Eastern Filbert Blight

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Summary Tables

Table 1 Registered Materials
Table 2 Number of Bravo 720 applications needed
Table 2 per season for control of EFB
Table 3 Demethylation-inhibiting Fungicides (DMI) for control of EFB
Table 4 Combined Bravo 720 followed by DMI applications
Table 5 Strobilurin Fungicides for Control of EFB
Table 6 Miscellaneous materials for the control of EFB

Table 1.
Registered Materials

This table lists the fungicides registered as of spring 2013. These fungicides must be applied to young hazelnut growth before spores of the EFB fungus have a chance to be deposited and infect the juvenile tissue. Budbreak is when these spores can begin infecting hazelnuts. This is also when the first applications of these fungicides are recommended. New plant tissue that develops after application generally is unprotected. This means multiple applications are needed for effective control. Also, good coverage of all susceptible tissues is essential.

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Abound
Adament
Bordeaux
Bravo
Cabrio
Copper Hydroxides
Elite
Gem (Flint)
Orbit/Tilt
Procure
Quash
QuiltXcel
Rubigan
Remove Cankers
Plant Resistant Cultivars
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Product
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control
(%)
Total number of trials
(# significant)
Abound

3 oz

azoxystrobin

4

62

4 (3)

Adament

3 fl oz or less

3 fl oz + surfactant

tebuconazole plus trifloxystrobin

4

55

89

3 (2)

1 (1)

Bordeaux

Various

Copper Sulfate plus Hydrated Lime

2.7 (1.5)

4

71

74

6 (5)

1 (1)

Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

3.7

83

30 (30)

Cabrio

3-4 oz

pyraclostrobin

4

90

8 (8)

Champion
50WP

6 lb

Various

Copper Hydroxide

4.3

4.3

87

80

5 (3)

17 (6)

Echo 720

32 fl oz

chlorothalonil

4

90

5 (5)

Gem

1.5 oz

trifloxystrobin

4.0

82

7 (6)

Kocide

6 lb

Copper Hydroxide

2.6

65

7 (5)

Orbit EC (or Tilt)

1.5-4 oz

propiconazole

4.0

84

13 (11)

Procure

1.5-6 oz

triflumizole

4.0

80

19 (18)

Quadris Top

14 fl oz

azoxystrobin plus difenconazole

4

78

1 (1)

Quash

4 oz

4 oz + surfactant

metconazole

4

64

88

3 (2)

4 (4)

QuiltXcel

10.5-17.5 fl oz

propiconazole plus azoxystrobin

4

91

5 (5)

Stratego

5 fl oz

trifloxystrobin plus propiconazole

4

79

3 (3)

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Table 2.
Number of Bravo 720 applications needed
per season for control of EFB

Product
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control
(%)
Total number of trials
(# significant)
Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

1

51

11 (7)

Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

2

59

9 (8)

Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

3

77

16 (16)

Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

4

90

13 (13)

Bravo 720

32 oz

Chlorothalonil

5

85

5 (5)

One to one comparisons:
Bravo 720 vs. Copper Hydroxides
79% control vs. 72% control (6 trials)

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Table 3.
Demethylation-inhibiting Fungicides (DMI)
for control of EFB.

There is a large group of very effective fungicides with a similar mode of action called the demethylation-inhibiting fungicides or DMI (group 3 fungicides). They may also be referred to as the sterol-biosynthesis inhibiting fungicides or SI. These fungicides have both locally systemic and curative properties that make them highly valuable for EFB control. Unlike the protectants, if the EFB fungus makes it into the shoot tissue before the fungicide application there may still be time to kill the infection. The DMI products can move into the young green shoot tissue and cure an already established infection. This property is time limited, usually within a few days from the time the ascospores germinate and begin the infection process. Sometimes this property is referred to as "kickback" or "reachback" activity. Thus it can be said that these materials have a 2 to 3 day kickback activity against EFB. Unfortunately, the level of control obtained when these materials are applied after infection is much less than that obtained when applied before infection. Greenhouse research has indicated that kickback activity is related to the rate of material used.  

The locally systemic nature of these compounds is somewhat misleading. The materials move into green plant tissues such as shoots and leaves but then move with the transpiration stream to the edges of a leaf. There is no export out of a leaf or down through the shoot to other plant parts. Only those tissues directly sprayed will contain the DMI material. Good coverage is still essential.

Some DMI fungicides, like Rubigan, need a little more green tissue exposed after bud break to be effective. Other fungicides, like Elite or Orbit, are effective when starting applications at bud break.

Product
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control (%)
Total number
of trials
(# significant)

Registration notes

Banner

Various
(4 or 8 oz)

propiconazole

2.7

91

7 (7)

See Orbit

Baycor 50 WP

1 lb

bitertanol

1

42

4 (1)

No USA registrations

Bayleton 50 WP

Various

triadimefon

1

46

5 (1)

Registration not likely

Elite

2 oz

4 oz

tebuconazole

4

4

78

87

8 (8)

5 (5)

Section 18 denied in 2002

Folicure 1.2 EC

3.6F

4 oz

1.5-2 oz

tebuconazole

1.5

4

8

72

2 (0)

3 (2)

See Elite

Indar

0.5 or
1 oz

fenbuconazole

4

87

4 (4)

Possible in the future

Inspire 250 EC

7 fl oz

difenconizole

4

94

1 (1)

Possible

Nustar 20 DF

2 oz

flusilazole

2.7

65

16 (11)

No USA registrations

Orbit EC (Tilt)

1.5-4 oz

propiconazole

4

3

84

74

13 (11)

2 (1)

Section 18 in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006. Registered in 2007

Procure

1.5-6 oz

Triflumizole

4

80

19 (18)

Registered in 2006.

Quash

4 oz

4 oz + Surfactant

metconazole

4

64

88

3 (2)

4 (4)

Registered in 2009

Rally 40 W

2 or 2.5 oz

myclobutanil

3.1

69

9 (7)

Possible but not likely.

Rubigan EC

Various

fenarimol

2.9

39

27 (11)

Non-bearing tree label canceled 2012

TopGuard

6 oz

13 oz

flutriafol

4

4

55

98

3 (3)

1 (1)

Possible in future

Unicorn

3 lb

tebuconizole plus sulfur

4

70

2 (2)

Legal to use

One to one comparisons: 

Bravo 720 vs. Procure 50 WS
93% control vs. 85% control (6 trials)

Bravo 720 vs. Elite 45 DF
90% control vs. 84% control (9 trials)

Bravo 720 vs. Rubigan
88% control vs. 46% control (8 trials)

Bravo 720 vs. Orbit
90% control vs. 86% control (5 trials)

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Table 4.
Combined Bravo 720 followed by DMI applications

Management schemes that exploit the beneficial characters of the various fungicides for EFB control have been investigated. The most promising starts with Bravo at bud break. Bud break is the start of the period when hazelnuts are susceptible to the EFB fungus. Use of a good protectant, such as Bravo, gets the trees through the first few weeks of susceptibility when shoots are growing slowly and rains are frequent and heavy. At this time there also is little green tissue to absorb DMI products like Rubigan. 

Later in the season rapid shoot growth may easily out-grow the protection of a Bravo application. Frequent rains may have prevented us from getting back into the orchard soon enough to prevent some infections. Use of a DMI at this time exploits their locally systemic and kickback activities.

Several trials have been conducted using Bravo as the first and sometimes second application followed by applications of various DMI compounds such as Elite, Procure or Rubigan. Occasionally, a few treatment protocols had the DMIs tank mixed with Bravo. In general, trees were treated with one or two sprays of Bravo followed by one of two sprays of a DMI for a total of 3 or 4 applications. The average level of control using these tactics was 97% (table 4). 

Product
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control
(%)
Total number of trials
(# significant)

Bravo / DMI

----

------

3 to 4

97

14 (14)

Bravo / DMI Forecast Timeing

----

------

1 to 2

73

12 (11)

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Table 5.
Strobilurin (QoI) Fungicides for Control of EFB

The next generation of agricultural fungicides, the strobilurins or QoI fungicides (group 11), are beginning to be registered in various fruit markets. Abound, Cabrio, Gem (Flint) and Pristine are now registered for hazelnuts. Abound and Sovran, had mixed results against EFB (table 5) but Gem (Flint) and Cabrio have done well. Pristine is not recommended since it is a pre-pakaged mix of Cabrio and another chemical (boscalid) that is ineffective against EFB. These materials are translaminar in that they move into the plant tissue but do not move as much as DMI's with the transpiration stream. They are best used as protectants and may fail when systemic kickback activity is needed. 

Products
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control
(%)
Total number
of trials
(# significant)

Registration Notes

Abound

3 oz

15.4 oz

azoxystrobin

4

4

62

96

4 (3)

1 (1)

Legal to use on hazelnuts.

Cabrio

3-4 oz

pyraclostrobin

4

90

8 (8)

Registered

Evito

5.7 oz

fluoxastrobin

4

45

3 (1)

Not Registered

Flint 50 WG

1 oz

trifloxystrobin

4

87

7 (7)

Registered late 2002, see Gem.

Gem

1.5 oz

trifloxystrobin

4

81

6 (5)

Registered 2006.

Pristine

6.3 oz

pyraclostrobin plus boscalid

4

93

2 (2)

Not recommended. See Cabrio.

Sovran

1.2 oz

kresoxim-methyl

4

67

2 (1)

Registration not likely.

One to one comparisons: 

Bravo vs. Flint
94% control vs. 87% control (6 trials)

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Table 6.
Miscellaneous materials for the control of EFB.

A report from the East Coast many years ago showed activity of mancozeb against EFB. Manex (maneb) was found to be effective in our tests also (table 6). This may indicate that the ethylenebis dithiocarbamate (EBDC) group of materials may all be effective against EFB. This group, however, has met stiff registration opposition with EPA due to the toxicology of certain break down products. Registration of these materials in the future is unlikely and is not being actively pursued.

Other compounds are being tested against this disease and may show registration promise. For example, Ziram is a good broad-spectrum fungicide with two nut crops already on the label. It is effective against EFB and a registration could be pursued.

Products
Rate/100 gallons water
Active Ingredient or Fungicide Family
Average number of applications per season
Average level of control
(%)
Total number
of trials
(# significant)

Registration Notes

Aliette 80 WP

5 lb

fosetyl - Al

2

50

2 (1)

Not Registered

Benlate 50 WP

0.75 lb

benomyl

1.7

17

3 (0)

Registration not likely

Captan 50 WP

4 lb

captan

4

92

2 (2)

Registration not likely

Cueva

2 gal

copper soap

4

22

2 (0)

Registration not likely

Elevate

0.75 lb

fenhexamid

4

10

1 (0)

Registration not likely

Endura

?

boscalid

4

17

1 (0)

Registration not likely

Fontellis

14-20 fl oz

penthiopyrad

4

39

5 (3)

Registration possible

Lime Sulfur (29%)

32 oz

lime sulfur

4.0

49

2 (1)

Registration not likely

Manex

0.4 gal

Maneb / EBDC

4

77

1 (1)

Registration not likely

Messenger

9 oz

harpin

4

32

2 (0)

Nordox 50 WP

5 lb

Copper Oxide

1

17

1 (0)

---

PhD

0.5 lb

polyoxin-D

4

13

2 (0)

Registration not likely

Quintec

6 oz

quinoxyfen

4

0

1 (0)

Registration not likely

Regalia

1 gal

extract of Giant Knotweed

4

13

2 (0)

Rovral

1 lb

iprodione

4

7

1 (0)

Registration not likely

Scala

9 fl oz

pyrimethanil

4

46

1 (0)

Registration not likely

Serenade ASO

Serenade MAX

6 qt

4 lb

Biological

4

4

64

12

1 (1)

4 (0)

Legal to use.

SoilGuard 12G

8 lb

Biological

4

7

1 (0)

?

Supreme Oil Alone

JMS Stylet Oil Alone

32 oz

1%

Oil

5

4

16

4

1 (0)

1 (0)

Use as a surfactant, never alone.

Syllit 65 WP

2 lb

cyprex

4

97

2 (2)

?

Switch

10 oz

cyprodinil + fludioxonil

4

48

1 (1)

Registration not likely

Thiram 65 WP

5 lb

thiram

4

100

1 (1)

?

Vangard

5 oz

cyprodinil

4

43

1 (1)

Registration not likely

ZeroTol

125 oz

peroxylacetic acid

4

11

1 (0)

Disinfectant

Ziram 76 DF

6 lb

1.5 lb

ziram

4

4

100

88

1 (1)

2 (2)

Registration not likely in the near future.

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