Bioregions are defined by flora and fauna, but they also have a strong social component of place.
Ecoregions are defined by ecological criteria more than the social and cultural dimensions.
Includes articles by Wendell Berry, Herman Daly, David Korten, Jeremy Rifkin.
Gaia - The Earth Goddess
Gaia is viewing the biosphere as a single organism. Gaia is a dynamic organism, adapting to system changes. References include:
J.E. Lovelock, 1979, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
"Gaia, The vieled goddes," pp. 101-107, In The Economist, December 22, 1990.
"An Amazonian Tribe's View of Cosmology," pp. 186-195 by Martin von Hildebrand, In Gaia, the Thesis, the Mechanisms, the Implications, Peter Bunyard and Edward Goldsmith, eds. (1988).
Anthony Weston, 1987, Forms of Gaian Ethics, Environmental Ethics, 9(3):217-230.
Interpretations of Gaia
The ultimate organismic analogy
Rafal Serafin, 1988, "Noosphere, Gaia, and the Science of the Biosphere," Environmental Ethics, 10(2):121-137.
The Russian natural scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) "was one of the first to popularize the notion of biosphere, and developed a concept of noosphere: an evolving worldwide awareness of ever increasing human intervention into biogeochemical cycles, leading in turn to ever more deliberate and purposeful human control of global biogeochemistry (Serafin, 1988:122).
"The belief that humans have a duty to modify the biosphere through science and technology lay at the heart of the notion of noosphere (Serafin 1988:130).
Biosphere - the medium for living matter, the envelop that sustains life
Noosphere - an evolving human awareness of an increasing human consciousness
leads to ever more deliberate and human control of the biosphere
leads to ever more understanding of the oneness of all life