Juniper Stand Panorama
The Pinyon-Juniper Zone

 

References

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Wagstaff, F. J. 1987. Economics of managing pinyon-juniper lands for woodland products. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 168-172.

Waichler, W. S., R. F. Miller, and P. S. Doescher. 2001. Community characteristics of old-growth western juniper woodlands. Journal of Range Management 54:518-527.

Waisel, Y., and N. Liphschitz. 1968. Dendrochronological studies in Israel II: Juniperus phoenica of north and central Sinai. Yaaram 18:63-67.

Walker, R. F., and C. D. Huntt. 1999. Growth and nutrition of containerized singleleaf pinyon seedlings in response to controlled release fertilization. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 13:123-132.

Wall, T. F., R. F. Miller, and T. J. Svejcar. 2001. Juniper encroachment into aspen in the northwest Great Basin. Journal of Range Management 54:73-79.

Wangler, M. J., and R. A. Minnich. 1996. Fire and succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands of the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Madrono 43:413-514.

Ward, L. K. 1982. The conservation of juniper: Longevity and old age. Journal of Applied Ecology 19:917-928.

Wasson, G. E. 1987. The American Indian response to the pinyon-juniper conference. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13–16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 38-41.

Wayne, R., and O. W. Van Auken. 2004. Spatial and temporal abiotic changes along a canopy to intercanopy gradient in central Texas Juniperus ashei woodlands. Texas Journal of Science 56:35-54.

Weber, D. J., D. Gang, S. Halls, and D. L. Nelson. 1995. Juniper decline in Natural Bridges National Monument and Canyonlands National Park.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report, INT-GTR-315.

Weisberg, P. J., D. Ko, C. Py, and J. M. Bauer. 2008. Modeling fire and landform influences on the distribution of old-growth pinyon-juniper woodland. Landscape Ecology 23:931-943.

Weisberg, P. J., E. Lingua, and R. B. Pillai. 2007. Spatial patterns of pinyon-juniper expansion in central Nevada. Journal of Rangeland Ecology and Management 60:115-124.

Weiss, R. 1999. Distribution of Pinus monophylla in the northern Wasatch Range of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 59:292-294.

Welden, W. C., W. L. Slauson, and R. T. Ward. 1990. Spatial pattern and interference in piñon-juniper woodlands of northwest Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 50:313-319.

Wells, P. V. 1987. Systematics and distribution of pinyons in the late quaternary. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 104-108.

West, A. G., K. R. Hultine, K. G. Burtch, and J. R. Ehleringer. 2007a. Seasonal variations in moisture use in a piñon–juniper woodland. Oecologia 153:787-798.

West, A. G., K. R. Hultine, T. L. Jackson, and J. R. Ehleringer. 2007b. Differential summer water use by Pinus edulis and Juniperus osteosperma reflects contrasting hydraulic characteristics. Tree Physiology 27:1711-1720.

West, A. G., K. R. Hultine, J. S. Sperry, S. E. Bush, and J. R. Ehleringer. 2008. Transpiration and hydraulic strategies in a pinon-juniper woodland. Ecological Applications 18:911-927.

West, N. E. 1993. Biodiversity of rangelands. Journal of Range Management 46:2-13.

_____. 1999. Juniper-piñon savannas and woodlands of western North America. Pages 288-308 in R. C. Anderson, J. S. Fralish, andJ. M. Baskin, editors. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press,London, United Kingdom.

West, N. E., R. J. Tausch, K. H. Rea, and P. T. Tueller. 1978a. Phytogeographical variation within juniper-pinyon woodlands of the Great Basin. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 2:119-136.

_____. 1978b. Taxonomic determination, distribution, and ecological indicator values of sagebrush with the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin. Journal of Range Management 31:87-92.

West, N. E., R. J. Tausch, and P. T. Tueller. 1998. A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-12.

West, N. E., and N. S. Van Pelt. 1987. Successional patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13–16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 43-52. Pages 43-52 in:43-52.

Whitford, W. G. 1987. Soil fauna as regulators of decomposition and nutrient cycling in pinyon-juniper ecosystems. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 365-368.

Whitham, T. G., and S. Mopper. 1985. Chronic herbivory: Impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine. Science 228:1089-1091.

Wigand, P. E. 1987. Diamond Pond, Harney County, Oregon: Vegetation history and water table in the eastern Oregon desert. Great Basin Naturalist 47:427-458.

Wigand, P. E., M. L. Hemphill, and S. Patra. 1994. Late Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great Basin of western North America. Pages 2574-2583 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the High Level Radioactive Waste Management 1994.2574-2583.

Wigand, P. E., M. L. Hemphill, S. Sharpe, and S. Patra. 1995. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late Quaternary. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Climate Change in the Four corners and Ajacent Regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planningPages 51-70 In: W.J. Waugh (editor), 1994 September 12-14; Mesa State College, Grand Junction CO. US Dept. of Energy.

Wight, J. R., and H. G. Fisser. 1968. Juniperus osteosperma in northwestern Wyoming, their distribution and ecology. Pages 1-31 in  University of Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Science Monograph 7. Laramie. 28 pp.

Wilcox, B. P. 1994. Runoff and erosion in intercanopy zones of pinyon-juniper woodlands. Journal of Range Management 47:285-295.

Wilcox, B. P., C. D. Allen, J. Pitlick, and D. W. Davenport. 1996. Runoff and erosion from a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope. Pages 61-77 in M. G. Anderson, andS. M. Brooks, editors. Advances in Hillslope Processes. Wiley,Chichester, West Sussex, England : New York.

Wilcox, B. P., D. D. Breshears, and H. J. Turin. 2003. Hydraulic conductivity in a pinon-juniper woodland: influence of vegetation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:1243-1249.

Wilcox, B. P., M. K. Owens, R. W. Knight, and R. K. Lyons. 2005. Do woody plants affect streamflow on semiarid karst rangelands? Ecological Applications 15:127-136.

Wilke, J. P. 1988. Bow staves harvest from juniper trees by Indians of Nevada. Journal of Calfornia and Great Basin Anthropology 10:3-31.

Wilkins, S. D., and J. M. Klopatek. 1987. Plant water relations in ecotonal areas of pinyon-juniper and semi-arid shrub ecosystems. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 412-417.

Williams, D. G., and J. R. Ehleringer. 2000. Intra- and interspecific variation for summer precipitation use in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Ecological Monographs 70:517-537.

Williams, E. C. 1975. The birds and mammals of the juniper forest- A study of their ecology and distribution. University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.

Williams, G., G. F. Gifford, and G. B. Coltharp. 1969. Infiltrometer studies on treated vs. untreated pinyon-juniper sites in central Utah. Journal of Range Management 22:110-114.

Willis, M. J., and R. F. Miller. 1999. Importance of western juniper communities to small mammals. Pages 210-214 in  U.S. Forest Service RMRS-P-9.

Wills, F. H. 2005. Structure of historic vegetation on Kerr Wildlife Management Area, Kerr County, Texas. Texas Journal of Science 57:137-152.

Willson, C. J., P. S. Manos, and R. B. Jackson. 2008. Hydraulic traits are influenced by phylogenetic history in the drought-resistant, invasive genus Juniperus (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 95:299-314.

Wilson, J. L., and B. M. Tkacz. 1992. Pinyon Ips outbreak in pinyon-juniper woodlands in northern Arizona: A case study. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Symposium on Ecology and Management of Oak and Associated Woodlands: Perspectives in the Southwestern U.S. and Northern Mexico, tech. coords. P.F. Ffolloitt, G. Gottfried, D. Bennett, V. Hernandez, A. Ortega-Rubio, and R. Hamre, pp. 187-190. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218.

Wilt, M. F., G. C. Miller, and R. L. Everett. 1993a. Measurement of monoterpene hydrocarbon levels in vapor phase surrounding single leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.: Pinaceae) understory litter. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19:1417-1428.

Wilt, M. F., G. C. Miller, R. L. Everett, and M. Hackett. 1993b. Monoterpene concentrations in fresh, senescent and decaying foliage of singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr & Frem Pinaceae) from the western Great Basin. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19:185-194.

Winegar, H., and W. Elmore. 1977. Mechanical manipulation of western juniper: Some methods and results. Pages 107-136 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-74.107-136.

With, K. A., and M. L. Morrison. 1990. Flock formation of two parids in relation to cyclical seed production in a pinyon-juniper woodland. Auk 107:522-532.

Wittie, R. D., and K. C. McDaniel. 1988. Effects of Tebuthiuron and fire on pinyon-juniper woodlands in southcentral New Mexico. Pages 174-179 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report, RM-GTR-191.

Wood, K. M., and J. Nasim. 1993. Hydrologic responses to fuelwood harvest and slash disposal on a pinyon pinyon-juniper dominated grassland site in the Gila National Forest. Pages 25-30 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 36th Annual New Mexico Water Conference: Agencies and Science Working for the Future. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, Report No. 265, April 1992. p 25-30, 3 fig, 4 ref.:25-30.

Woodbury, A. M. 1947. Distribution of pigmy conifers in Utah and northeastern Arizona. Ecology 28:113-126.

Woodin, H. E., and A. A. Lindsey. 1954. Juniper-pinyon east of the Continental Divide, as analyzed by the line-strip method. Ecology 35:473-489.

Wright, H. A., L. F. Neunshwander, and C. M. Britton. 1979. The role and use of fire in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper communities.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-58.

Wright, R. D., and H. A. Mooney. 1965. Substrate-oriented distribution of bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California. American Midland Naturalist 73:257-284.

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