Juniper Stand Panorama
The Pinyon-Juniper Zone

 

References

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Madany, M. H., T. W. Swetnam, and N. E. West. 1982. Comparison of two approaches for determining fire dates from tree scars. Forest Science 28:856-861.

Madsen, D. B., and D. Rhode. 1990. Early Holocene pinyon (Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin. Quaternary Research 33:94-101.

Madsen, M. D., D. G. Chandler, and J. Belnap. 2008. Spatial gradients in ecohydrologic properties within a pinyon-juniper ecosystem. Ecohydrology 1:349-360.

Malusa, J. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the pinyon pines (Pinus subsection Cembroides). Systematic Botany 17:42-66.

Martens, S. N., D. D. Breshears, and C. W. Meyer. 2000. Spatial distributions of understory light along the grassland/forest continuum: Effect of cover, height, and spatial pattern of tree canopies. Ecological Modelling 126:79-93.

Martens, S. N., D. D. Breshears, C. W. Meyer, and F. J. Barnes. 1997. Scales of above-ground and below-ground competition in a semi-arid woodland detected from spatial pattern. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:655-664.

_____. 2001. Development of species dominance along an elevational gradient: Population dynamics of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162:777-783.

Martin, R. E. 1984. Fire manipulation and effects in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) Hook. Pages 121-136 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-74.121-136.

Martin, R. E., C. M. Olson, and J. Slenznick. 1979. Research: Management prescribed burning at Lava Beds National Monument. Pages 64-77 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks.64-77.

Martinez-Delgado, E., E. Mellink, J. R. Aguirre-Rivera, and E. Garcia-Moya. 1996. Removal of pinyon seeds by birds and rodents in San Luis Potosi. The Southwestern Naturalist 41:270-274.

Maser, C., and J. S. Gashwiler. 1978. Interrelationships of wildlife and western juniper. Pages 37-82 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Ecology and Management, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-74.:37-82.

Maser, C., J. W. Thomas, and R. G. Anderson. 1984. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands- the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-172. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Mason, R. B. 1981. Response of birds and rodents to controlled burning in pinyon-juniper woodlands. University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV.

Matney, C. A., C. S. Boyd, and T. K. Stringham. 2005. Use of felled junipers to protect streamside willows from browsing. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58:652-655.

Mazzarino, M. J., L. Oliva, A. Abril, and M. Acosta. 1991. Factors affecting nitrogen dynamics in a semiarid woodland (Dry Chaco, Argentina). Plant and Soil 138:85-98.

McDaniel, K. C., and L. White-Trifaro. 1987. Selective control of pinyon-juniper with herbacides. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 448-455.

McDaniel, P. A., and R. C. Graham. 1992. Organic carbon distributions in shallow soils of pinyon-juniper woodlands. Soil Science Society of America 56:499-504.

McDonnell, M. J., and E. W. Stiles. 1983. The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56:109-116.

McDowell, N. G., S. White, and W. T. Pockman. 2008. Transpiration and stomatal conductance across a steep climate gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrology 1:193-204.

McKinney, E. 1984. Western juniper control: From site selection to followup management. Pages 74-75 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Management Short Course, Oregon State University, COrvallis, OR.74-75.

McNichols, R. R. 1987. Management strategies in pinyon-juniper on the Hualapai Indian Reservation. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 161-164.

McPherson, G. R., G. A. Rasmussen, and R. A. Masters. 1991. Vegetation and soil zonation associated with Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. trees. Great Basin Naturalist 51:316-324.

McPherson, G. R., and H. A. Wright. 1990a. Effects of cattle grazing and Juniperus pinchotii canopy cover on herb cover and production in western Texas. American Midland Naturalist 123:144-151.

_____. 1990b. Establishment of Juniperus pinchotii in western Texas: Environmental effects. Journal of Arid Environments 19:283-287.

McPherson, G. R., H. A. Wright, and D. B. Wester. 1988. Patterns of shrub invasion in semiarid Texas grasslands. American Midland Naturalist 120:391-397.

Meagher, G. S. 1943. Reaction of pinyon and juniper seedlings to artificial shade and supplemental watering. Journal of Forest Science 41:480-482.

Meeuwig, R. O. 1979. Growth characteristics of pinyon-juniper stands in the western Great Basin. Pages 1-22 in  U.S. Forest Service Research Paper INT-238.

Meeuwig, R. O., and J. D. Budy. 1979. Pinyon growth characteristics in the Sweetwater Mountains.  in  U.S. Forest Service.

_____. 1981. Point and line intersect sampling in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Pages 1-38 in  U.S. Forest Service, INT-104.

Meeuwig, R. O., and S. V. Cooper. 1981a. Site quality and growth of pinyon-juniper stands in Nevada. Forest Science 27:593-601.

_____. 1981b. Stand estimates of biomass and growth in pinyon-juniper woodlands in Nevada. Pages 1-3 in  U.S. Forest Service Research Note INT-311.

Mehringer, P. J. 1985. Late-quaternary pollen records from the interior Pacific Northwest and northern Great Basin of the United States. Pages 167-189 in W. M. Bryant, andR. G. Hoolway, editors. Pollen Records of Late-Quaternary North American Sediments. American Association Stratigraphic Palynoligists,Dallas, TX.

Mehringer, P. J., and P. E. Wigand. 1984. Prehistoric distribution of western juniper. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Management Short Course, Bend, Oregon, Oct. 15-16, 1984. Oregon State University Extension Service and the Department of Rangeland Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp. 1-9.

_____. 1987. Western juniper in the Holocene. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 109-119. Pages 109-119 in:109-119.

Miller, E. L., R. O. Meeuwig, and J. D. Budy. 1981. Biomass of singeleaf pinyon and Utah juniper. Pages 1-18 in  U.S. Forest Service Research paper INT-273.

Miller, F. H. 1921. Reclamation of grass lands by Utah juniper on the Tusayan National Forest, Arizona. Journal of Forestry 19:647-651.

Miller, P. M., L. E. Eddleman, and S. Kramer. 1990. Allocation patterns of carbon and minerals in juvenile and small-adult Juniperus occidentalis. Forest Science 36:734-747.

Miller, P. M., L. E. Eddleman, and J. M. Miller. 1992. The seasonal course of physiological processes in Juniperus occidentalis. Forest Ecology and Managment 48:185-215.

_____. 1993. Influence of vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture on gas excange of Juniperus occidentalis. Northwest Science 67:147.

_____. 1995. Juniperus occidentalis juvenile foliage: Advantages and disadvantages for a stress-tolerant, invasive conifer. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25:470-479.

Miller, R. F. 1997. Fire in the Great Basin. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Sec. of the Wildl. Soc. Annual Meeting.

Miller, R. F., J. D. Bates, T. J. Svejcar, F. B. Pierson, and L. E. Eddleman. 2005. Biology, ecology, and management of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis). Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 152, 82 pp. Corvallis, OR, USA.

_____. 2007. Western juniper field guide: asking the right questions to select appropriate management actions.

Miller, R. F., L. E. Eddleman, and R. F. Angell. 1986. Effects of juniper woodlands on upland hydrologic cycles. Pages 31-34 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 15th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Department of Range Management, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop.31-34.

_____. 1987a. Relationship of western juniper stem conducting tissue and basal circumference to leaf area and biomass. Great Basin Naturalist 47:349-354.

_____. 1987b. Water use by western juniper. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 418-422.

Miller, R. F., and J. A. Rose. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. Great Basin Naturalist 55:37-45.

_____. 1999. Fire history and western juniper encroachment in sagebrush steppe. Journal of Range Management 52:550-559.

Miller, R. F., and L. M. Shultz. 1987. Water relations and leaf morphology of Juniperus occidentalis in the northern Great Basin. Forest Science 33:690-706.

Miller, R. F., T. J. Svejcar, and J. A. Rose. 1999a. Conversion of shrub steppe to juniper woodland. Pages 385-390 in  U.S. Forest Service; RMRS-P-9.

_____. 2000. Impacts of western juniper on plant community composition and structure. Journal of Range Management 53:574-585.

Miller, R. F., and R. J. Tausch. 2001. The role of fire in juniper and pinyon woodlands: A descriptive analysis. Pages 15-30 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention, and Management. San Diego, CA, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 2000. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.15-30.

Miller, R. F., R. J. Tausch, E. D. McArthur, D. D. Johnson, and S. C. Sanderson. 2008a. Age structure and expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands: A regional perspective in the Intermountain West. Rocky Mountain Research Station Report RP-69. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

_____. 2008b. Development of post settlement piñon-juniper woodlands in the Intermountain West: A regional perspective. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper Report RMRS-RP-69.

Miller, R. F., R. J. Tausch, and W. S. Waichler. 1999b. Old-growth juniper and pinyon woodlands. Pages 375-384 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Ecology and Management of Pinyon-Juniper Communities Within the Interior West Conference; Monsen, S.B., S. Richards, R.J. Tausch, R.F. Miller, C. Goodrich, (comp.); U.S. Forest Service RMRS-P-9. pp. 375-384.375-384.

Miller, R. F., and P. E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands. BioScience 44:465-474.

Miller, S. M. 1977. Mammalian remains from the juniper forest preserve, Franklin County, Washington. University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.

Milne, B. T., A. R. Johnson, T. H. Keitt, C. A. Hatfield, J. David, and P. T. Hraber. 1996. Detection of critical densities associated with piñon-juniper woodland ecotones. Ecology 77:805-821.

Minnich, R. A. 1991. Conifer forest fire dynamics and distribution in the mountains of southern California (Part Two). Crossoma 17:1-10.

Miwa, C. 2007. Persistence of western juniper resource islands following canopy removal. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Moir, W. H. 1979. Soil-vegetation patterns in the central Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. American Midland Naturalist 102:317-331.

Moir, W. H., and J. O. Carleton. 1987. Classification of pinon-juniper (P-J) sites on National Forests in the Southwest. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 216-226.

Moir, W. H., J. F. Franklin, and C. Maser. 1973. Lost Forest Research Natural Area.  in  U.S. Forest Service PNW-Supplement 3.

Monsen, S. B. 1987. Shrub selections for pinyon-juniper plantings. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 316-329.

Monsen, S. B., and R. Stevens. 1999. Ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the interior West. in Proceedings of Proceedings. 1997 September 15-18; Provo Utah, Proc. RMRS-P-9. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest service, Rocky Mountain Reseach Station. 411p.

MontBlanc, E. M., J. C. Chambers, and P. F. Brussard. 2007. Variation in ant populations with elevation, tree cover, and fire in a pinyon-juniper-dominated watershed. Western North American Naturalist 67:469-491.

Mooney, H. A., R. W. Pearcy, and J. R. Ehleringer. 1987. Plant physiological ecology today. BioScience 37:18-20.

Moore, D. J., R. S. Nowak, and R. J. Tausch. 1999a. Gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination of Juniperus osteosperma and Juniperus occidentalis across environmental gradients in the Great Basin of western North America. Tree Physiology 19:421-433.

Moore, M. M., W. W. Covington, and P. Z. Fulé. 1999b. Reference conditions and ecological restoration: A southwestern ponderosa pine perspective. Ecological Applications 9:1266-1277.

Mopper, S., and T. G. Whitham. 1992. The plant stress paradox: Effects on pinyon sawfly sex ratios and fecundity. Ecology 73:515-525.

Morrison, M. L., and L. S. Hall. 1999a. Habitat characteristics of reptiles in pinyon-juniper woodland. Great Basin Naturalist 59:288-291.

_____. 1999b. Habitat relationships of amphibians and reptiles in the Inyo-White Mountains, California and Nevada. Pages 233-237 in  U.S. Forest Service; RMRS-P-9.

Mueller, R. C., C. M. Scudder, M. E. Porter, R. T. Trotter III, C. A. Gehring, and T. G. Whitham. 2005. Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: Evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. Journal of Ecology 93:1365-2745.

Muldavin, E. H., R. L. DeVelice, and F. Ronco. 1996. A classification of forest habitat types southern Arizona and portions of the Colorado Plateau.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-287. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, CO.

Murphy, P. M. 1987. Specialty wood products from pinyon-juniper. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 166-167.

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