Bioregions and Ecoregions

Bioregions are defined by flora and fauna, but they also have a strong social component of place.

Ecoregions are defined by ecological criteria more than the social and cultural dimensions.

For discussion of bioregionalsim see:

Bioregional Critique:

Gaia - The Earth Goddess

Gaia is viewing the biosphere as a single organism. Gaia is a dynamic organism, adapting to system changes. References include:

J.E. Lovelock, 1979, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

"Gaia, The vieled goddes," pp. 101-107, In The Economist, December 22, 1990.

"An Amazonian Tribe's View of Cosmology," pp. 186-195 by Martin von Hildebrand, In Gaia, the Thesis, the Mechanisms, the Implications, Peter Bunyard and Edward Goldsmith, eds. (1988).

Anthony Weston, 1987, Forms of Gaian Ethics, Environmental Ethics, 9(3):217-230.

Interpretations of Gaia

The ultimate organismic analogy

very spiritual

Rafal Serafin, 1988, "Noosphere, Gaia, and the Science of the Biosphere," Environmental Ethics, 10(2):121-137.

The Russian natural scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) "was one of the first to popularize the notion of biosphere, and developed a concept of noosphere: an evolving worldwide awareness of ever increasing human intervention into biogeochemical cycles, leading in turn to ever more deliberate and purposeful human control of global biogeochemistry (Serafin, 1988:122).

"The belief that humans have a duty to modify the biosphere through science and technology lay at the heart of the notion of noosphere (Serafin 1988:130).

Biosphere - the medium for living matter, the envelop that sustains life

Noosphere - an evolving human awareness of an increasing human consciousness

leads to ever more deliberate and human control of the biosphere

leads to ever more understanding of the oneness of all life

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Updated:Wednesday, 06-Feb-2008 10:03:47 PST URL is