Juniper Stand Panorama
The Pinyon-Juniper Zone

 

References

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Bailey, D. K. 1987. A study of Pinus subsection Cembroides 1: The single-needle pinyons of the Californias and the Great Basin. Pages 275-310 in  Notes from The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

Bailey, D. K., and F. G. Hawksworth. 1983. Pinaceae of the Chihuahuan Desert region. Phytologia 53:226-234.

Baker, M. B. 1984. Changes in streamflow in an herbicide-treated pinyon-juniper watershed in Arizona. Water Resources Research 20:1639-1642.

Baker, M. F., and N. C. Frischknecht. 1973. Small mammals increase on recently cleared and seeded juniper rangeland. Journal of Range Management 26:101-103.

Baker, W. L. 2006. Fire and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:177-185.

Baker, W. L., and D. Ehle. 2001. Uncertainty in surface-fire history: The case of Ponderosa pine forests in the western United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1205-1226.

Baker, W. L., and D. J. Shinneman. 2004. Fire and restoration of piñon-juniper woodlands in the western United States: a review. Forest Ecology and Management 189:1-21.

Baker, W. L., T. Veblen, and R. L. Sherriff. 2007. Fire, fuels and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Journal of Biogeography 34:251-269.

Bakker, J. P., E. S. Bakker, E. Rosen, G. L. Verweij, and R. M. Bekker. 1996. Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:165-176.

Balda, R. P. 1987. Avian impacts on pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 525-533. in.

Balda, R. P., and N. Masters. 1980. Avian communities in the pinyon-juniper woodland: A descriptive analysis. In Managemnt of Western Forest and Grasslands for Nongame Birds. Tech. Coord. R.M. DeGraff, pp. 146-169. USADA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-86.  in.

Barber, M. J. 1987. Wildfire patterns and vegetation response in east-central Nevada.  In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 158-160.

Barbour, M. G., and J. Major. 1977. Terrestrial Vegetation of California. University of California Press.

Barger, R. L., and P. F. Ffolliott. 1972. Physical characteristics and utilization of major woodland tree species in Arizona. Report RM-83. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Barger, N., H. Adams, C. Woodhouse, J. Neff, and G. Asner. 2009. Influence of livestock grazing and climate on pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) dynamics. Rangeland Ecology & Management 62:531-539.

Barnes, F. J., and G. L. Cunningham. 1987. Water relations and productivity in pinyon-juniper habitat types. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 406-411.

Barney, M. A., and N. C. Frischknecht. 1974. Vegetation changes following fire in the pinyon-juniper type of west-central Utah. Journal of Range Management 27:91-96.

Barrett, H. 1984. Western juniper and the range site concept. Pages 23-26 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Management Short Course, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.23-26.

_____. 2007. Western juniper management: A field guide.  in  The Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board.

Barrett, S. W., and S. F. Arno. 1982. Indian fires as an ecological influence in the northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry Oct:647-651.

Barth, R. C. 1980. Influence of pinyon pine trees on soil chemical and physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44:112-114.

Barton, A. M. 1993. Factors controlling plant disributions: Drought, competiton, and fire in montane pines in Arizona. Ecological Monograph 63:367-397.

Bassett, R. L. 1987. Silviculture systems for pinyon-juniper. in Proceedings of In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 273-278.

Bates, J. D. 2005. Herbaceous response to cattle grazing following juniper cutting in Oregon. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58:225-233.

Bates, J. D., R. F. Miller, and K. W. Davies. 2006. Restoration of quaking aspen woodlands invaded by western juniper. Rangeland Ecology and Management 59:88-97.

Bates, J. D., R. F. Miller, and T. J. Svejcar. 1998. Understory patterns in cut western juniper woodlands. Great Basin Naturalist 58:363-374.

_____. 2000. Understory dynamics in cut and uncut western juniper woodlands. Journal of Range Management 53:119-126.

_____. 2005. Long-term successional trends following western juniper cutting. Rangeland Ecology and Managment 58:533-541.

_____. 2007a. Long-term vegetaion dynamics in a cut western juniper woodland. Western Norrth American Naturalist 67:549-561.

_____. 2007b. Long-term vegetation dynamics in a cut western juniper woodland. Western North American Naturalist 67:549-561.

Bates, J. D., T. J. Svejcar, and R. F. Miller. 2002. Effects of juniper cutting on nitrogen mineraliztion. Journal of Arid Enviornments 51:221-234.

_____. 2007c. Litter decomposition in cut and uncut western juniper woodlands. Journal of Arid Environments 70:222-236.

Bauer, J. M. 2006. Fire history and stand structure of a central Nevada pinyon-juniper woodland. University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV.

_____. and P.J. Weisberg. 2009. Fire history of a central Nevada pinyon–juniper woodland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39: 1589–1599.

Beasley, R. S., and J. O. Klemmedson. 1980. Ecological relationships of bristlecone pine. American Midland Naturalist 104:242-252.

Bedell, T. E. 1987a. Range management concerns on juniper woodlands. in Proceedings of In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 436-439.

_____. 1987b. Rehabilitation of western juniper rangeland; a case history. in Proceedings of In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 313-315.

Bedell, T. E., and T. R. Bunch. 1977. Effects of western juniper on forage production and livestock grazing management. Pages 163-168 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Ecology Conference, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-74.163-168.

Bedell, T. E., L. E. Eddleman, T. Deboodt, and C. Jacks. 1993. Western Juniper. Pages 3-15 in  OSU Extension Service, EC 1417.

Beeson, C. D. 1974. The distribution and synecology fo Great Basin pinyon juniper. The University of Nevada, Reno, Reno.

Belsky, A. J. 1996. Viewpoint: Western juniper expansion: Is it a threat to arid northwestern ecosystems? Journal of Range Management 49:53-59.

Berry, D. W. 1963. An ecological study of a disjunct ponderosa pine forest in the northern Great Basin in Oregon. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Betancourt, J. L. 1987. Paleoecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Summary. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 129-139.

Betancourt, J. L., E. A. Pierson, K. Aasen-Rylander, J. A. Fairchild-Parks, and J. S. Dean. 1993. Influence of history and climate on New Mexico pinyon-juniper woodlands. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the symposium Managing pinyon-juniper ecosystems for sustainability and social needs. Santa Fe, NM, April 26-30. Pp. 42-62 In: Aldron, E. F. and D.W.Shaw, editors. General Technical Report RM-236. U.S. Forest Service.

Betancourt, J. L., W. S. Schuster, J. B. Mitton, and R. S. Anderson. 1991. Fossil and genetic history of a pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) isolate. Ecology 72:1685-1697.

Betancourt, J. L., T. R. Van Devender, and P. S. Marten, editors. 1990. Packrat Middens: The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Beymer, R. J., and J. M. Klopatek. 1991. Potential contribution of carbon by microphytic crusts in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 5:187-198.

_____. 1992. Effects of grazing on cryptogamic crusts in pinyon-juniper woodlands in Grand Canyon National Park. American Midland Naturalist 127:139-148.

Billings, W. D. 1954. Temperature inversions in the pinyon-juniper zone of Nevada mountain range. Butler University Bontanical Studies 12:112-118.

Biondi, F., D. E. Myers, and C. C. Avery. 1994. Geostatistically modeling stem size and increment in old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:1354-1368.

Bishop, R. J., and W. R. Jacobi. 2003. Insects associated with black stain root disease centers in pinyon pine stands. Southwestern Entomologist 28:55-61.

Blackburn, W. H., and P. T. Tueller. 1970. Pinyon and juniper invasion In black sagebrush communities in east-central Nevada. Ecology 51:841-848.

Blade, R., and P. N. Masters. 1980. Avian communities in the pinyon-juniper woodland: A descriptive analysis. Pages 146-169 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-INT-86.

Blomquist, K. W. 1990. Selected life history and synecological characteristics of Ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Bolsinger, C. L. 1989. California's western juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands: Area, stand characteristics, wood volume and fenceposts.  in  U.S. Forest Service Resource Bulletin, PNW-RB-166.

Bolton, S., T. J. Ward, and S. J. Krammes. 1992. Hydrologic processes in the pinyon-juniper vegetation zone of Arizona and New Mexico. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 36th Annual New Mexico Water Conference: Agencies and Science Working for the Future. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, Report No. 265, April 1992. p 25-30.

Bork, J. L. 1984. Fire history in three vegetation types on the east side of the Oregon Cascades. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Bourgeron, P. S., L. D. Engelking, J. S. Tuhy, and J. D. Brotherson. 1990. Bibliography of Nevada and Utah vegetation description. Great Basin Naturalist 50:209-242.

Brackley, G. K. 1987. SCS inventory and classification procedures. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 231-235.

Bradley, A. F., N. V. Noste, and W. C. Fischer. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah - Gen. Tech. Report INT-287.

Bradley, B. A., and E. Fleishman. 2008. Relationships between expanding pinyon-juniper cover and topography in the central Great Basin, Nevada. Journal of Biogeography 35:951-964.

Bradshaw, K. E., and J. L. Reveal. 1943. Tree classifications for Pinus monophylla and Juniperus utahensis. Journal of Forestry 41:100-104.

Breshears, D. D. 1993. Spatial Partitioning of Water Use by Herbaceous and Woody Lifeforms in Semiarid Woodlands. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Breshears, D. D., and F. J. Barnes. 1999. Interrelationships between plant functional types and soil moisture heterogeneity for semiarid landscapes within the grassland/forest continuum: A unified conceptual model. Landscape Ecology 14:465-478.

Breshears, D. D., N. S. Cobb, P. M. Rich, K. P. Price, C. D. Allen, R. G. Balice, W. H. Romme, J. H. Kastens, M. L. Floyd, J. Belnap, J. J. Anderson, O. B. Myers, and C. W. Meyer. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. in Proceedings of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:15144-15148.

Breshears, D. D., N. G. McDowell, K. L. Goddard, K. E. Dayem, S. N. Martens, C. W. Meyer, and K. Brown. 2008. Foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall improves woody plant water status most during drought. Ecology 89:41-47.

Breshears, D. D., O. B. Myers, S. R. Johnson, C. W. Meyer, and S. N. Martens. 1997a. Differential use of spatially heterogeneous soil moisture by two semi arid woody speices: Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma. Journal of Ecology 85:289-299.

Breshears, D. D., J. W. Nyhan, C. E. Heil, and B. P. Wilcox. 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semiarid woodland: Soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159:1010-1017.

Breshears, D. D., P. M. Rich, F. J. Barnes, and K. Campbell. 1997b. Overstory-imposted heterogeneity in solar radiation and soil moisture in a semiarid woodland. Ecological Applications 7:1201-1215.

Brewer, J. W. 1971. Biology of the pinyon stunt needle midge. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64:1099-1102.

Brewer, J. W., and R. E. Stevens. 1973. The pinyon pitch nodule moth in Colorado. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 66.

Briggs, J. M., H. Schaafsma, and D. Trenkov. 2006. Woody vegetation expansion in a desert grassland: Prehistoric human impact? Journal of Aridland Environments 69:458-472.

Bright, L. 1978. Weather stress difference between two levels of juniper canopy cover. Pages 91-96 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Ecology Management Workshop, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-74.91-96.

Britton, C. M., and F. A. Sneva. 1981. Effects of Tebuthiruon on western juniper. Journal of Range Management 34:30-32.

Brockway, D. G., R. G. Gatewood, and R. B. Paris. 2002. Restoring grassland savannas from degraded pinyon-juniper woodlands: Effects of mechanical overstory reductions and slash treatment alternatives. Journal of Environmental Management 64:179-197.

Bronaugh, W. 1993. The biggest western juniper. Pages 41 in  American Forests.

Brooks, M. 2008. Effects of fuel management treatments in piñon-juniper vegetation at a site on the Colorado Plateau. Fire Science January.

Brotherson, J. D., S. R. Rushforth, W. E. Evenson, J. R. Johansen, and C. Morden. 1983. Population dynamics and age relationships of 8 tree species in Navaho National Monument, Arizona. Journal of Range Management 36:250-256.

Brown, J. R., and S. Archer. 1999. Shrub invasion of grassland: Recruitment is continuous and not regulated by herbaceous biomass or density. Ecology 80:2385-2396.

Brown, P. M., M. W. Kaye, L. S. Huckaby, and C. H. Baisan. 2001. Fire history along environmental gradients in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico: Influences of local patterns and regional processes. Ecoscience 8:115-126.

Brown, R. W. 1987a. Ecophyiology and water relations research in the pinyon-juniper vegetation type.  In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 398-405.

Brown, T. C. 1987b. The value of incremental water flow from pinyon-juniper lands. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 177-182.

Bruner, A. D., and D. A. Klebenow. 1979. Predicting success of prescribed fires in pinyon-juniper woodland in Nevada.  in  U.S. Forest Service INT-RP-219.

Bryant, F. C., G. K. Launchbaugh, and B. H. Koerth. 1983. Controlling mature Ashe juniper in Texas with crown fires. Journal of Range Management 36:165-168.

Buckhouse, J. C. 1984. Characteristics of watershed occupied by western juniper. Pages 46-47 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Management Short Course, Oregon State University, Extension Serv. Corvallis, OR.46-47.

_____. 1987. Pinyon-Juniper Conference: Conference summary. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 580-581.

Buckhouse, J. C., and G. F. Gifford. 1976. Sediment production and infiltration rates as affected by grazing and debris burning on chained and seeded pinyon-juniper. Journal of Range Management 29:83-85.

Buckman, R. E., and G. L. Wolters. 1987. Multi-resource management of pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13–16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 1-4.

Budy, J. D. 1981. Plot and line-intersect sampling in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Pages 1-37 in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-104.

Budy, J. D., and R. O. Meeuwig. 1987. Pinyon-juniper silvics and silviculture. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 244-248.

Bunderson, E. D., and D. J. Weber. 1986. Foliar nutrient composition of Juniperus osteosperma and environmental interactions. Forest Science 32:149-156.

Bunderson, E. D., D. J. Weber, and J. N. Davis. 1985. Soil mineral composition and nutrient uptake in Juniperus osteosperma in 17 Utah sites. Soil Science 139:139-148.

Bunderson, E. D., D. J. Weber, and D. L. Nelson. 1986a. Diseases associated with Juniperus osteosperma and a model for predicting their occurrence with environmental site factors. Great Basin Naturalist 46:427-440.

Bunderson, E. D., B. L. Welch, and D. J. Weber. 1986b. In vitro digestibility of Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) little from 17 Utah sites. Forest Science 32:834-840.

Bunting, S. C. 1984. Prescribed burining of live standing western juniper and post-burning succession. Pages 69-73 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the Western Juniper Management Short Course, Oregon State University, Extension Serv. Corvallis, OR.69-73.

_____. 1987. Use of prescribed fire in juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: R. L. Everett (comp.), Proceedings of the Pinyon-Juniper Conference; 13-16 January 1986; Reno, NV. General Technical Report GTR-INT-215. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p 141-144.

_____. 1994. Effects of fire on juniper woodland ecosystems in the Great Basin.  in  Proceedings of the Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands Symposium, ed. S.B. Monsen and S.G. Kitchen, pp. 53-55. USDA Forest Service, INT-GTR-313.

Bunting, S. C., J. L. Kingery, and E. K. Strand. 1999. Effects of succession on species richness of the western juniper woodland/sagebrush steppe mosaic.  in  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-P-9 USDA Forest Service.

Bunting, S. C., E. K. Strand, and J. L. Kingery. 2007. Landscape characteristics of sagebrush-steppe/juniper woodland mosaics under various modeled prescribed fire regimes. Pages 50-57 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems.50-57.

Bunting, S. C., H. A. Wright, and W. H. Wallace. 1983. Seasonal Variation in the ignition time of redberry juniper in west Texas. Journal of Range Management 36:169-171.

Burkhardt, J. W., and E. W. Tisdale. 1969. Nature and successional status of western juniper vegetation in Idaho. Journal of Range Management 22:264-270.

_____. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology 57:472-484.

Burwell, T. 1998. Successional patterns of the lower montane treeline, eastern California. Madrono 45:12-16.

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