the significance of the Great Library of Alexandria and the role of Hypatia in the following passage his book Cosmos.

"Only once before in our history was there the promise of a brilliant scientific civilization. Beneficiary of the Ionian Awakening, it had its citadel at the Library of Alexandria, where 2,000 years ago the best minds of antiquity established the foundations for the systematic study of mathematics, physics, biology, astronomy, literature, geography and medicine. We build on those foundations still. The Library was constructed and supported by the Ptolemys, the Greek kings who inherited the Egyptian portion of the empire of Alexander the Great. From the time of its creation in the third century B.C. until its destruction seven centuries later, it was the brain and heart of the ancient world.

The last scientist who worked in the Library was a mathematician, astronomer, physicist and the head of the Neoplatonic school of philosophy -- an extraordinary range of accomplishments for any individual in any age. Her name was Hypatia. She was born in Alexandria in 370. At a time when women had few options and were treated as property, Hypatia moved freely and unselfconsciously through traditional male domains. By all accounts she was a great beauty. She had many suitors but rejected all offers of marriage. The Alexandria of Hypatia's time -- by then long under Roman rule -- was a city under grave strain. Slavery had sapped classical civilization of its vitality. The growing Christian Church was consolidating its power and attempting to eradicate pagan influence and culture. Hypatia stood at the epicenter of these mighty social forces. Cyril, the Archbishop of Alexandria, despised her because of her close friendship with the Roman governor, and because she was a symbol of learning and science, which were largely identified by the early Church with paganism In great personal danger, she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, on her way to work she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners. They dragged her from her chariot, tore off her clothes, and armed with abalone shells, flayed her flesh from her bones. Her remains were burned, her works obliterated, her name forgotten. Cyril was made a saint.

The glory of the Alexandrian Library is a dim memory. Its last remnants were destroyed soon after Hypatia's death. It was as if the entire civilization had undergone some self-inflicted brain surgery, and most of its memories, discoveries, ideas and passions were extinguished irrevocably. The loss was incalculable. In some cases, we know only the tantalizing titles of the works that were destroyed. In most cases, we know neither the titles nor the authors. We do know that of the 123 plays of Sophocles in the Library, only seven survived. One of those seven is Oedipus Rex. Similar numbers apply to the works of Aeschylus and Euripides. It is a little as if the only surviving works of a man named William Shakespeare were Coriolanus and A Winter's Tale, but we had heard that he had written certain other plays, unknown to us but apparently prized in his time, works entitled Hamlet, Macbeth, Julius Caesar, King Lear, Romeo and Juliet." (From Cosmos by Carl Sagan)

While ancient historians and commentors noted Hypatia's genius, it is only in recent years that her significance in philosophy is generally recognized. As Sagan makes clear in the above passage, history is dependent upon what is recorded and what records survive for the future. In western philosophy, women have been almost entirely written out of the intellectual history until the twentieth century. Some by neglect, some by purposeful ommission, and some like Hypatia, by violence. Now that the change in historical balance is taking place, interest in philosophical women of the past is growing. For those of us with such an interest, Hypatia stands as a starting point in the intellectual classical world.


 

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