Materials and Methods Employed

The source of turkey eggs used for the studies described in this guide were Wrolstad Medium White Turkeys maintained at the Oregon State University Turkey Research facility. Males and females were reared together until 20 weeks of age then housed in separate locations to prevent any contact. Hens were photo-stimulated at 32 weeks of age. Eggs were collected three times each day and stored between 10 and 13 C, with 80 to 85% RH until incubation. Eggs were set in Bionomics ® Single-stage horizontal, transferless incubation units (Savage et al., 1991).

Macroscopic examinations of the eggs were conducted on day 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 21 of incubation. The surface of the yolk was examined by removing the contents from the shell. The inside surfaces of the shell were also examined for the presence of blood or an embryo. Only the presence of a blood ring or an embryo could be detected by light candling. Photographic images were recorded between days 4 and 21 of incubation.

Eggs in which parthenogenetic development were observed and subsequently assigned to one of the following categories:


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