Contents: By Damage and Image
(In progress)
Contents: Alphabetical
alder flea beetle
aphid management
apple and thorn skeletonizer
apple ermine moth
ash whitefly new
azalea bark scale
azalea lace bug
azalea sawfly new
bark lice
Barypeithes root weevil updated
Beneficial nematodes
biocontrol of root weevils
birch aphid updated
black bean aphid new
black cherry aphids new
black stem borer
bluegum psyllid
branch and twig borer
brown marmorated stink bug

bronze birch borer
boxwood leafminer
boxwood psyllid updated
bulb flies
cabbage whitefly new
carpet beetle (images)
Calligraph californica

Ceanothus stem gall moth
cereal leaf beetle
cherry ermine moth
chilli thrips
cinnabar moth
clay colored weevil
cottony camellia scale
cypress tip moth
dogwood sawfly
Douglas fir sawfly
Douglas fir twig weevil
dustywings new
elm leafminer
European pine shoot moth
European wool carder bee
emerald ash borer
Fall webworm
flatheaded cedar borer
ground beetle gallery new
hollyhock weevil
honeylocust plant bug
honeylocust pod gall midge
Heliothis phloxiphaga
holly bud moth
huckleberry root aphids
ground mealybug
Japanese beetle new
lacewings new
lady beetle gallery updated
leaf weevil
light brown apple moth
maple aphids updated
maple tip moth
maple midge
March flies updated
mountain ash sawfly
Narcissus bulb fly updated
Natural enemies gallery new
spruce twig aphid
oak ambrosia beetle
oak slug
oak twig gall wasp new
obscure root weevil
Pacific flatheaded borer
peach tree borer
peach twig borer
pear blight beetle updated
pear psylla
pear leaf-curling midge
pear sawfly
pine needle scale
pine and cone spittlebug new
poplar and willow borer
Psyllopsis fraxinicola updated
rose curculio weevil
rose midge
rove beetle gallery new
sequoia pitch moth
soldier beetle galleryn new
snakefly gallery new
speckled green fruitworm
meadow spittlebug updated
tent caterpillars
viburnum leaf beetle
violet gall midge
western poplar clearwing
western spotted cucumber beetle
white pine weevil updated
woolly ash aphid
woolly beech aphid updated

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Pine Needle Scale

Pine needle scale, Phenaeaspis (Chionaspis) pinifoliae, is an armored scale found on pine and sometimes other conifers such as spruce, fir, hemlock, Douglas fir, and occasionally cedar.

Pine needle scale overwinters as eggs under the dead mother scale. Dormant oil applications targeting the overwintering stage are not thought to be very successful. Most management is aimed at the crawler stage, when the bright red newly hatched scale emerge and begin to disperse. In Oregon this spring hatch of crawlers occurs in May through June. In Illinois they use the phenological indicator, Vanhoutte spirea, Spiraea x vanhouttei, which is in bloom when the crawlers hatch.There are two generations of pine needle scale per year with the second- generation hatch around mid-late July. Again, in Illinois, they treat second-generation crawlers may be treated when hills-of-snow hydrangea, Hydrangea arborescens, blooms turn from white to green. Unlike with the first generation in the spring when crawlers emerge over a 7-10 day period, the second generation eggs may hatch over a two-three week period and so repeat applications 7-10 days apart are recommended.

There are several websites with good information on pine needle scale:

Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Pine needle scale The Christmas tree fact sheet on the pine needle scale has great images.

Penn State's Woody Ornamentals Integrated Pest Management: Pine needle scale. It has the fantastic images of the young crawler stages and developing scale.

Cornell's information on pine needle scale has some nice monitoring information and good images of the adults, crawler stage and a predator.

University of Minnesota - Pests of Trees and Shrubs: Pine needle scale. This site has the most extensive range of images including shots of eggs as scale is overturned.

Virginia Cooperative Extension: Pine needle scale

University of Illinois Home, Yard, & Garden Pest Newsletter: Pine needle scale.

Website editor:
Robin Rosetta

Page last modified 4/12/06


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