BAUHAUS The "Bauhaus" was a school for Design/Art/Architecture founded in Weimar. It moved to Dessau and then Berlin before the Nazis closed it. Its teachers and pupils mostly left Germany during the Nazi era and moved all over the world. They have influenced design, art, and architecture throughout the century. =========================================================================== === From the First Proclamation of the Weimar Bauhaus: The complete building is the final aim of the visual arts. Their noblest function was once the decoration of buildings. Today they exist in isolation, from which they can be rescued only through the conscious, cooperative effort of all craftsmen. Architects, painters and sculptors must recognize anew the composite character of a building as an entity. Only then will their work be imbued with the architectonic spirit which it has lost as "salon art" (NOTE: i.e. academic art). ARCHITECTS, SCULPTORS, PAINTERS, WE MUST ALL TURN TO THE CRAFTS. Art is not a "profession." There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman. The artist is an exalted craftsman. In rare moments of inspiration, in moments beyond the control of his will, the grace of heaven may cause his work to blossom into art. But proficiency in his craft is essential to every artist. Therein lies a source of creative imagination. Let us create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. Together let us conceive and create the new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hand of a million workers like the crystal symbol of a new faith. Principles of the BAUHAUS 1. Most students (of design) should face the fact that their future will be involved primarily with industry and mass production rather than individual craftsmanship. 2. Teachers in schools of design should be men who are in advance of their profession rather than safely and academically in the rear guard. 3. The school of design should, as the Bauhaus does, bring together the various arts of painting, architecture, theater, photography, weaving, typography, etc., into a modern syn thesis which disregards conventional distinctions between the "fine" & the "applied" arts. 4. It is harder to design a first rate chair than to paint a second rate picture--and much more useful. 5. A school of design should have on its faculty the purely creative and disinterested artist such as the easel painter as a spiritual counterpoint to the practical technician in order that they may work and teach side by side for the benefit of the student. 6. Thorough manual experience of materials is essential to the student of design--experience at first confined to free experiment and then extended to practical shop work. 7. The study of rational design in terms of technics and materials should be only the first step in the development of a new and modern sense of beauty. 8. Because we live in the 20th century, the student architect or designer should be offered no refuge in the past but should be equipped for the modern world in its various aspects, artistic, technical, social, economic, spiritual, so that he may function in society not as a decorator but as a vital participant.