References are placed in the body of the text. Anthropologists typically use the author date method. The citation is placed in parenthesis, with the author's name, year of publication, and page cited, e.g., (Deagan and scardaville 1985:35). Note facts, the period is placed outside the parenthesis. Specific page citation is mandatory for a direct quote, or when referring to a paraphrased statement that is found only in a very specific place in a cited text. The page may be omitted if the reference is to the general theme of an entire work. If the citation refers to more than one work, list the works in order by date and separate the items by semicolons. (Glassie 1975; Galloway; 1991; CNN Interactive 1996).

Each discipline has its own citation style. Within a discipline different citation styles are likely. Check your discipline and use a style guide appropriate to your specialization.

Works by two authors are cited by using the full names, e.g., (Fredrickson and White 1994). Works with three or more authors are cited (Richerson et al. 2001). The co-authors names are given in full in the References Cited list. References Cited should be alphabetized by author's last name.

Every item referred to in the text must appear in the References Cited list. Do not include any item in the References Cited if it has not been cited in the text. Multiple items by the same author are listed chronologically. Multiple items by the same author having the same publication date are alphabetized by the first word of their titles and distinguished by (a), (b), etc. Layout is as follows:

References Cited

web site (author [if known], last date updated or revised [if known], title [main title if applicable], <site address>, date you accessed the site.

CNN Interactive

1996 Archaeologist Mary Leakey Dies at 83. (16 January, 1997).

thesis or dissertation:

Crowell, A.

1994 World System Archaeology at Three Saints Harbor: An 18th Century Russian Fur Trade Site on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.


Deagan, K., and M. Scardaville

1985 Archaeology and History on Historic Hispanic Sites: Impediments and Solutions. Historical Archaeology 19(1): 32-37.

conference paper:

Fredrickson, D., and G. White

1994 Resource Administration and the Development of Complex Hunter-Gatherers in the North Coast Ranges, California. Paper presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Anaheim, California.

in edited collection:

Galloway, P.

1991 The Archaeology of Ethnohistorical Narrative. In The Spanish Borderlands in Pan-American Perspective, edited by D.H. Thomas, pp.453-470. Columbian Consequences, vol. 3. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

book (titles may be either underlined or italicized):

Glassie, H.

1975 Folk Housing in Middle Virginia: Structural Analysis of Historic Artifacts. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Reinhold, R.

1986 Illegal Aliens Hoping to Claim Their Dreams. New York Times, November 3: A1, A10.

multiple authors

Richerson, P.J., R. Boyd, and R.L. Bettinger

2001 Was Agriculture Impossible During the Pleistocene but Mandatory During the Holocene? A Climate Change Hypothesis. American Antiquity 66(3)3-21.

personal communication (including e-mail, listserv, and newsgroup messages)

Should be cited in text with the specific date but not in the "References Cited" section. Example: "Dr. Rocky Bottom claims (e-mail to author, July 12, 1999) that..."

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