Face-Negotiation Theory: High & Low Context Cultures

High Context (e.g., Japan)                                            Low Context (e.g., U.S.)
Meaning is implicit in relationship & situation                     Meaning is explicit in the words spoken
Emphasis on the group(collectivism)                                  Emphasis on the individual(individualism)
Indirectness valued                                                           Straight talk valued

Face and Facework

Face: A person’s image in an interactional situation.
Facework: Management of face concerns & face needs in interaction.

Muted Group Theory

Muted Group Theory: Premises Muted Group Theory: Evidence Muted Group Theory: Its Goal           * Feminist dictionary
          * Sexual harassment
          * Glass ceiling

Muted Group Theory: Some Questions

Anxiety/Uncertainty Theory

Anxiety/Uncertainty Theory

Anxiety/Uncertainty Theory The ‘Aha’ Game/Critique
“If my interpretation is correct, then readers, on hearing my explanation, will exclaim with their heads, “Aha
!”  Something they have intuitively sensed will be made explicit” (Tannen, in Griffin, 1997, p.455).

Case #1
Women seek human conntion

Men are concerned with status:

Case #2
Women talk more in private

Men talk more in public Case #3
Women tell stories about others Men tell more stories than women Case #4
Women actively listen and ask questions Men listen, but don’t ask question Case #5
Women avoid conflict Men initiate conflict           Tannen’s Theory
Male-female conversation is cross-cultural communication.

That masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects rather than as inferior or superior ways of speaking.

*Miscommunication between men and women is all the more insidious because the parties usually don’t realize that they are in  a cross- cultural encounter.

: *Tannen believes that both men and women need to learn how to speak in the other’s voice.
*Mutual understanding will bridge the cultural gap between sexes. 

Tannen mentioned that women need assertiveness training and men need sensitivity training.
Many companies do offer these training sessions
 And they focus primarily on
What people say and the way they say it.