Juniper Stand Panorama
The Pinyon-Juniper Zone



Use the Quick Links at the right to move through the list alphabetically.





Send your suggestions for additional refecences to Dr. Richard Miller;


Keane, R. E., J. K. Agee, P. Z. Fulé, J. E. Keeley, C. Key, S. G. Kitchen, R. F. Miller, and L. A. Schulte. 2008. Ecological effects of large fires on US landscapes: Benefit or catastrophe? International Journal of Wildland Fire 17:696-712.

Keane, R. E., M. Austin, C. Field, A. Huth, M. J. Lexer, D. Peters, A. Solomon, and P. Wyckoff. 2001. Tree mortality in gap models: Application to climate change. Climatic Change 51:509-540.

Kearns, H. S. J., W. R. Jacobi, and D. W. Johnson. 2005. Persistence of pinyon pine snags and logs in southwestern Colorado. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 20:247-252.

Kleintjes, P. K., B. F. Jacobs, and S. M. Fettig. 2004. Initial response of butterflies to an overstory reduction and slash mulching treatment of a degraded pinon-juniper woodland. Restoration Ecology 12:231-238.

Klemmedson, J. O., and A. R. Tiedemann. 2000. Influence of western juniper development on distribution of soil and organic layer nutrients. Northwest Science 74:1-11.

Klopatek, C. C., L. F. DeBano, and J. M. Klopatek. 1988a. Effects of simulated fire on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in pinyon-juniper woodland soil. Plant and Soil 109:245-249.

_____. 1988b. Impact of fire on the microbial processes in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Management implications. Pages 197-205 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-191.

Klopatek, C. C., and J. M. Klopatek. 1987. Mycorrhizae, microbes and nutrient cycling processes in pinyon-juniper systems. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 360-364.

_____. 1997. Nitrifiers and mycorrhizae in pristine and grazed pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 11:331-342.

Klopatek, J. M. 1987a. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification soils of pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America 51:453-457.

_____. 1987b. Nutrient patterns and succession in pinyon-juniper ecosystems of northern Arizona.  In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 391-396. Pages 391-396 in:391-396.

Klopatek, J. M., C. C. Klopatek, and L. F. DeBano. 1990. Potential variation of nitrogen transformations in pinyon-juniper ecosystems resulting from burning. Biology and Fertility of Soils 10:35-44.

Knapp, P. A., H. D. Grissino-Mayer, and P. T. Soulé. 2002. Climatic regionalization and the spatio-temporal occurrence of extreme single-year drought events (1500-1998) in the Interior Pacific Northwest, USA. Quaternary Research 58:226-233.

Knapp, P. A., and P. T. Soule. 2005 (in press). Impacts of an extreme early season freeze event in the Interior Pacific Northwest (October 30th-November 3, 2002) on western juniper woodlands. Journal of Applied Meteorology.

Knapp, P. A., and P. T. Soulé. 1996. Vegetation change and the role of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on a relict site in central Oregon: 1960-1994. Annals of the Association of American Geogrphers 86:397-411.

_____. 1998. Recent Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) expansion on a protected site in central Oregon. Global Change Bilogy 4:347-357.

_____. 1999. Geographical distribution of an 18th-century heart rot outbreak in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp.occidentalis Hook.). Journal of Arid Environments 41:247-256.

Knapp, P. A., P. T. Soule, and H. D. Grissino-Mayer. 2004. Occurrence of sustained droughts in the interior Pacific Northwest (AD 1733-1980) inferred from tree-ring data. Journal of Climate 17:140-150.

Knapp, P. A., P. T. Soulé, and H. D. Grissino-Mayer. 2001a. Detecting potential regional effects of increased atmospheric CO2 growth rates of western juniper. Globabl Change Biology 7:903-917.

_____. 2001b. Post-drought growth responses of western juniper (Juniperous occidentalis var. occidentalis) in central Oregon. Geophysical Research Letters 28:2657-2660.

Knutson, K. C., and D. A. Pyke. 2008. Western juniper and ponderosa pine ecotonal climate–growth relationships across landscape gradients in southern Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:3021–3032.

Ko, D., Bristow, N. Greenwood, D., and P. Weisberg. 2009. Canopy Cover Estimation in Semiarid Woodlands: Comparison of Field-Based and Remote Sensing Methods. Forest Science, 55: 132–141.

Koehler, P. A., R. S. Anderson, and W. G. Spaulding. 2005. Development of vegetation in the Central Mojave Desert of California during the late quaternary. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 215:297-311.

Koniak, S. 1983. Broadcast seeding success in eight pinyon-juniper stands after wildfire. Pages 1-4 in  U.S. Forest Service Research Note INT-334.

_____. 1985. Succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands following wildfire in the Great Basin. Great Basin Naturalist 45:556-566.

_____. 1986. Tree densities on pinyon-juniper woodland sites in Nevada and California. Great Basin Naturalist 46:178-184.

Koniak, S., and R. L. Everett. 1982. Seed reserves in soils of successional stages of pinyon woodlands. American Midland Naturalist 108:295-303.

Kramer, S. 1990. Development and morphology of juvenile western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.). Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Kramer, S., and D. M. Green. 1999. Phosphorus pools in tree and intercanopy microsites of a juniper-grass ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1901-1905.

Kramer, W. H., R. P. Balda, M. J. Simono, A. M. Macrander, and C. D. Johnson. 1979. Community development in two adjacent pinyon-juniper eradication areas twenty-five years after treatment. Journal of Environmental Management 8:237-247.

Krammes, S. J. 1990. Effects of fire management of southwestern natural resources. Soil Science Society of America 52:271-277.

Kruse, W. H. 1994. Effects of fuelwood harvesting on small mammal populations in a piñon-juniper woodland. Pages 91-96 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-258.

Kruse, W. H., and H. M. Perry. 1994. Ecosystem management research in an "old growth" piñon-juniper woodland. Pages 219-224 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-258.

Kuhn, T. J., K. W. Tate, D. Cao, and M. R. George. 2007. Juniper removal may not increase overall Klamath River Basin water yields. California Agriculture 61:166-171.

Kundaeli, J. N., and H. G. Reynolds. 1972. Desert cottontail use of natural and modified pinyon-juniper woodland. Journal of Range Management 25:116-118.

Kuske, C. R., J. D. Busch, D. L. Adorada, J. M. Dunbar, and S. M. Barns. 1999. Phylogeny ribosomal RNA gene typing and relative abundance of new Pseudomonas species (sensu stricto) isolated from two pinyon-juniper woodland soils of the arid southwest US. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 22:300-311.