This section provides pointers to technical and biological research. For history, land use planning, and social dimensions of watershed management, go to the social sources page.


Watershed education opportunities
  • Watershed Stewardship Education Program. Provides training and materials to help Oregon's watershed councils and Soil & Water Conservation Districts understand how watersheds work, and apply the knowledge to watershed assessments, project development, and water quality and habitat monitoring.
  • EPA's Watershed Academy. Offers courses throughout the US in a variety of subjects related to watershed health. Also offers a web-based training program and facilitation courses.
Environmental history and descriptions

Classifed List of Flowering Plants on a Benton County Farm.  1904.  Isabel Whitby.  Unpublished master’s thesis, Oregon Agricultural College (Oregon State University).

“Climatic Changes in the Western United States Since 18,000 Years B.P.”  1993.  R. Thompsen, C. Whitlock, P. Bartlein, S. Harrison and W. Spaulding.  In Global Climates Since the Last Glacial Maximum.  H. Wright Jr., J. Kutzbach, W. Ruddiman, F. Street-Perrott, T. Webb III and P. Bartlein, eds.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Environment and Experience: Settlement Culture in Nineteenth-Century Oregon. 1992. Boag, Peter G. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Late Pleistocene Environments of North Pacific North America.  1960. C. Heusser.  New York: American Geographical Society Publication No. 35.

Presettlement Vegetation for the Willamette Valley, Oregon. 1998.  J. Christy, E. Alverson, M. Dougherty, s. Kolar, L. Ashkenas, and P. Minear, Portland: Oregon Natural Heritage Program.  (Includes map and species list compiled from records of the General Land Office Surveyors circa 1850).

 “The Vegetation of the Willamette Valley.”  1971. C. Johannesen, W. Davenport, A. Millet, and S. McWilliams.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 61(2):286-306.

The Willamette Valley: Choices for the Future, 1970.  1972. Halprin, Lawrence & Associates.  Prepared for the Willamette Valley Environmental Protection & Development Planning Council.

Woodland in the Willamette Valley: An Historical Geography. 1974. Towle, Jerry C. Eugene: University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Geography.

Fish and wildlife

1994 Biennial Report of the Status of Wild Fish in Oregon. 1995. _ Kostow, ed. Portland: Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife. 

Diminishing Returns: Pesticides and Salmon Decline.  1999.  E. Richard.  Eugene: Oregon Pesticide Education Network. 

Essential Salmon Habitat.  1999.  Salem: Division of State Lands. 

The Fish and Wildlife Resources of the Middle Willamette Basin, Oregon, and Their Water Use Requirements. 1963. Portland: Oregon State Game Commission and State Water Resources Board. 

Fish Management Plans. Available for many subbasins such as the South Santiam, Calapooia, and Long Tom. ODFW 1992+. (Available at ODFW library in Clackamas) 

Fish Runs: Willamette Falls, Sandy River, Clackamas River, Deschutes River. 1994. Portland: Portland General Electric. 

"Geography of Western North American Freshwater Fishes: Description and Relationships to Intracontinental Tectonism." 1996. W.L. Minckley, D.A. Hendrickson, and C.A. Bond. In The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes, pp. 519-613. C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 

Healthy Native Stocks of Anadromous Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest and California.  1994. C.W. Huntington, W. Nehlsen, and J. Bowers. Portland: Oregon Trout. 

Limnology.  1994.  A.J. Horne and C.R. Goldman.  McGraw-Hill, Inc., second edition. 

Management of Wildlife and Fish Habitat in Forests of Western Oregon and Washington.  R. Brown, ed. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 

The Northwest Salmon Crisis: A Documentary History.  1996.  Joseph Cone and Sandy Ridlington, editors. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. "In this unique documentary record of the roots of the region's most divisive issue, knowledgeable observers of salmon history comment on documents they believe most clearly revealed the causes and early warning signs of today's crisis." (OSU Press) 

Oregon's Wild Fish Management Policy. 1992. Portland: Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife. 

 “Presettlement Overharvest of Upper Columbia River Beaver Populations.”  1974. D. Johnson and D.H. Chance.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 52:1519-1521. 

A Review of Literature and Unpublished Information on Cutthroat Trout (Salmo Clarki Clarki) of the Willamette Watershed. 1978. J.W. Nicholas. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildife Information Report Series, Fisheries No. 78-1. 

Salmon and Steelhead Production Plans.  Available for many subbassins. ODFW 1990+. Very detailed information on the sub-basins and the fish living in them. (Available at ODFW library in Clackamas) 

"Salmonid Distributions and Life Histories." 1991. W.R. Meehan and T.C. Bjornn.  Pp. 47-82 in Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. Special Publication No. 19.  Bethesda: American Fisheries Society. 

A Snapshot of Salmon in Oregon. A primer on the status of salmon in Oregon, and a collection of links to other salmon sites.

Spawning Areas and Abundance of Steelhead Trout and Coho, Sockeye, and Chum Salmon in the Columbia River Basin - Past and Present.  1970.  L.A. Fulton. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report on Fisheries 618. 

Status Review of West Coast Steelhead from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. 1996.  P.J. Busby, T.C. Wainwright, G.J. Bryant, L. Lierheimer, R.S. Waples, F.W. Waknitz, and I.V. Lagomarsino.  US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-27. 

Status Review of Chinook Salmon from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. 1998.  J.M. Myers, R.G. Kope, G.J. Bryant, D. Teel, L.J. Lierheimer, T.C. Wainwright, W.S. Grand, F.W. Waknitz, K. Neely, S.T. Lindley, and R.S. Waples.  US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-35. 

Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids Volume I: Oregon. 1992. E. Olsen, P. Pierce, M. McLean, and K. Hatch. U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Project No. 88-108. (Available from BPA, Division of Fish & Wildlife, Public Information Officer, PO Box 3621, Portland OR 97208). 

Summary of Information on Aquatic Biota and Their Habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995.  Altman, Bob; Collen Henderson and Ian Waite, 1997.  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4023. (Available at ODFW library in Clackamas) 

Forests and forestry
(also see roads, fish and wildlife, water

Fact Book: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Forests and Forestry in Oregon.  1999.  The Oregon Forest Resources Institute. 

Railroads and Clearcuts: the Legacy of Congress’s 1864 Northern Pacific Railroad Land Grant.  1995.  J. Osborn.  Spokane: Inland Empire Public Lands Council. 

Woodland in the Willamette Valley: An Historical Geography. 1974. Towle, Jerry C. Eugene: University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Geography. 

Land Use (under construction)

Roads (history, location and effects)

Evaluation of the Effects of Forest Roads on Streamflow in Hard and Ware Creeks, Washington.  L.C. Bowling and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1997. TFW-SH20-97-001, Water Resources Series Technical Report No. 155.  Seattle: University of Washington. 

“The Importance of Imperviousness.”  1994.  T. Schueler. Watershed Protection Techniques 1(3):100-111. 

Reduction of Soil Erosion on Forest Roads.  Date? General Technical Report, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 

“Sediment Production from Forest Roads in Western Oregon.” 1999.  C. Luce and T. Black.  Water Resources Research (in press). 

The following are available through the Oregon State Archives’ Historical Records Project: 

Road and Bridge Records, 1890-[ongoing]. "Series documents the development, construction, maintenance, and improvement of county roads and bridges. Records include bonds, general road and highway maps, petitions to have roads constructed or altered, notices, complaints, vacation records, and correspondence. Information includes road numbers and names and descriptions of the activity occurring on the road." 

Road Maps and Survey Notes, 1854-present. "Series documents the surveying and mapping of county roads. Records include road surveyor notes, alignment, profile, and other survey maps, and road registers. Information includes legal descriptions of the roads; road names and numbers; plans and profiles; township, range, and section numbers; dates of activity; and scales." 

Water quality and temperature

"Ecological Regions vs. Hydrologic Units: Frameworks for Managing Water Quality."  1991.  J. Omernik and G. Griffith.  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(5). 

Methods for Comparing Water Quality Conditions Among National Water Quality Assessment Study Units, 1992-1995.  R. Gilliom, D. Mueller and L. Nowell, 1998.  US Geological Survey open file report 97-589. 

New and Revised Great Lakes Water Quality Objectives. 1977.  Windsor, Ontario, Canada: International Joint Commission. 

Oregon Statewide Assessment of Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution: Planning and Monitoring Section.  1998.  Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division. 

Oregon's Public Comment Draft 1998 Water Quality Limited Streams - 303(d) List. 1998.  Portland: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. 

“Pesticides in Surface Waters: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors.”  1997.  S. Larson, P. Capel, and M. Majewski.  In Pesticides in the Hydrologic System, R. Gilliom, ed. [publisher’s data] 

"Riparian Shade and Stream Temperature: An Alternative Perspective." 1997. R.L. Beschta.  Rangelands 19:25-28. 

The Scientific Basis for Oregon's Stream Temperature Standard: Common Questions and Straight Answers.  1997.  M. Boyd and D. Sturdevant. Portland: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 

Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Nutrients and Pesticides in Streams of the Willamette Basin, Oregon, 1993-95.  1998.  F. Rinella and M. Janet. US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 97-4082-C. 

"Stream Temperatures and Aquatic Habitat: Fisheries and Forestry Interactions." 1987.  R.L. Beschta, R.E. Bilby, G.W. Brown, L.B. Holtby, and T.D. Hofstra. In Streamside Management: Forestry and Fisheries Interactions. Contribution No. 57 (pp. 191-232).  Seattle: University of Washington Institute of Forest Resources 

Water Quality in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, 1991-1995.  1998.  D. Wentz, B. Bonn, K. Carpenter, S. Hinkle, M. Janet, F. Rinella, M. Uhrich, I. Waite, A. Laenen, and K. Bencala.  US Geological Survey Circular 1161. 

Water Quality Monitoring in the Tillamook Watershed, Final Report to the Tillamook Bay National Estuary Project. 1998. T.J. Sullivan, J.M. Bischoff, K.B. Vache, M. Wustenberg, and J. Moore. Corvallis: E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. 

Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study. 1993. Summary report TC8983-10. Final report prepared for Oregon Dept. of Environmental Quality. Redmond, WA: Tetra Tech, Inc.

Water rights, dams and hydropower

Decision-Making in Water Resource Allocation. 1973. By Carl Brown, Joseph G. Monks, and James R. Park. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 110 pp.  Reports on an in-depth study of how water resources were allocated in the Willamette Basin in the early 1970s.  Describes in detail the physical characteristics of the watershed, the sociocultural characteristics of its residents, demand for water resource development, and how water allocation decisions are made. 

Water Rights Records, 1905-1974. "Series documents the authorization by the state and local governments for the use of public waters. Series includes water rights, licenses, and certificates of water rights issued by the state and filed with the county. … Information includes names of individuals proving water rights; locations of water rights including the township, range, and section number; descriptions of land under such rights; and limitations of appropriations of rights and use of rights (ie. length of time, usage)."  (Available through the Oregon State Archives’ Historical Records Project) 

Willamette River and Tributaries, Oregon. Letter from the Secretary of War, Louis Johnson, to Congress. 75th Congress, 3rd session, doc. 544. 1938. Describes options and recommendations for flood control and navigation projects in the Willamette basin. (available through the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife’s library in Clackamas) 

Water, streams and watersheds - general
  • Streamnet - provides data and services to support efforts to preserve and restore aquatic resources

Culvert survey data is available from ODFW 

"An Ecological Perspective of Riparian and Stream Restoration in the Western United States."  1997.  J.B. Kauffman, R.L. Beschta, N. Ottig, and D. Lytjen. Fisheries 22:12-23. 

The Effects of Stream Alterations on Salmon and Trout Habitat in Oregon.  1985.  D.L. Bottom, P.J. Howell, and J.D. Rodgers.  Portland: Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife. 

“Effects of Urbanization on Small Streams in the Puget Sound Lowland Ecoregion.”  1997.  C. May, R. Horner, J. Karr, B. Mar, and E. Welch.  Watershed Protection Techniques 2(4):483-493. 

Environmental Assessment for the Implementation of Interim Strategies for Managing Anadromous Fish-Producing Watersheds in Eastern Oregon and Washington, Idaho and Portions of California. 1994. Washington DC: US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. 

Guide to In-Stream and Riparian Restoration Sites and Site Selection: Sandy, Clackamas, Molalla, Pudding, Santiam, and Calapooia River Drainages. 1998. B. Thom and A. Talabere. Portland: Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife. 

Wildland Watershed Management.  1992. D. Satterlund and P. Adams.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Willamette Basin Comprehensive Study. 1969. Willamette Basin Task Force, Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission.

Weather, Precipitation and Storm Events

"A Statistical-Topographic Model for Mapping Climatological Precipitation Over Mountainous Terrain."  1994.  C. Daly, R.P. Neilson, and D.L. Phillips.  Journal of Applied Meterology, 33:140-158. 

"Changes in Storm Hydrographs After Road Building and Clear-Cutting in the Oregon Coast Range." 1975.  D.R. Harr, W.C. Harper, J.T. Krygier, and F.S. Hsieh. Water Resources Research 11(3). 


Oregon Wetlands: Wetlands Inventory User’s Guide.  1990.  J. Morlan.  Salem: Oregon Division of State Lands publication 90-1. 

Strategies for Protection and Management of Floodplain Wetlands and Other Riparian Ecosystems. 1979.  R.R. Johnson and J.F. McCormack. General Technical Report WO-12. Washington DC: US Forest Service. 

Wetland and Land Use Change in the Willamette Valley, Oregon: 1982-1994.  S. Daggett, M. Boule, J. Bernert, J. Eilers, E. Blok, D. Peters, and J. Morlan, 1998. Salem: Division of State Lands Wetlands Program. 

Wetlands.  1993.  J. Mitsch and J. Gosselink.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 

Wetlands - Characteristics and Boundaries. 1995. National Research Council Committee on Characterization of Wetlands. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Last updated (all links checked) February 25 2003