Contents: By Damage and Image
(In progress)
Contents: Alphabetical
alder flea beetle
aphid management
apple and thorn skeletonizer
apple ermine moth
ash whitefly new
azalea bark scale
azalea lace bug Updated
bark lice
Barypeithes root weevil
Beneficial nematodes
biocontrol of root weevils
birch aphid
black stem borer
bluegum psyllid
branch and twig borer
brown marmorated stink bug

bronze birch borer
boxwood leafminer
boxwood psyllid
bulb flies
carpet beetle New
Calligraph californica

Ceanothus stem gall moth
cereal leaf beetle
cherry ermine moth
chilli thrips
cinnabar moth
clay colored weevil
cottony camellia scale
cutworm Updated
cypress tip moth

dogwood sawfly
Douglas fir sawfly
Douglas fir twig weevil
elm leafminer
European pine shoot moth
European shot-hole borer Updated
European wool carder bee
emerald ash borer
Fall webworm
flatheaded cedar borer
hollyhock weevil
honeylocust plant bug
honeylocust pod gall midge
Heliothis phloxiphaga
holly bud moth
huckleberry root aphids
ground mealybug
lady beetle gallery
leaf weevil
light brown apple moth
maple tip moth
maple midge
March flies
mountain ash sawfly
spruce aphid on spruce
oak ambrosia beetle
oak slug
obscure root weevil
Pacific flatheaded borer
peach tree borer
peach twig borer
pear psylla
pear leaf-curling midge
pear sawfly New
pine needle scale
poplar and willow borer
rose curculio weevil
rose midge
sequoia pitch moth
speckled green fruitworm
tent caterpillars
viburnum leaf beetle
violet gall midge
western poplar clearwing
western spotted cucumber beetle
white pine weevil
woolly ash aphid

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Pine Needle Scale

Pine needle scale, Phenaeaspis (Chionaspis) pinifoliae, is an armored scale found on pine and sometimes other conifers such as spruce, fir, hemlock, Douglas fir, and occasionally cedar.

Pine needle scale overwinters as eggs under the dead mother scale. Dormant oil applications targeting the overwintering stage are not thought to be very successful. Most management is aimed at the crawler stage, when the bright red newly hatched scale emerge and begin to disperse. In Oregon this spring hatch of crawlers occurs in May through June. In Illinois they use the phenological indicator, Vanhoutte spirea, Spiraea x vanhouttei, which is in bloom when the crawlers hatch.There are two generations of pine needle scale per year with the second- generation hatch around mid-late July. Again, in Illinois, they treat second-generation crawlers may be treated when hills-of-snow hydrangea, Hydrangea arborescens, blooms turn from white to green. Unlike with the first generation in the spring when crawlers emerge over a 7-10 day period, the second generation eggs may hatch over a two-three week period and so repeat applications 7-10 days apart are recommended.

There are several websites with good information on pine needle scale:

Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Pine needle scale The Christmas tree fact sheet on the pine needle scale has great images.

Penn State's Woody Ornamentals Integrated Pest Management: Pine needle scale. It has the fantastic images of the young crawler stages and developing scale.

Cornell's information on pine needle scale has some nice monitoring information and good images of the adults, crawler stage and a predator.

University of Minnesota - Pests of Trees and Shrubs: Pine needle scale. This site has the most extensive range of images including shots of eggs as scale is overturned.

Virginia Cooperative Extension: Pine needle scale

University of Illinois Home, Yard, & Garden Pest Newsletter: Pine needle scale.

Website editor:
Robin Rosetta

Page last modified 4/12/06


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