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BOT 440/540 Field Methods in Vegetation Science


Literature cited and references

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The articles and books in this list have either been directly cited in course material or are good general references for reading more about field methods and statistical sampling in vegetation science.

Barbour, M. G., J. H. Burk, W. D. Pitts, F. S. Gilliam, and M. W. Schwartz. 1999. Terrestrial plant ecology, third Edition. Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif.

Bonham, C. D. 1989. Measurements for terrestrial vegetation. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Bormann, F. H. 1953. The statistical efficiency of sample plot size and shape in forest ecology. Ecology 34:474-487.

Cain, S. A., and G. M. O. Castro. 1959. Manual of vegetation analysis. Harper, New York.

Chambers, J. C., and R. W. Brown. 1983. Methods for vegetation sampling and analysis on revegetated mined lands. USFS General Technical Report INT-151.

Cochran, W. G. 1977. Sampling techniques. Wiley, New York.

Connell, J. H. 1990. Apparent versus "real" competition in plants. Pages 9-26 in J. B. Grace and D. Tilman, (eds.), Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.

Cormack, R. M., G. P. Patil, D. S. Robson (eds.) 1979. Sampling biological populations. International Co-operative Publishing House.

Coops, N.C., Smith, M.L., Jacobsen, K.L., Martin, M. & Ollinger, S. 2004. Estimation of plant and leaf area index using three techniques in a mature native eucalypt canopy. Austral Ecology 29:332-341.

De Vries, P. G. 1986. Sampling theory for forest inventory: a teach-yourself course. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Eberhardt, L. L., and J. M. Thomas. 1991. Designing environmental field studies. Ecological Monographs 61:53-73.

Eckblad, J. W. 1991. How many samples should be taken? BioScience 41:346-348.

Elzinga, D. L., D. W. Salzer, and J. W. Willoughby. 2001. Monitoring plant and animal populations. Blackwell Science..

Floyd, D. A., and J. E. Anderson. 1987. A comparison of three methods for estimating plant cover. Journal of Ecology 75:221-228.

Frazer, G.W., Canham, C.D. & Lertzman, K.P. 2000. Gap light analyzer, version 2.0. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 81::191-197.

Green, R. H. 1979. Sampling design and statistical methods for environmental biologists. Wiley, New York.

Hayek, L. C., and M. A. Buzas. 1997. Surveying natural populations. Columbia University Press, New York.

Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:187-211.

Jennings, S. B., N. D. Brown, and D. Sheil. 1999. Assessing forest canopies and understorey illumination: canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures. Forestry 72:59-73.

Korb, J.E., Covington, W.W. & Fulé, P.Z. 2003. Sampling techniques influence understory plant trajectories after restoration: an example from ponderosa pine restoration. Restoration Ecology 11:504-515.

Krebs, C. J. 1989. Ecological methodology. Harper & Row, New York.

Kupper, L. L., and K. B. Hafner. 1989. How appropriate are popular sample size formulas? American Statistician 43: 101-105.

Louda, S. M. 1982. Distribution ecology: variation in plant recruitment over a gradient in relation to insect seed predation. Ecological Monographs 52:25-41.

Magnusson, W. E. 1997. Teaching experimental design in ecology, or how to do statistics without a bikini. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 78:205-209.

Magnusson, W. E. 2000. Statistical iatrogenesis: cure it or prevent it? Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 81:199-201.

Maisel, R., and C. H. Persell. 1996. How sampling works. Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, Calif.

McCune, B. 1990. Rapid estimation of abundance of epiphytes on branches. The Bryologist 93:39-43.

Means, J. E., H. Hansen, G. Koerper, P. B. Alaback, and M. W. Klopsch. 1994. Software for computing plant biomass--BIOPAK users guide. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-340.

Moore, P. D., and S. D. Chapman. 1986. Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Mueller-dombois, D., and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

National Research Council. 1996. National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Seefeldt, S. S. 2006. Measuring plant cover in sagebrush steppe rangelands: a comparison of methods. Environmental Management 37:703-711

Smucker, A. J. M., S. L. McBurney, and A. K. Srivastava. 1982. Quantitative separation of roots from compacted soil profiles by the hydropneumatic elutriation system. Agronomy Journal 74:500-503.

Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Stewart, K.E.J.; Bourn, N.A.D.; Thomas, J.A.  2001. .An evaluation of three quick methods commonly used to assess sward height in ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:1148-1154.

Sutherland, W. J. (editor). 1996. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wilson, M. V., and L. E. Lantz. 2000. Issues and framework for building successful science-management teams for natural areas management. Natural Areas Journal 20:381-385.


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