OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

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Editorial Style

The official editorial style manual for Oregon State University communications is The Associated Press Stylebook. The book is easy to use and is a storehouse of good information about grammar and usage. It covers most questions campus writers will have about style issues. All university units are expected to follow AP style.

Style also requires a good dictionary for spelling and usage issues not covered in the AP Stylebook. The AP-recommended dictionary is Webster's New World College Dictionary, online at m-w.com. In most cases, the first spelling choice listed in the dictionary should be used.

Because writing for higher education is not the same as writing for the news media, there are three exceptions to AP style:

academic degrees
Generic degree terms such as bachelor of arts and master of science are not capitalized at Oregon State. Capitalize, however, when the formal name of the degree is used: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering.

African American
African American
 (not hyphenated) is the term used at Oregon State. For more, see the Cultural Sensitivity section below.

chair
Use the nonsexist terms chair or chairperson, depending on the preference of the unit. AP prefers chairman or chairwoman, but don't use those unless they are part of an official title.

AP STYLE QUICK REFERENCE

The guidelines below regarding word use, punctuation, capitalization, numbers and cultural sensitivity provide a convenient reference for the most common style issues you're likely to face while writing or editing materials for the university's audiences.

Word use

Acronyms
Acronyms should be in capital letters with no periods: GPAID cardsROTCUSA. With the exception of well-understood acronyms and abbreviations, such as B.A.M.S., and other degrees, GPA and ROTC, spell out the full name or title on first use, followed by the letters in parentheses, if they are to be used repeatedly in the text.
Many students take advantage of the University Exploratory Studies Program (UESP) during their first year at Oregon State
. UESP offers new students the opportunity to explore before committing to a major.

advisor
A deviation from AP style to reflect the spelling used in academia.

advance, advanced
When used as adjectives, advance means "ahead of time" and advanced means "beyond others." Thus, it would be advance tuition deposit, but advanced standing.

alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus
Alumna is the feminine singular form. Alumnae is the feminine plural. Alumnus is the male (or nonspecific gender) singular. Alumni is the masculine or mixed-gender plural.

and, but
And or but may begin a sentence. This approach can be useful in providing a transition between closely related sentences. But it shouldn't be overdone.

Cascade Range
Not Cascades Range or Cascade MountainsCascades is acceptable in most cases; however, Cascade Range should be used on first reference for material distributed outside the Pacific Northwest.

catalog
Not catalogue.

coed 
Don't use this term to refer to a female student. It can be used to indicate both sexes, however, such as incoed residence hall.

composecomprise
These words are often misused. Comprise means "include" or "encompass." The whole comprises the parts, but the parts are composed of the whole.
The College of Liberal Arts comprises 14 departments.
The College of Liberal Arts is composed of 14 departments.

contractions
Although contractions may be discouraged in formal academic writing, they are acceptable in most instances for university news, marketing pieces and websites.

co-op
Use a hyphen so it's not confused with coop.

course work
Two words. Not coursework.

credits
This is the accepted term at Oregon State. Don't use credit hours or hours.

database
One word.

email
Don't use a hyphen. This is a recent change to AP style. Don't capitalize unless it starts a sentence or is before the email address in a vertical list.

flier, flyer
Flier
 is the preferred term for a handbill or an aviator. Flyer is the proper name of some trains and buses: The Western Flyer.

freshman, freshmen
First-year student and first-year students are the preferred terms.

grades
Use the capital letters, ABC, etc., with no quotation marks. Plurals are made by adding s, except in the case of A, which has an apostrophe to avoid confusion with the word as: A'sBsCs, etc.

gray
Not grey. But: greyhound.

GPA, grade-point average
Either is acceptable. GPAs normally have two numbers after the decimal, e.g., 3.004.25.

international students
Not foreign students.

land grant
These words are closely linked, as are sea grant and space grant, so there is no need to hyphenate. Don't capitalize unless referring to its formal name, the Morrill Land Grant Act.
Oregon State is a land, sea, space and sun grant university.

Marys River, Marys Peak
These are spelled without apostrophes, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, which is responsible for place names.

non
Words with the prefix non are generally not hyphenated unless the prefix is directly before a proper noun:nondegreenonresidentnoncreditnon-English speaking. The dictionary contains a long list of words with the non prefix and their appropriate spellings.

Off campus, on campus
Hyphenate when using as an adjective, not as an adverb.
Off-campus housing is plentiful during the summer.
It's difficult to find housing off campus during the fall term.

online
One word, no hyphen.

Oregon State University, Oregon State, OSU
Use Oregon State University on first reference. Use Oregon State as the shortened version for the name of the university. Avoid using OSU to prevent confusion with other institutions that share our initials. Exceptions are where OSU is part of a formal name (e.g., The Campaign for OSUOSU-CascadesOSU Extension Service, OSU Foundation, OSU Alumni Association.

Oregon State University – Cascades, OSU-Cascades
Use Oregon State University – Cascades on first reference. Use OSU-Cascades as the shortened version for the branch campus in Bend. Note that there are spaces around an en dash in Oregon State University – Cascades, but no spaces in OSU-Cascades. Do not use OSU-Cascades Campus.

Pac-12
Oregon State intercollegiate athletic teams participate in the Pacific-12 Conference. It can be shortened to Pac-12 in all uses. Pac is not an acronym, however, so it should not be in all caps.

pre and post 
These prefixes generally don't take hyphens unless they come directly before proper nouns. The dictionary contains a list of words with appropriate spelling. Use preregisterpremedicinepreveterinary, postbaccalaureatepostdoctoralpre-Columbian.

range of time, day or date
The preferred form in body copy is to spell out toand/or through when referring to a range of time or days of the week. For a range of dates and in tabular material, use an en dash. The seminar is scheduled for April 1-3.
Office hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945.

residence hall
This is preferred to dorm or dormitory when referring to housing units at Oregon State.

résumé
The preferred spelling includes the diacritical marks and helps avoid confusion with resume.

state names
The names of the 50 U.S. states should be spelled out when used in the body of a story, whether standing alone or in conjunction with a city, town, village or military base (e.g., Vancouver, Washington). This is a recent change to AP style. Check the AP Stylebook for the appropriate abbreviations of states. Always use the postal service abbreviation (e.g., ORWACA) and zip code in a complete address. Do not include the state name in the body of a story for cities that stand alone in datelines (e.g., San Francisco, but Redding, California).

toward 
Not towards.

underway
One word. This is a recent change to AP style.

URLs
It isn't necessary to include http:// or www. in a URL when it is clear that it's a Web address. Some sites do, however, require one or both elements of the URL, so test it first. When listing Web addresses, try to get the URL to fit on a single line. If it is necessary to break the URL, try to break it before a slash or period. Don't allow the URL to break itself by adding a hyphen because that could change the address. Use appropriate punctuation after a URL. If it finishes a sentence, place a period after it.

website
One word, lowercase. This is a recent change to AP style.

wide
University-wide is hyphenated. Most words with wide as a suffix are closed, though, unless they are long and cumbersome. If in doubt, check the dictionary.

work-study
Hyphenate; capitalize only when using the formal designation: Federal Work-Study Program.

yearlong
One word.

Punctuation

Ampersands
It's best not to use an ampersand in place of the word and in text unless it is an official part of a name: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric SciencesDepartment of Nutrition and Food Management, but AT&T. An ampersand may be used in specific instances such as campus banners where space for text on a single line is very limited.

Bulleted lists
When making a bulleted or numbered list, be sure that capitalization, punctuation and structure are consistent. If items in a list are complete sentences, end each one with appropriate punctuation.

Colons
The colon is used to indicate something is following that will complete or amplify the previous material. It isn't necessary to capitalize the word immediately following a colon unless it begins a complete sentence of its own or is a proper noun. Don't use unnecessary colons in sentences.
Correct: Visit the website at oregonstate.edu.
Incorrect: Visit the website at: oregonstate.edu.
Use a colon when the sentence isn't complete without it.
Be sure to visit the Oregon State
 website: oregonstate.edu.

Commas
Do not use a serial comma in a series of more than two items unless it is necessary to clarify the meaning. If more than one series is used in a sentence, separate the series by semicolons if necessary to clarify the sentence.
Correct: Oregon State is one of only two land, sea, sun and space grant universities in the nation.
Incorrect: Oregon State is one of only two land, sea, sun, and space grant universities in the nation.

Set off the name of a state with commas when it follows the city name in a sentence: Corvallis, Ore., is the home of Oregon State University.

Dates are punctuated with commas setting off the year in a complete date: June 17, 2001, marked Oregon State's first outdoor graduation ceremony. There is no comma if only the month and year are used: Oregon State's first outdoor graduation ceremony was in June 2001. Don't use ordinals such as 1st, 4th, or 23rd in dates.

Jr., Sr., II, III, etc., in names are not set off by commas unless the person specifically indicates a preference for that: Martin Luther King Jr.Thurston Howell III.

Dashes
The en dash (named because it is the width of the letter "n") is wider than a hyphen and is used between ranges of numbers or dates and between adjectival phrases containing two-word concepts: 2001–2004, pages 206–220Portland–San Francisco flight. There are no spaces before or after the en dash. In text, however, use the missing words instead of a dash: He was at Oregon State from 1993 to 1998. (Not: He was at Oregon State from 1993–1998.) If the en dash is unavailable, it is acceptable to use a hyphen in its place.

The em dash (named because it is the width of the letter "m") is used to indicate a break in thought or a strong parenthetical phrase: Two professors — what a contrast in styles — share the teaching duties. There are spaces before and after the em dash. An em dash is indicated by two hyphens in typed material.

Hyphens
Use the dictionary to determine the appropriate place for breaking and hyphenating words. Break words at the end of syllables, but consider the sound of the word. Some words are best not broken at certain syllables. Compound words that are hyphenated should not be broken in a second place at the end of a line: president-elect, not presi-dent-elect.

The trend is moving away from using hyphens in permanent compound words. The dictionary can help you determine the appropriateness of a hyphen in many cases. Don't use a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly: She is an overly zealous recruiter.

Some words that normally would be solid should be hyphenated for clarity: co-op (as opposed to coop), re-signed (as opposed to resigned) or for easier reading when the root word begins with a vowel: re-enrolledre-admitted.

Parentheses
If a dependent clause or other sentence fragment is in parentheses, the final punctuation goes outside the parentheses. If the parenthetical matter is an entire sentence, the final punctuation goes inside the parentheses. In the latter case, be sure to properly punctuate the preceding sentence leading up to the parentheses.

If parenthetical matter is included within another set of parentheses, brackets [ ] should replace the inner parentheses.

Periods
If a sentence ends with a URL or an email address, the closing punctuation, usually a period, should be included. There is no longer is any real danger of Web users trying to make the sentence-ending period part of the URL, but if you are concerned, use a different font for the actual URL or make it bold.

The use of periods in degree abbreviations is preferred: B.A.M.S.Ed.D.Pharm.D.Ph.D. Note also that there are no spaces in the degree abbreviations. For a cleaner appearance, it is acceptable to use degree abbreviations without periods in long listings or in text where degrees are repeated often.

There are no periods in OSU.

Quotation marks
Quotation marks are placed outside of commas and periods, but inside of semicolons and colons. Question marks and exclamation marks are placed inside or outside the quotation marks, depending on whether they are part of the quote.

Avoid using quotation marks around a word to call attention to it or because there isn't a better word to use: She uses "air quotes" constantly in her presentation, which is very annoying.

Capitalization

academic and administrative titles
Capitalize a title when it appears before the person’s name: Professor Richard Jones. Do not capitalize a title when it follows a person’s name:, Richard Jones, professor of mechanical engineering. The exception to this rule is for a named chair or professorship that contains the academic title or for a faculty member who has earned a title such as Distinguished Professor: Jane Lubchenco, Distinguished Professor of zoology.

academic areas
Don't capitalize areas of instruction unless the area is a proper noun: physicsEnglishforest engineering, nutrition and food science. The exception is when a formal department name is used: Department of Chemistrychemistry department.

Capitalize the names of university units when the complete title is used: Office of Financial Aid and ScholarshipsOregon State UniversityCollege of Liberal Arts. Lowercase other uses: financial aid officethe universitythe collegeliberal arts. Don't capitalize a generic term that follows or precedes more than one name: colleges of Liberal Arts and Agricultural Sciences.

Names of majors, minors, options and programs are lowercase: chemical engineeringinternational business, gerontology.

academic terms
Lowercase, even when used with a year: fall termwinter term 2009. Summer session is capitalized when referring to the Summer Session Office, but lowercase otherwise: summer session 2009.

baccalaureate core, bacc core
Lowercase these except when preceded by Oregon State or Oregon State University: bacc core requirementsOregon State Baccalaureate Core courses.

bachelor's degree/master's degree
These are lowercase and possessives, not plural. Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a masters, etc., but there is no apostrophe in bachelor of arts or master of science.

course titles
Capitalize course titles when used in text: She is taking Cultures in Conflict this term.

degrees
Don't capitalize the subject area unless it is the formal name of the degree: B.S. in Physics, Honors Baccalaureate in Political Science, Bachelor of Science in Biology, bachelor's degree in biology.

headlines, headings and subheads
Capitalize the first word only along with any proper names. This makes it easier to maintain consistency as well as avoid questions about whether articles or prepositions (e.g., the, of, with, when) should be capitalized in a heading.

homecoming
Capitalize only when referring to the OSU Homecoming.

Internet
Internet is capitalized.

quad
Capitalize when referring to the MU Quad, but not other quads, such as the library quad.

state
Don't capitalize. It's state of Oregon, not State of Oregon. Use the same rule with city of Corvallis. Capitalize the name of a specific county or region, however: Benton CountyMarion County, Eastern Oregon, West Coast.

Numbers

Spell out numbers of nine or less within text. Use numerals for higher numbers. Exceptions are made for ages, monetary units, percentages, credits and grade-point averages, which are always numerals unless they start a sentence: 8 percent3 credits3.50 GPA3-year-old daughter7 cents. It's acceptable to mix uses in a sentence: Oregon State has 17 intercollegiate athletics programs, 10 women's and seven men's. It is permissible to spell out numbers from one to 99 in formal or scientific writing.

Spell out percent instead of using the % symbol: 18 percent, not 18%.

Plurals of numerals are made by adding the letter s: 100s1990s. There is no apostrophe in the plurals. Contractions of years take an apostrophe: Class of '92.

Numbers containing four digits or more (except years) take commas between each series of three numbers: 4,00012,19712,297,865. For rounded numbers of more than six digits, it is appropriate to use a figure and a word: $14 million237 billion.

Use dollar signs and numerals for monetary references. It's not necessary to add .00 after whole dollar amounts, but it is permissible in a sentence that also contains fractional dollar amounts. If you are just discussing cents, use the word: 5 cents47 cents.

Telephone numbers are written with a hyphen between groupings: 541-737-1000800-291-4192. A "1" should not precede the area codes. The telephone company no longer uses parentheses to set off area codes.

Spell out numbers at the start of a sentence unless they represent a year. 1776 is the year the Declaration of Independence was signed is permissible, but it would be better to rewrite the sentence to avoid starting with the year: The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.

Dates are indicated by cardinal, not ordinal numbers: April 1, not April 1stJuly 4, not July 4th.

A series of years can be indicated by using the entire year in both cases or only the last two numbers in the second year: 2009-2010 or 2009-10. When the years cross a century mark, the entire year must be used:1999-2002, not 1999-02.

Cultural sensitivity

Avoid all sexual or racial stereotyping and language. Use he or she or make the usage plural: they. Many words now have neutral alternatives: firefighterpolice officerchair, or chairperson. Use these rather than assuming a particular gender. Don't create words such as s/he, and use skillful writing to avoid putting two words together with slashes: he/she.

Disabilities are handled according to the preference of the person or group. In writing about disabilities, stress the person, not the disability: persons with disabilities rather than the disabled. If you have questions, check with Disability Access Services, 541-737-4098.

Ethnic designations generally follow the preference of the group being referred to. The Office of Community and Diversity, 541-737-4381, or the Minority Education Office, 541-737-9030, can help with questions. As a general rule, identify ethnic groups by recognized ethnic designations. African AmericanAsianPacific IslanderLatinaLatinoHispanic and Native American are acceptable identifiers.

When referring to ethnicity, the generic terms black and white aren't capitalized. However, if you capitalize one to conform to a particular group's preference, capitalize both.