Rhamnus frangula (syn. Frangula alnus) Rhamnaceae
Alder, Glossy, or Elder Buckthorn
RAM-nus frang-U-la, FRANG-gew-la
- Broadleaf deciduous shrub or low-branching tree, upright, spreading, as a shrub 15 ft (4.5 ft) tall with an equal width, tree form may reach 20 ft (6 m) tall; not thorny. Leaves alternate, simple, 3-7 cm long, oval, obovate to obovate-oblong, tip acute, base rounded or broad wedge-shaped, margin entire, dark glossy green above and lighter green and sometimes pubescent below, 8-9 pairs of veins; petiole 6-12 mm long; fall color varies from pale greenish yellow to reddish. Flowers prefect, creamy-green, 5-parted, 2-10 per axillary cluster, not showy; attracts bees. Fruit globose, 6 mm across, red ripening to dark purple, 2-3 seeded.
- Sun or shade, best in well-drained soil.
- Hardy to USDA Zone 3 Native to Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Considered to be the most ornamental of the buckthorns. Some argue that R. frangula has limited value in the landscape because it is weedy and prone to self-seed. Indeed, it is listed as an invasive species in some areas (as are many introduced buckthorns), and reportedly is very aggressive in wet, forested locations. "Its wood makes the best charcoal for gunpowder" (Hillier, 1998, p.466).
- Some of the selections available:
- Asplenifolia -- leaves of about regular length but only about 3-5 mm wide, fern-like.
- Columnaris (syn. Tallhedge) -- compact, narrow, upright form, prized for hedges.
- FineLine™ (syn. Ron Willams) -- upright, columnar habit, leaves linear (~15 × 6 cm), undulate, deeply cut, feathery foliage is medium green, turns yellow in fall. Derived from a cross of Columnaris (female) and Asplenifolia (male) ; reportedly has low seed set and seed is not viable, hence not a potential weed or invasive threat. PP14,791
- frangula: from Latin frangere, to break, possibly referring to the bitterness of its twigs.